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Co 





Hnctent Cities 

General Editor: B. C. A. Windle, F.R.S., F.S.A. 



DUBLIN 

A HISTORICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL 
ACCOUNT OF THE CITY 




THE CHANCEL, ST. PATRICK'S CATHEDRAL 



DUBLIN 

A HISTORICAL AND 

TOPOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT 

OF THE CITY 



WRITTEN BY 

SAMUEL A. OSSORY FITZPATRICK 

ILLUSTRATED BY 

W. CURTIS GREEN 



'^<WA^AW*v.^[J<'«*<^^^//g a 




Vi flaer>r:?E\OTii5rcicy,ai^ 



LONDON 
METHUEN AND CO. 



First Published in igoj 



CONTENTS 



CHAP. 

I. SCANDINAVIAN DUBLIN ..... 

II. ANGLO-NORMAN DUBLIN .... 

III. DUBLIN UNDER THE TUDORS AND STUARTS . 

IV. TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN .... 
V. EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY DUBLIN 

VI. SOCIAL LIFE IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY DUBLIN 
VII. MUNICIPAL DUBLIN ..... 

VIII. DUBLIN THEATRES ..... 

IX. NINETEENTH-CENTURY DUBLIN 

X. HISTORIC HOUSES AND DISTINGUISHED DUBLINERS 
XI. MODERN DUBLIN ...... 

APPENDIX I. — ITINERARY .... 

APPENDIX II. — TRAM LINES .... 

INDEX ....... 



3 

33 
69 
113 
139 
177 
215 
244 
271 
309 
327 
341 
346 
350 



2061112 



vu 



SAMaiis chnrrh 
SMari/cJAllcy 
The inner 
Crmwiten. 
Tkc "Bruljc 
lir.vmans iaur 

Mar chart Kc/. 
The mJlntalL 
fj nnxifihics 
Hie Cclhdne 
B rideu'ctl 
'Dninas Jcrct 
I>amar Gate 
S'Jtiilrev.'s church 
S'.<s:orjcs hn. 
S-Sta'aisjhd 



SSicv.cfU churck 

iS^ctcrs church 

\vlntejricrs' 

Shcci'cfircte, 

ThrCnfllc 

TijQiJhamhlcr 

Wine tavern fb-ct 

Wc^dfiock lane. 

Hantc lane 

Ccckcftrctt 

(jtviendrGatc 

KayJarJ laiic 

s'ctvairhne 

S'MiclmeUhnc 

Chri/lchiirrhlanc 

S Oimis clnircf} 

Chri/ichurcf? 

iSfchccl/joii/ehnc 




Slohns (hurch 
C.i/llejteret 
Tole Gate 
S War hers flret 
>^V/arhers clntnli 
Shvmcr-fJ^owc 
S'.NiclialoJ ihuv:l 
S'Mcbhr flrct 
SMchclas Gate 
■JheTolfelL 
'SMichieif chunfj 
Hiqhc^ftrett 
liac^Janc 
Neiye Cate 
Sthmay/het 



P 

n 

^c 
U^ 

4/ 
44 
4/ 

4-1 
41 

SO 

S-i ^...^ 

S-z. Nctvt Aotrt 
^\ Tlienillr 



Jeiinieort lane 
Jehiu Heufc 
.blames ftfett 
S'Ja'ncsGate 
S.Ca:thr7' ehurch 
STIicmas cetm 
Utc Come 
J^eivcjlvceic 
S^i-ancisjlrct 
SPairichj-Jlret 
Sl^atnchi chuTcli 
SBnJcr church 
5-aiidcsJlrct 
S.Srjndcheff 
Slfeiiain^/lfet 
Zrcfsclhnz 
Chur.-otLPauls 



SStCT.ent churck 
tSi'dcrj churck 




Q 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

Frontispiece 



FULL PAGE 

1. The Chancel, St. Patrick's Cathedral 

2. Crypt of Christchurch ...... 2 

.3. Tomb of Stronqbow and his Son .... 21 

4. St. Patrick's Cathedral before Restoration . . 32 

5. Terrace, Royal Hospital, Kilhainham ... 68 

6. Parliament Square, Trinity College, Dublin. 112 

7. The Custom House ....... 138 

8. Parliament House, now the Bank of Ireland 176 

9. The Custom House, Essex Bridge, Seventeenth 

Century 214 

10. Broadstone Terminus. ...... 270 

11. The Temple, Marino 308 

12. Chribtohurch ........ 326 



MAP 



DUBLINB 



IX 



SMALLER ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

1. Bridge connecting Cbristchukch with the Synod Hall 20 

2. South Aisle, Christchurch ...... 23 

3. Ancient Tiles ........ 26 

4. The Stocks ......... 29 

5. A Bye-way ......... 61 

6. The Portlestek Chapel ...... 54 

7. Modern Sedilia, St. Patrick's Cathedral . . 57 

8. Kevin Street Police Barrackp ..... 58 

9. Sir Henry Sidney riding out of Dublin Castle 

(from Derrick's Views) ...... "2 

10. Heads of Sir Cahir O'Doohfrty and Another on 

Newgate ......... 78 

11. 'Bloody' Bridge ........ 90 

12. Artificial Gateway, Dublin Castle .... 101 

13. The Bedford Tower, Dublin Castle .... 102 

14. Gateway, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham 104 

15. Entrance, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham . 107 

16. West Front, Trinity College, Dublin .123 

17. Back of West Front, Trinity ('oi,lege, from Cam- 

panile ......... 126 

18. Mouth of the Liffey ....... 149 

19. Office of the City Treasurer, formerly Newcomfn's 

Bank 155 

X 



20. 
21. 

22. 

23. 

24. 

25. 

26. 

27. 

28. 

29. 

30. 

31. 

32. 



ElGHTEENTH-CENTlRY DwKI.LING-HOUSE . 

Wrought-iron Lamp Supports 

Rotunda Hospital ..... 

Seventeenth-centukv Foray from Di'bmn 
The Pillory ....... 

St. George's Church . . . • . 

Carmkf.ite Church, Whitefriar Street 

The College of Surgeons 



The General Post Office a.nd Nelson 

The City Conduit 

Leaded Fanlight, Merrion Square 

Doorways, Crampton Court 

John's Lane Distillery 



PlLLAK 



PACE 

. 180 

. 181 

. 184 

. 216 

. 232 

. 280 

. 286 

. 292 

. 296 

. 302 

. 309 

. 310 

. 327 



ADDITIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS 

CHAP. 

I. Initial. Ancient Tile, Christchurch 

Tailpiece. Ancient Tile ..... 
II. Initial. St. Patrick's Cathedral . 
Tailpiece. Badge of King John 

Discovered in excavations, Chriatchurch. KindJy contrih'uted hy 
Sir Thomas Drew, K.H.A. 

III. Initial. Wardrobe Tower . . . • 

IV. Initial. Provost's House, Trinity College, 

Dublin ... 



>'ACE 

3 

80 
33 
66 

69 
113 



XI 



CHAP. PAGE 

V. Initial. Custom House, from George's Quay 139 

VI. Initial. Eighteenth-century Houses . . 177 

VII. Tailpiece. The Liffey, South Wall .... 243 

VIII. Initial. The Albert Chapel on Site of Astley's 

Circus 244 

» 

IX. Initial. O'Connell Bridge 271 

XI. Tailpiece. On the Quays ...... 340 



xn 



PREFACE 

The task of compiling a history of the City of Dublin for 
a series such as that in which it now appears presents 
some difficulties, foremost amongst which is that of 
makino; such a selection from the great mass of avail- 
able material as would bring the work within the com- 
pass of a moderately sized volume. The ideal which the 
author set before him, however imperfectly he may have 
succeeded in attaining his object, was to omit no incident 
of importance while he so condensed the general facts of 
history as to admit of the inclusion of some picturesque 
details, thus presenting some aspects of life as it was 
lived at different periods by the citizens. The fortunes 
of the city have been so closely concerned with many 
events in the general history of Ireland as to necessitate 
brief allusion to some of these, but such references have 
been kept within the narrowest limits. 

The author has dealt at some length with the archi- 
tectural features of the Cathedrals, and of those public 
buildings for which Dublin has long been famous. In 
describing the former he has had the great advantage 
of having the proofs read by Sir Thomas Drew, R.H.A., 

xiii 



F.R.I.B.A., who has also kindly contributed a drawing 
from the cast which he has had made of the badge of 
King John referred to on p. 38, which forms the illustra- 
tion at the end of Chapter ii. For these kindnesses he 
desires to express his obligation. 

It has not been possible in every instance to consult 
original records. The author has necessarily based a 
certain amount of his historical data on the researches 
of previous writers, but these, wherever possible, he has 
carefully verified. 

In the preparation of Chapter iv. he has to thank 
Mr. S. E. Brambell, one of the Assistant Librarians 
of Trinity College, Dublin, for extracts from the College 
Register and for other information. 

In Chapter vii. the author has consulted the City 
Records, and has been much indebted to the series of 
papers contributed to the Journal of the Royal Society 
of Antiquaries, Ireland,^ by Mr. Henry F. Berry, I.S.O., 
F.R. S.A.I. , Assistant-Deputy-Keeper of the Records. 

The author has to thank John Ribton Gar-stin, Esq., 
D.L., late President R.S.A.I., for permission to repro- 
duce the very interesting map in his possession, taken 
from Liber Sextus of the Civitates Orbis Terrarum of 
S. Braun and F. Hoghenbergius, published 1618, and 
either an early reproduction of Speed's map of 1610, or 
possibly the source from which that map may have been 
derived. 

Full advantage has been taken of the resources of the 
^ Referred to throughout as fournal K.S. A. I. 



XIV 



National Library, and the author lias to thank the Preface 
Librarian, Mr. T. W. Lyster, for special facilities 
afforded him ; and to acknowledge the unvarying 
courtesy and attention of the official staff. 

Finally, the work has had the advantage of having 
been read in MS., not only by the General Editor of the 
series, Dr. Windle, but also by Professor John Cooke, 
M.A., F.R.S.A.L, to both of whom the author is in- 
debted for many suggestions, and to the latter for 
much valuable assistance. 

DiBM.N, Apri/ l!j()7 



XV 



CHAPTER I 



SCANDINAVIAN DUBLIN 




ANCIKNT TII.i;, 
CUKlSTCHUKCIl 



THOUGH Dublin cannot boast 
the venerable age of many 
European cities, it can at least claim 
a respectable anticjuity. There is 
little doubt that in primitive times a 
settlement would grow up round the 
mouth of such a river as the Liffey ; 
and as the eastern coast of Ireland 
appears to have been that best known 
to Greek and INuenician traders, such a settlement 
would soon become a ]ilace of some importance. The 
identification of Dublin with the "E^Xava IloXt? of 
Chiudius Ptolemy may be questioned on many grounds, 
though a colour of probability is given to that supposi- 
tion l)v the position of the 'desert island' of ''ABpov or 
"KSpou, properlv sjieaking the promontory of Ilowth 
(lien Edair), lying off the coast to the west. But even 
if we reject the later testimony of Joceiin, who wrote 
his Life of St. Patrick in the twelfth century, and who 
.accounts for the name of Dublin by a legend of a 
Princess Dublina drowned in the Liffey and restored to 
life through the })ravers of the saint, we at least reach 
sound historic ground in the settlement of the Ostnien 
or Scandinavian rovers who took '21c CIk^c (the ford of 

3 



Dublin the hurdles) in 836 a.d. and bestowed on it the new 
name of 6ub - Imn (Duv Linn, Danish Diflyn) or 
Blackpool, from the inlet of the Liffey at its confluence 
with the small stream of the Poddle, where their ships 
were moored. In the fanciful account of the historian 
Olaus Magnus, the city is said to have been taken by 
the unlikely stratagem of snaring a number of swallows 
and releasing them, each with a lighted sponge fastened 
under its wings, which speedily ignited the thatched 
roofs of the Irish town, and presently reduced it to 
ashes. However sceptical we may feel as to the accuracy 
of this statement, it probably affords a correct estimate 
of the kind of town, if any, which then occupied the 
site at the mouth of the Liffey, as the dwellings of the 
natives were then almost universally constructed of 
timber or wickerwork, plastered with clay. That a 
town existed is probable from the full Irish name of l3<^ile 
AcA Cli<^c (pronounce Bwtlle auha Kleeah), the to7vn of the 
hurdle ford ; and also from the fact that one of the five 
great roads, constructed in the second century, leading 
from Tara, the palace of the Irish '2l|ii> ]li (or chief king) 
to the then five provinces of Ireland, must have crossed 
tiie Liffey about the spot where the Whitworth Bridge 
now stands. The present thoroughfare of Stonybatter 
probably formed a portion of this road, the name being 
an imperfect translation of l)6c<^|i-n<^-5eloc (pr. Boher na 
gloch), that is, the road of the stones, from the blocks 
of stone with which it was paved. 

The particular race of foreigners who first settled in 
Dublin belonged to the ^nm Joill (Fin Gall) or White 
Strangers, probably Norwegians, who were distinguished 
from the 6ub '^o^l\ (Duv Gall), possibly modernised 
into Doyle, or Black Strangers, who were Danes. The 
district north of Dublin was long known as Fingal, and 
gives the title of earl to one branch of the Plunkett 
family. Between these two races a constant warfare 
was for some time waged in Ireland till the arrival, in 

4 



852, of AulafF or Olav (Irish 'tliiiUeil)) 'Vhv Wliite, Scamli- 
soii of the King of Lochlann (i.e. ScandiMavia), when, navian 
according to the Annals of the Four Masters, ' all the Dublin 
foreigners submitted to him.' The concjueror of Dublin 
was joined by Ivar (Irish lojii^]t), supposed by some to 
be a younger son of the great Norse hero Ragnar Lodbrok, 
plausibly identilied with tiie Irish Turgesius, i.e. Thorgisl 
(servant of Thor); and together they invaded and 
(•on(|uered North umbria. Olav was slain in battle in 
870 A.D., and Ivar and his brother Halfden and their 
descendants reigned alike in Dublin and Northumbria, 
their coinage, minted in Dublin, bearing with the name 
of Olav, Sitric, or Ivar, the title of 'high king of the 
Northmen of Ireland and England/ 

In 897 'the foreigners' were, according to the Irish 
annals, expelled from the fortress of 1\i Cli^c by 
CeAjifx^ll (Carroll), King of Leinster, and many of them, 
alter having been besieged in Ireland's Eye (oft* Howth), 
fled to Mercia, where Hingamund, their leader, asked 
of Queen /Ethelflaed, the Lady of Mercia,^ ' lands on 
which to erect stalls and iiouses,' and she, ' pitying his 
condition, gave him lands near Chester, where he re- 
mained for some time/ The Irish victory was both 
|)artial and temporary, for in 919 we read that Sitric or 
Sygtrygg, grandson of Ivar, with an immense royal fleet, 
recovered Dublin and the neighbouring territory, as far 
as Cent) yu<<«.ic, now (^onfey, near Leixlij). The same 
year, Sitric having sailed for Mercia, to support the 
claims of liis brother Reginald to that province, in his 
absence M|i<<.U 5luni)uh (G'lun Duv — Black Knee), ' King 
of Ireland,' assendjled an army to attack Dublin. He 
was met at Cell |71oy<^nioce, now Kilmashogue, near 
Rathfarnham, about six miles from Dublin, by the sons 
of Sitric, and suffered a disastrous defeat, in which were 
slain the king and his ste})son and heir, Concofxsii, son 

' See Chester in ihc present series, p. 30. 



of yi<^iui, the kings of Ulidia and Breagha, and inany 
other chieftains. The Irish hards make great lamenta- 
tion over this defeat, which, they say, 

' Shall be called till Judgment's day 
The destructive morning of '21c Cll<^c." 

In the grounds of Glen Southwell, near St. Columba''s 
College, on the side of Kilmashogue mountain, are still 
to be seen the remains of a large cromlech, which pos- 
sibly marks the grave of the chieftains slain in this 
battle. On the death, in 926, of Sitric, King of North- 
umbria, his dominions were seized by his brother-in- 
law and ally, ^thelstan, King of the Anglo-Saxons, 
and his sons fled to Dublin ; but ^Ethelstan's occupation 
was contested by Godfrey or Guthfrith, King of Dublin, 
brother or nephew of Sitric, who for six months reigned 
in Northumbria, but was then expelled by iEthelstan, 
and returned to Dublin. Here, six years later, 'he died 
a filthy and ill-favoured death,' and was succeeded by his 
son, Aulaf or Olav. This prince proved both a statesman 
and a warrior, and having effected alliances with the 
Danes of Ulster, the kings of Wales and East Anglia, 
and Constantine, King of Scots, whose daughter he had 
married, and being joined by troops from the distant 
Orkneys, entered the Humber with a fleet of 615 ships, 
and landed at the Humber Stane in a.d. 937, to dis- 
pute with .Ethelstan the inheritance of Northumbria. 
In the Annals of the Four Masters we read that Aulaiv 
went to Cair Abroc, i.e. York (Eboracum), and that 
Blacaire, son of Godfrey, came to "^Ic Cli<<vC to govern 
the Danes. But the Saxon king collected a no less for- 
midable force, hiring three hundred Scandinavian mer- 
cenaries under the celebrated leaders Thorolf and Egils, 
and in 938, at the great battle of Brunanburli (Brumby, 
near Beverley), Aulaf suffered a signal defeat. Five 
kings and seven earls were amongst the slain, and Aulaf, 
6 



son of Godfrey, Ht-d to Iicland with the renmant of liis Scaiidi- 
foUowers, as graphieally described in the Anglo-Saxon navian 
C'lironicle : Dublin 

' (lewiton him )'a Nor(Sinen. 
•lii'f? ^\vi\ oil f^Jiruin'. 
(IrtMirifT (larc^H laf. 
on (lyiii^es mere, 
ofer (leopiie water. 
Dyfli^ secaii. 
eft Vraland. 
{ewise mode.' 

' Departed the Northmen in nailed sliips 
Drear remnant of darts on the sea of Dyng, 
O'er the waters deep Dublin to seek, 
Back to laud of the Erse, depressed in mind.' 

On Aulafs return he found Blacaire firmly seated in 
Dublin ; and, crushed as he was by the slaughter of 
Brunanburh, he sought allies among the Irish, and 
obtained the assistance of the warlike King of Ireland, 
[\/lui|iee<<.|ic<^cli of tiie Leather Cloaks, so nicknamed 
from the sheepskin mantles with which he e(iuij)ped his 
troops for winter campaigns. Blacaire was e(jual to the 
emergency. Sallying against his Irish foe, he met him 
in Louth, and defeated and slew him in a battle near 
Ardee (a.u. 941). His success, however, was short-lived. 
Con5<^l<^c, son of (Vl<^olnnci5, possibly in the absence of 
Blacaire, took and sacked Qlc Cli<<.c, and, in the words 
of the Four Masters, 'burned its houses, divisions, ships, 
and all other structures.'' From this we may gather that 
Dublin had, architecturally, made little advance during 
the Danish occupation. Aulaf a])pears temporarily to 
have reoccupied the city, but in 94-5 Blacaire once 
jnore retook Dublin, only to be defeated and slain the 
following year by Con5<^lAc in the great battle of 
Qlc Cli<^c, wherein 'ICOO men were lost, wounded, and 
captives, in revenge of |71ui|iecd|ic<^ch, son ofH|iAll ~^\un- 

7 



bill"), slain by him some time before/ Of this was 
said : 

' The Thursday of Con5<^Uc of chiefs 
At '21c Cll^,C was a conflict of heroes ; 
As long as his children live to propagate children 
They shall hring the foreigners all kinds of trouble.' ^ 

Blacaire was succeeded by Aulaf Cuaran, son of that 
Sitric who had nded Noithumbria in 921. He revived 
the claim of his family to their English inheritance; 
and in 949 sailed for Northumbria, which had rebelled 
against King Eadred, leaving Dublin in care of his 
brother Godfrey. He occupied the throne of North- 
umbria for four years, and was the last of its Danish 
kings. Godfrey in Dublin seems to have obtained fresh 
levies from abroad, for we find him in 949 plundering 
Kells and other churches of Meath, and carrying ' 3000 
persons into captivity, besides gold, silver, raiment, 
wealth, and goods of every description.'' Godfrey, son 
of Sitric, was the first of the Danish kings of Dublin to 
embrace Cliristianity. On a visit to England in 943, he 
was converted, and received baptism, says the Saxon 
Chronicle, from King Edmund. His sister Gyda was 
married to Olaf Trygvasson, afterwards King of Norway, 
who had also become a Christian. Godfrey is said to 
have founded the abbey of St. Mary's del Ostmanby, 
so called from its situation in Ostman's town, now Ox- 
mantown, on the north side of the Liffey ; and from its 
foundation, cb-ca 948, the conversion of the Danes of 
Dublin is usually dated. Godfrey was slain in 951 by the 
<bvU e Q,6^\ or Dalcassians, a tribe forming a kind of house- 
hold troops for the kings of Cashel, and was succeeded 
by his son Aulaf; but on the expulsion of Aulaf Cuaran 
from Northumbria, the latter disputed the throne with 
his nephew, and was assisted by his son-in-law, Con5- 

1 Annals of the Four Masters. 



Aide, King of IielaiKl. From tiiis time, that is, from Scandi- 
tlie conversion of the Danes to Christianity, the matri- navian 
monial connections between the Danish and Irish Dublin 
monarchs become bewildering. For example, Aulaf 
Cuaran had married 5"'"*l^i^'V^<^i^5 daughter of f7!ii|ichA6, 
son of Vnib, King of Leinster. After bearing him a 
son, Sitiic, GormHnith was repudiated, and married 
b|ii<^n bv^ponnhe (Boru), whose daughter married Sitric, 
son of Aulaf Cuaran. In supj)ort of his father-in-law's 
claims on Dublin, Con5AlAe, King of Ireland, led a 
hosting into Leinster, and having plundered a wide dis- 
trict, held the fair of the Liffey on the present Curragh 
of Kildare for three days, but was ambushed by Aulaf, 
son of Godfrey, and slain with many oi' his chieftains. 
Soon after, we find Aulaf Cuaran again plundering 
Meath, and in 979 the old warrior went on pilgrimage 
to Zona, and died there 'after penance and a good 
life.' His stepson and son-in-law, [/i<^olyechlAni6, or 
Malachy ii., had now succeeded his father as Qlpb [If, or 
King of Ireland, and also laid claim to Dublin. He 
defeated the Danish garrison at the battle of '21c 
CliAc, slew Ragnal, or Reginald, heir to the sovereignty, 
and laid siege to the 'dun"' or fortress, which probably 
occupied the site of the present Castle of Dublin. 
After a siege, variously stated by the Irisii chroniclers 
as of twenty and sixty nights, he took it and reduced 
the Danes to tribute. An ounce of gold for every 
garden and croft was, we are told, to be paid by them 
on Christmas night annually for ever. In 980 Malachy 
issued his famous j)roclamation to the many Irish then 
in slavery that 'as n)any of the Irish nation as lived 
in servitude and bondage with the Danes should })re- 
sently pass over without ransom, and live freely in their 
own countries accordinir to their wonted manner."' 

In 999 Sitric, son of Aidaf, now King of Dublin, 
took prisoner t^onno]u\^ niAe C>OTiniv\iU, King of Leinster, 
which led to an attack on him by the combined forces 

9 



Dublin of Malachy and Brian Boru, whose daughter he had 
married. A battle was fought at Glennmama, near 
Dunlavin, County Wicklow, in which Sitric was defeated, 
and his brother Harold slain. The Irish forces took 
Dublin, where they remained for seven nights, burned 
the 'dun' or fortress, and plundered the city of 'gold, 
silver, hangings, and all precious things.' Sitric was 
expelled, but soon after found an ally in his father- 
in-law and former foe, Brian Boru, who had com- 
menced that intrigue against Malachy ii., which ended 
in 1002 in the deposition of the latter and the assump- 
tion of supreme power by Brian. For some time friendly 
relations were maintained between Brian and the 
Danes, the latter with a fleet under Sitric plundering 
the coasts of Down. 

But in 1013 war broke out between the 1[\\b ]\\ 
(Brian) and his tributaries, the Irish King of Leinster 
and the Danish King of Dublin, and a blockade of 
Dublin ensued. King Brian broke up his camp at 
Christmas, owing to dearth of provisions, and re- 
turned to his palace of CeAnn Co|tA6 (Kincora). Sitric 
availed himself of the breathing-time thus afforded by 
seeking aid from his kinsmen over sea, and 1000 
warriors in coats of mail, under Brodar, a Danish chief, 
entered Dublin on Palm Sunday, while Brian and his 
forces lay on the north of the river near the present site 
of the King's Hospital, Oxmantown. Brian's son, 
5onnch<^S, led a force against the territory of the King 
of Leinster, while his father's troops harried the Danish 
districts of Fingall and Howth. The Danes sent out a 
body to repel the latter, and this movement resulted in 
a general engagement. At sunrise on Good Friday 
1014, the battle, now known as the Battle of Clontarf, 
commenced, and terminated as evening fell in the com- 
plete rout of the Danes. From the river Tolka to 
the rising ground now occupied by Mountjoy Square, 
and thence to the abbey of St. Mary's del Ostmanby, 
lO 



the conflict raged. The Danish king bchelil the light Scandi- 
from the walls of his fortress ; the aged Ihian, whose navian 
grandson was amongst the combatants, remained in the Dublin 
rear of the Irish centre, protected by his body-guard. 
The mailed warriors of Brodar faced the Dalcassian 
levies under Prince |\/lii[ichAJj (Murrough), son of Brian, 
and at the commencement the former seem to have 
gained some advantage. 'AVell do the foreigners reap 
the field,'' exclaimed, as he watched the fight, King Sitric 
to his wife, daughter of King Brian. 'It will be at the 
end of the day that will be seen,' was her cautious reply. 
And later, as the Danish forces were driven into the sea, 
she remarked sarcastically to her husband, ' It a})pears to 
me the foreigners have gained their inheritance,"" a re- 
mark which is said to have cost the lady one of her 
front teeth. On the wings the forces of Connaught 
encountered the troops of Leinster, and the remainder of 
the Munster levies opposed the Danes of Dublin under 
i^uh^All, son of Aulaf. At the close of the day the 
Danish forces were in full flight; their ships, which had 
lain along the northern shore of Dublin Bay, had been 
carried out of reach by the rising tide, and the only 
passage across the Liff'ey, DubligalPs Jiridge, being 
covered by the troops of Brian, a dreadful slaughter 
ensued. It is said by the Irish annalists that 
not one of Brociar''s mailed champions escaped alive, 
while Prince (^ul)3<^U, son of Aulaf, and 3000 of his 
troops were also amongst the slain ; and on the Irish 
side, Prince [7lu|ichAlJ and his son had fallen. Brodar, 
probably in attempting to force his way to DubhgalPs 
Bridge, came on the tent of Ih-ian, and slew the aged 
king, it is alleged, while engaged in pi-aver, and was him- 
self slain by the bodyguard. From the Duhlin Magazine 
for June 17G3, we learn that when the present Rotunda 
gardens were being laid out, a trench was found contain- 
ing a (|uantity of human bones, together with numberless 
pieces of iron resembling broad rivets, and a large sword 

II 



Dublin and spear head two feet in length; possibly the remains 
of the warriors of Brodar. 

The Battle of Clontarf left both parties exhausted, and 
no one to benefit by the victory. It cannot, therefore, 
be taken as the popular error would have it, to imply the 
expulsion of the Danes from Dublin. As industrious 
artisans and traders they were tributaries too valuable 
lightly to be banished or exterminated. We are, indeed, 
assured by the annalists that 'after Clontarf there was 
not a threshing-floor from Howth to Brandon Head 
(in Kerry) witliout a Danish slave threshing on it, nor a 
quern without a Danish woman grinding on it'; but we 
learn from another source that Brian had left no Danes 
in the kingdom except such a number of artisans and 
merchants m Dublin, Waterford, Cork, and Limerick as 
could be easily mastered at any time should they dare to 
rebel ; these King Brian very wisely permitted to remain 
' for the purpose of encouraging trade and traffic, as they 
possessed many ships and were experienced sailors.** 

Brian, as we have seen, having fallen in the battle, 
these remarks must be taken as applying to his successor, 
and indeed as representing the general policy of the 
Irish kings towards the foreigners settled in the chief 
seaports. And in 1021, seven years only after the 
crushing defeat of Clontarf, we find Sitric Mac Aulaf 
defeating the King of Leinster at the battle of Delgany. 
In 1028 he went on pilgrimage to Rome; and in 1038, 
as we learn from the Black Book of Christ Church, 
'Sitricus, son of Ablef (Aulaf), Earl of Dublin, gave to 
the Holy Trinity and to Donatus (or Donagli) first 
Bishop of Dublin, a place whereon to build a church to 
the Holy Trinity, together with the lands of Bealdulek 
(Baldoyle), Rechan (Rahenv), and Portraherne (Portrane) 
for its maintenance.'' On the coins of this king, preserved 
in the Dublin National Museum, he is styled Sitric iii., 
and the church which he foimded occupied the site 
whereon the present Christchurch stands. 
12 



Sitric was succceclecl l)y his cousin Eachinairach, who, Scandi- 
iu 1052, ' went beyond seas,' possibly to the Isle of Man, navian 
of which his biother Godfrey is said to have been kin<r, Dublin 
and OK^piuAib (l)erniot), son of OoinicliA^, surnanied 
|7lAil-n<\-niho, sei/eil the kino-ship of Dublin luuler the 
title of Kinj^ of Leinster, of the Innse Gall (J3anish Isles 
= Hebrides), and of Dublin. In 1072 the troops of 
Leinster and the Danes of Dublin were defeated at 
the battle of O^l'x^ (Ova) by Coneor)<<.|i (Connor) lU- 
['/(^odeAohlAnin, Prince of Tara, and Derniot himself 
'slain and mangled.'' He is thus lamented by the 
bards : — 

' C>l<^|un<^lb, first man in Leinster fell, 
OiA[UnAl^, of the riuldy-coloiired aspect, 
A kiiif^ who maintained the standard of war.' 

His eldest son f7lu|ichAS (Murrough) had pi-edeceased 
him, and his grandson <^hoiiuiML mAc[71u|ice^|ir<^i5 
(Daniel MacMurrough), surnanied The Fat, succeeded to 
the throne. The grandson of Dondinall, t^K^junAiti in<<vc- 
[7lu|iceA|irAi3 (Dermot MacMurrough), known in Irish 
annals as *^iA|iniAiJ> Mjc^^L-n^oill (Dermot of the Foreigners), 
was the chieftain who on his banishment from Ireland 
by his chieftainry in 1166, owing to his character, which 
was ' violent, overbearing, and ferocious,"' departed for 
Aquitaine, there to ask the aid of Henry ii. of England, 
whose feudal vassal he offered to become. 

Hut we would be wrong in supposing that Dublin was 
without rulers other than these Kings of Leinster. In 
1094 we find mention of a certain Godfrey, Lord of the 
foreigners of ^Ic Cli<^c and of the Islands, i.e. the 
Hebrides, generally identified with that King of Man 
before mentioned, and great-grandson of xVulaf Cuaran. 
He was expelled from Dublin by Turlough O'lirien, King 
of Munster, and afterwards died of pestilence. In ll+O 
we have llaghnall, or Reginald, son of Turcall, or 
Thorkill, slain by the men of East Meath. Again in 

13 



Dublin 1160 we have Brodar, son of Thorkill, Lord of '21c Cli<^c, 
and in 1166 the foreigners of Dublin were leagued with 
bfieipne (Breffni) and Meath in the expulsion of Dermot 
MacMurrough. In that year, indeed, the Danes could 
furnish a thousand horse to the conference held at 
7lz buiSe CL<^CC5<^, now Athboy, respecting ' veneration 
for churches and clerics.*^ In 1170, when Dublin was 
treacherously taken by MacMurrough and his Norman 
allies, Asgall, or Hasculf, son of Raghnall, whose palace 
stood beside the Church of the Holy Trinity and occupied 
the site on St. Michael's Hill on which the Synod Hall 
now stands, was king of the foreigners, and escaped by 
sea. He returned the following year with a fleet of 60 
ships, furnished by his kinsmen of the Western Isles, and 
sailed into the Liffey. His force consisted of Danes from 
the Isle of Man and from the Hebrides, and Norwegians, 
mail-clad warriors, some with the long cuirasses of the 
vikings, some with plates of metal sewn together, led by 
a noted Orkney champion whom the contemporary 
Norman chronicler names Johan le Deve, i.e. John the 
Mad or the Furious. Hasculf marshalled his troops at 
the Stein, on the low ground south of the Liffey, then 
extending from College Green to Ringsend, and marching 
throuo-h the suburb on whose site Dame Street now stands, 
he assaulted St. Mary's Gate, or Dame's Gate, the east 
gate of the city, near the present Cork Hill. While 
Milun (Miles) de Cogan was hard pressed by John the 
Mad. his brother Richard with thirty horsemen rode 
secretly out of the Western Gate, afterwards known as 
St. Werburgh's or Pole Gate, at southern extremity of 
St. Werburgh Street, and fell upon the rear of the Danes. 
This threw their forces into confusion, and Miles at this 
juncture sallying upon them with all his force a complete 
rout ensued. John the Mad fought indeed like a true 
Berserker — 



^ Annals of the Four A/asters. 



H 



' . . . En la mellc 
De une liache l)eii tempre 
Cosuit le ior un clievaler 
Que la «iuisse lui tist voler ' 

says the chronicler. But iiulividual valour could not 
retrieve the day, the Danes Hed to their ships, and Hasculf 
was taken prisoner by the Normans, and, on boasting 
that he would speedily return, was beheaded. 

Thus ended the Danish kingdom of Dublin after a 
duration of over three hundred years, for King Henry ii. 
granted Dublin to the people of Bristol with de Lacy as 
governor, and confined the Danes, it wonld appear, to the 
northern suburb, which retained its name of Ostmanstown, 
now Oxmantown, as we have seen. In this connection 
it is noteworthy that Dublin, the metropolis of Ireland, 
only became so under Anglo-Norman rule, and was for 
the first ten centuries of its history virtually a foreign 
city. For three hundred years it had been the centre of 
a small Scandinavian kingdom, and on the coming of the 
Anglo-Normans, it was peo])led by the Bristol colony, 
administered by their trading gilds, and the seat of 
those governors, who, under various titles, acted as 
viceroys of the English sovereigns. Indeed, until the 
control of the city was, in 1841, vested in the reformed 
corporation, it can scarcely be said to have been an Irish 
citv in any national sense of the term. During the three 
centuries of Danish dominioti, though the Irish some- 
times concjuered, and even nominally expelled the Danes, 
that race continuously held and practically continuously 
ruled the city and district. The boundaries of their 
kingdom, though doubtless they sometimes fluctuated, 
are pretty clearly defined. The coast-line stretched from 
Arklow on the south to the small stream of the Devlin, 
or Nanny AVater, above Skerries, on the north, and these 
still form the bounds of the Admiialty jurisdiction of 
Dublin. Their territory extended inland along the 
Liff'ey ' as far as the salmon swims up the stream,' i.e. to 

15 



Scandi- 
navian 
Dublin 



Dublin Leixlip, or Lax lob, the Salmon Leap (de salty salmojtis), 
compreliending the present united dioceses of Dublin and 
Glendalough. Manv traces of their occupation are to be 
found in the nomenclature of the district. The northern 
portion of County Dublin was known, as we have said, 
as Fingall. Howth is merely the Danish Hofed, a head. 
Arklow and Wicklow are their beacon (loe, a blaze) 
stations on the coast, Blowick, now Bullock, Dalk-ey, 
Lamb-ay (Lamb Island), Ireland's Ey(e), and the Skerries 
all show their Danish origin. Ringsend is the termina- 
tion of the Ring or spit of land then stretching into the 
sea, and, as we have seen, Oxmantown (Ostman's town) 
still marks the suburb of the Easterlings. The Scandi- 
navians of Dublin must not be regarded as plundering 
rovers. Whatever the first comers may have been, the 
city soon developed into a thriving trading and manu- 
facturing community. In Worsaae's Account of the 
Danes and Nonoegians in England we find it stated that 
'just as the proportionally numerous Norwegian graves 
near Dublin prove that a considerable number of Nor- 
wegians must have been settled there, so also do the 
peculiar form and workmanship of the antiquities that 
have been discovered in them afford a fresh evidence of 
the superior civilisation which the Norwegians in and 
near Dublin must, for a good while at least, have possessed 
in comparison with the Irish." However much a knowledge 
of the remains of early Irish art may lead us to modify 
this judgment, the presence in the Dublin National 
Museum of such objects as the Viking brooches,^ found 
near Arklow in the County Wicklow, affords proof of the 
high artistic skill of the invaders. 

The city of the Danes, though commercially and politi- 
cally important, was yet of no great extent. They had 
found it a mere collection of wattled huts. It became in 
their hands ' entrenched Qlc Cli<^c,' with its walls and 
' dun,' or fortress. The tale of its plunderings and of 
^ Journal R. S.A.I, for 1902, p. 71. 
16 



the tribute rxacted from its citi/eiis show it to iiavc heen Scaiicli- 
a place of wealth and even luxury. Already Christ- uavian 
church and the Abbey of St. Mary had been built, and Dublin 
the northern suburb possessed its church of St. Michan 
(built circa 1095). The 'Thin^ mote,"' or ])lace of 
popular assembly, occupied a site north of the ])resent 
church of St. Andrew, at the intersection of ("lunch Lane 
and Suffolk Street, and was then 40 feet liigh and 240 
feet in circumference. It is described so late as 1647 as 
'the fortified hill near the colleire,"' which was occupied by 
the miftinous soldiers of Colonel Jones ; but in 1682 it was 
levelled by Sir William Davis, Chief-Justice of the Court 
of King's JJench, the earth being used to raise the level 
of Nassau Street, then St. Patrick's Well Lane. From 
this or a neighbouring hill, Iloggen Green, from Nor- 
wegian ' hauge,'a mound, the present College Green, took 
its name, and was then a large open space where archery 
was connnonly practised. The sea-shore then ran on the 
northern side of the river frojn Essex Bridge by the line of 
the present Abbey Street, and below the ridge on which 
Summer Hill is built, down to Ballybough Bridge, where 
there was then a stake-weir. It was thus ])erfectly possible, 
at the date of the battle of Clontarf, to see from the forti- 
fications of the old city the whole shore of the north side 
of the bay, which was fringed with oak timber. The Danish 
landing-place was at the Stein, an elevated ridge, on which 
a lej)er hospital, on the site of the ])resent 'Lock' hosjjital, 
was afterwards erected, a resort of pilgrims intending to 
embark for the shrine of St. James of Con)])ostella, the 
|)atron-saint of le])ers, from which the termination of 
Townsend Street received the name of Lazar's Hill, after- 
wards corrupted into Lazy Hill. At the Stein, as we have 
seen, Hasculf landed in llTl in his attempt to regain the 
city from the iNormans, as stated in the Anglo-Norman 
poem on the coiujuest of Ireland, already referred to — 

' A Stcine ereiit arive 
Hescul e Johau le Deve. ' 
B 17 



Dublin Here, at the junction of Hawkins Street and Townsend 
Street, had been erected by the first Danish invaders a 
pillar-stone standing 12 or 14 feet above ground, and 
known as the Long Stone, often mentioned in seventeenth- 
century leases. In 1646, when an attempt was made to 
fortify Dublin, ' in removing a little hill in the east 
suburbs of the city of Dublin, . . . there was discovered 
an ancient sepidchre placed SW. and NE., composed of 
eigiit marble stones, of which two made the covering 
and were supported by the others. . . . Vast quantities 
of burned coals, ashes, and human bones, some of* which 
were in part burned and some only scorched, were found 
in it.'i 

The Danes have left us but little architectural remains. 
Indeed, their work as builders may be taken to be practi- 
cally subsequent to their conversion to Christianity in 
the middle of the tenth century, and as the year 1171 
saw their final subjection, there were but two centuries 
of turmoil in which they could have been so occupied. 
The most notable of these remains is probably the 
church, or miscalled ' Abbey,' of St. Mary at Howth, 
founded by Sitric or Sygtrygg in 1042, twenty-eight 
years after the battle of Clontarf. But little now remains 
to mark the church of Sygtrygg, which in 1235, two 
centuries after its erection, was enlarged and dedicated 
to the Blessed Virgin by Luke, Archbishop of Dublin. 
Competent authorities have pronounced the western 
porch to be of Saxon or Danish architecture. The Danes, 
up to the date of their settlement in Northumbria, were 
not, so far as we know, builders in stone, and would after 
that date naturally adopt the methods of building which 
they found in use amongst the Saxons. Hence such 
remains as seem to be of Saxon architecture may be 
referred to the ancient Danish church. 

The church of St, Michan, in Church Street, was, 
as we have said, of Danish foundation, its patron, 
^ Sir James Ware. 

i8 



St. Michan, being of that nationality. The present church Scandi- 
was built towards the end of the seventeenth century, navian 
and restored in 18^(S. The tower, a stjuare structure Dublin 
with embattled parapets, supposed to form part of the 
church of the eleventh century, is modi-rn. The vaults 
possess extraordinary powers of preservation of the bodies 
deposited in them, a quality which is attributable to 
their extreme dryness, and the capacity for absorbijig 
moisture characteristic of the limestone of which they 
are constructed. Besides the church of St. INIichan on 
the north of the IJfFey, a group of churches stood on the 
south side in the days of St. Laurence O'Toole. These 
were St. Olave's near the north end of Fishamble Street — 
i.e. the Fish Shamble Street, the Vicus Piscatorium of the 
chroniclers; — St. George's in the present South Great 
George's Street, then St. George's Lane ; St. Stephen's, 
with its Leper Hospital, on the site of the present 
Mercer's Hos])ital ; and St. Martin's and St. Paul's within 
the present Castle })recincts. 

The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, the Scandinavian 
Christchurch, i.e. Head Church or Cathedral, still pos- 
sesses some remains of the foundation of King Sygtrygg 
Silkbeard. Soon after 1172 it was enlarged, at the 
instance of. Laurence, Archbishop of Dublin, better 
known as St. Laurence O'Toole, by the addition of a 
choir, a steeple, and two chapels, wjiich Richard, Earl 
of Strigul, surnamed Strongbow, Robert Fitzstephen, 
and Raymond le Gros, undertook to build at their own 
charge. Successive alterations up to 1225 had by that 
date entirely remodelled the Danish building. After a 
long series of misfortunes which had reduced it to a mere 
patched fragment of the original structure, the church 
was in 1871-8 restored, at a cost of .£n()(),000, by the 
munificence of Henry Roe, D.L., under the direction of 
George Street, R.A., Architect. It was not till the 
opening of Lord Edward Street, in 1886, that an 
adequate view could be obtained of Christchurch, since 

19 



Dublin 




BRIDGE CONNECTING CHRISTCHURCH WITH 
THE SYNOD HALL 



1872 the Cathedral Church of the United Dioceses of 
Dublin, Glendalough, and Kildare. Passing from the 
front of Trinity College up College Green and Dame 
Street, on approaching Cork Hill tlie eye is at once 
caught by the east end of the cathedral, surmounted by 
the central tower. A small gate gives entrance to the 
grounds, and along the path leading to the south porch 
lie the uncovered remains of the chapter-house. We 
enter the south transept through the beautiful Norman 
door, removed from the north transept in 1831, when 
the old fourteenth-century Choir was remodelled, and 
the Lady Chapel on the north of it converted into a 
Grammar school, chapter-room, and apartments for the 
cathedral servants. This old 'Mary Chapel,' in Danish 
times the chapel of St. Nicholas, was for many years used 
as the church of a French congregation. The only 
architectural evidence now remaining of its existence is 
the arch leading to the Choir ambulatory, which is 
thirteenth-century work. From the south porch steps 
lead to the bridge connecting the Cathedral with the 
20 



Dublin Synod Hall, which stands on the site of the Ciinrch of 
St. Michael the Archangel, and preserves its ancient 
tower. In the south porch is a monument to Thomas 
Prior, one of the founders of the Royal Dublin Society, 
to which Dublin, and indeed Ireland at large, owes so 
much. The monument originally stood on the south of 
the nave. On the left of the south aisle is a tomb 
bearing the recumbent figure of a knight in chain 
armour, traditionally known as Strongbow's tomb. That 
the great earl was buried in Christchurch with great 
solemnity iyi conspedu ci-ucis is undoubted, and this state- 
ment agrees with the present position of the tomb. But 
tliat the effigy represents its occupant can scarcely be 
maintained, as the arms on the shield are probably those 
of Fitzosbert. It is possible that the effigy is one sub- 
stituted for the original after 1562, when the latter was 
broken by the falling in of the roof. Upon tablets now 
let into the wall of the south aisle adjoining the tomb 
are the following inscriptions : ' This : avxcvent : moxv- 
MENT : OF : Rychard : Strangbowe : called : comes : 
STiiANGVLENSis : LORD : OF : Chepsto : AND : Ogny : the : 
FYRST : AND : PRYNCYPALL : INVADER : OF : Irland : 1169 : 
(ivi : OBiiT : 1177 : the : monvment : was : brocken : by : 
THE : FALL : OF : THE : ROFF : AND : bodye : OF : Christes- 
CHURCH : IN : An : 1562 : and : set : vp : agayne : at : the : 
CHARGYs : OF : THE : RIGHT : HONORABLE : Sr : Henri : 
Sydney : Knyght : of : the : noble : order : L : President : 
OF : Wailes : L : Depvty : of : Irland : 1570.'' 

Beside the larger monument is a smaller one bearing 
a half-length effigy in Purbeck marble. This figure is 
generally believed to represent Strongbow''s son, whom his 
father is said to have cut in two for cowardice in battle ; 
though the chronicler, Stanihurst, naively remarks that 'he 
did no more than run him through the belly." It is, how- 
ever, the effigy of a female figure, denoted by costume as 
circa 1180. A curious custom long existed of making the 
principal sum in bonds payable ' on Strongbow's tomb.' 
22 




SOUTH AISI.K, CHRISTCHURCH 



The architecture of the south transept is a striking- 
example of the transition from Norman to early English, 
and dates, as does the nortii transept, from about 1170. 
The arches leading from the aisles and from the transepts 
towards the side chapels are ])ointed, but the detail is 
Norman in character. The capitals, mouldings, and 
string-courses are richly carved. The triforium arches, 
each enclosing two pointed inner arches, are almost though 
not (juite semicircular ; as are also those of tlie clerestory. 
The niche in the east wall of the south transept, where 
a clock now stands, originally contained a pedestal on 

23 



which stood a statue of the Virgin. This transept also 
contains the beautiful monument of the 19th Earl of 
Kildare (ob. 174:3), father of the first Duke of Leinster, 
which formerly stood on the north-east side of the choir ; 
and also a sixteenth-century monument to Francis Agard, 
commander of a troop of horse under Thomas Lord 
Sevmour of Sudelev, and afterwards Chief Commissioner 
of the Province of Munster. 

On the east of the south transept a semi-circular arch 
leads to the chapel of St. Lorcan or Laurence O'Toole, 
originally Abbot of Glendalough, Danish bishop of Dublin 
prior to 1170, the second Irishman canonised by papal 
authority, the first being St. Malachy. This chapel was 
founded late in the twelfth century, destroyed early in 
the nineteenth, and rebuilt in 1871 on its original founda- 
tions. In the walls are two recesses ; that on the south 
side containing the supposed effigy of the archbishop, and 
that on tiie north a figure in Purbeck marble, found by 
the workmen engaged on the restoration, and said to 
represent the wife of Strongbow. There is also an ancient 
inscription in Norman-French to John of the fraternity 
of Parma, the 'Lumbard' or master builder of the 
twelfth-century additions. 

An ancient arch leads from the south transept to the 
Ambulatory, east of which are the three chapels built 
by Strongbow, Fitzstephen, and Raymond le Gros, and 
dedicated respectively to St. Edmund, king and martyr, 
St. Mary Alba, and St. Laud or St. Lo, Bishop of Cou- 
tances in the sixth century. These were destroyed by 
John de St. Paul to build his unsightly choir, and not 
rebuilt till 1871. The chapel of St. Laud contains a 
brass commemorating the restoration of 1871, a prior's 
coped tomb of black calp stone, bearing an early English 
floriated cross from the old chapter-house, a reputed effigy 
of Basilea, sister of Strongbow, and a metal case believed 
to contain the heart of St. Laurence O'Toole, who died 
and was buried at St. Eu in Normandy in 1180. The 
24 



crntral cluipcl of Sancta IVIaria Alha has seventeen Scandi- 
sedilia, the central for the bishop bein<r the largest. The navian 
chapel of St. Kdinund coiniminicates with the north Dublin 
porch, from which a stair leads to the choristers' school- 
rooms. Till' cliaj)ter-house and library occupy the site of 
the ori<^inal projecting- Lady Chapel north-east of the 
Cathedral, remodelled, as we have said, by Mr. Street at 
the restoration. This Lady Chapel has been identified with 
the original Chapel of St. Nicholas ' on the north side,' 
founded by Sygtrygg or Sitric ; but a sixteenth century 
deed is on record, whereby the dean and chapter leased 
to Walter Forster of l)u])Iin, clerk, a long loft called 
St. Nicholas' Chapel, situate over a cellar on the zce.st 
side of the north gate of the church, a transaction which 
recalls the treatment of the church of St. Bartholomew 
the Great in London. 

The north transept contains the organ, which stands 
on a carved gallery of Caen stone, supported by marble 
columns. Under the organ on the north wall of the 
transept are the arms of Sir Henry Sidney, Lord 
Deputy. 

The choir was, ])revious to 1871, a crooked oblong 102 
feet long from west to east, but as it possessed neither 
beauty <>f its own, noi- any trace of its original architec- 
ture, and presented no object of interest save an ancient 
piscina, Mr. Street wisely resolved on its complete demoli- 
tion and the erection of the present choir on the lines of 
the crvpt below it. It now consists of the apse and the 
space under the central tower, and forms a striking 
feature of the building. The two western arches of the 
older choir had not been disturbed during the fourteenth 
century alterations ; and it was found that another arch 
built into the old north wall of the choir would fit 
j)rccisely into the east end. 'J'he arches preserve the old 
twelfth century capitals. 'J'he present design reproduces, 
in all j)robability. the old twellth century choir, many of 
the old stones being in fact used in the reconstruction of 

25 




ANCIENT TII.ES 



iblin '.m//f^///fM//r*Vi:iMm the piers and arches. The carving of 

the new capitals of the coupled shafts 
round the apse was executed by a work- 
man named Taylerson, and are magnifi- 
cent specimens of modern workmanship, 
representing the Annunciation, Saluta- 
tion, Adoration of the Shepherds and 
of the Magi, the Circumcision, and the 
Presentation in the Temple. The floor 
is of exceptional interest. The designs 
of the tiles are entirely a reproduction 
of patterns on those discovered under 
the debris of the fallen roof; and all the originals capable 
of being used were laid in the eastern end of the south 
choir aisle. The pillar between the nave and the south 
transept has carved on it the heads of Mr. Street, Arch- 
bishop Trench, Mr. Roe, ant! Primate Beresford. On the 
north of the choir, immediately outside the sanctuary, is 
a long memorial brass to Archbishop Trench, to whom 
a similar memorial exists in Westminster Abbey. The 
stalls of carved oak provide for the dean and precentor, 
chancellor and treasurer, and for the twelve canons con- 
stituted by the Act of 1872 of the General Synod of 
the Church of Ireland. The screen, of yellow Mansfield 
stone on a base of red Cork marble, is divided into five 
by columns of Kilkenny marble, and reproduces in its 
finial the design of the celebrated Cross of Cong in the 
National Museum, Kildare Street. The ancient State or 
Royal pew, and the Mayoralty pew, now seldom occupied, 
have been replaced by modern oak stalls. The former 
shows theRoyal arms, scorched and disfigured by the Crom- 
wellian troopers. West of the choir, on the north side, 
stands the pulpit rising on columns of green Galway marble, 
with bases of red Cork marble, the whole standing on a slab 
of Kilkenny marble. In the choir stands the fifteenth-cen- 
tury lectern, from which the Scriptures were first read in 
English in Ireland, from a Bible sent by Queen Elizabeth. 
26 



The north aisk- has iiii<Iorf]ronc serious change in the Seaiuli- 
course of the restoration, That a doorway existed, facing navian 
Winetavern Street, at the third hay from the west end is Duhlin 
proved hy entries in Cathedral leases. The ])orch which 
it seems certain was attached to this nortliern door 
furnished Mr. Street, when its foundations were dis- 
covered, with the idea of the haptistery, which now 
stands, not on those foundations, hut one hay further 
towards the west. The haptistery is, however, in itself 
a heautiful structure, witli its roof su})])ortcd hy two 
central columns of Irish marhle, and its stained glass 
windows, introducing, amongst Irish saints, SS. Mary 
and Anne to indicate the Christian names of the wife of 
the architect, and SS. George and Edmund to signify his 
own. In the centre, hetween the pillars, stands the font, 
a heautiful example of modern design in marhle. 

From the west door a good ceneral view is ohtained of 
the Cathedral, somewhat hindered hy the screen, which 
intercepts the prospect heyond the choir eastwards. The 
stained glass, though entirely modern, is rich and varied ; 
the clerestory windows contain the arms of the Irish sees 
from drawinos hv Clster Kiny; of Arms. In the noi'th 
aisle is an unfinished monument, formerly in the south 
transept, to Sir John Stevenson, the composer, who had 
the unique distinction of having been the first native 
of Ireland admitted to office in the choir of Christchurch, 
thus emphasising in its Cathedral what has been already 
said of the un-Irish character of the City of Dublin. 

For the anticjuarv j)erhaps the most interesting jmrtion 
of the Cathedral is to be found in the crypt, which is 
entered from the eastern end of the south aisle hy a 
circular-headed door of a small chapel, whence steps lead 
downward to the crvpt. An accidental comparison by 
Sir Thomas Drew of the ground plan of the Danish 
Christchurch of Waterford with that of Christchurch 
Dublin disclosed the interesting fact that, ' pier for pier, 
dimension for dimension,"' the Waterford Christchurch 

27 



had been a genuine replica of the Dubhn one. This, 
taken in connection with the fact that the nave piers 
of the Anglo-Norman work of post 1190 'do not stand 
truly over the piers below,' shows conclusively that we 
have in tlie crypt ' the survival of a Danish-built Christian 
church.'' The quasi apsidal arrangement at the east end, 
'the square eastern chapel with which the apsidal inclina- 
tion ends,' apparently the feretrnim^ for the reception 
of relics, while resembling the Scandinavian church of 
Trondhjem, is said to have had no parallel in these king- 
doms save one, at Pershore Abbey in Worcestershire, 
which is now no longer in existence. 

Much of the crypt was, we find from leases of tiie six- 
teenth century, in the occupation of tenants who utilised 
their holdings as shops, stores, and taverns, one of the 
cellars being euphemistically described as ' Paradise,' 
perhaps in distinction to 'Hell' (see p. 30). An Order 
in Council of 28th November 1633 forbade, indeed, these 
vaults to be used as ' a tavern, tippling house, or tobacco 
shop,' but the abuse was not discontinued, for in 1678 
the ' Lord Lieutenant and Councell ' ordered that the 
dean and chapter ' doe use their best endeavours ' for 
removing the ' taverns, tippling houses, and tobaccoe 
shops' located in 'the vaults and cellars, to the great 
annoyance of the said Church.' 

Many objects of interest are now stored in the crypt. 
The wooden stocks, two hundred years old, which stood 
in Christchurch yard outside the south transept till 
1821, when the penalty had fallen into disuse, are here 
in good preservation. In the eastern sub-chapels are 
preserved the tabernacle and candlesticks used in the 
celebration of the Mass in the Cathedral during the 
reign of James ii. The statues of that monarch and his 
brother Charles ii. were removed from niches over the 
entrance to the Tholsel, which stood at the corner of 
Nicholas Street, and were placed for a time at the 
northern end of the north transept, but shared the fate 
28 




THE STOCKS 



of" more niodcrn nioiiiimciits in bciiij; r<)iisii>ned to tlie 
cry|)t at the time of Mr. Street's restoration. Some of 
tliese momiments are fine examples of modern sculpture, 
and many are well-deserved memorials of distin<ruislied 
citizens. A tra<i;ic interest attaches to the tablet to Sir 
Samuel .Vuchmuty, G.C.li., who died in 1822 while in 
conunand of II. M. forces in Ireland. It is said that at 
his funeral an officer lost his way in the crypt, was acci- 
dentally locked in, and was there devoured by rats, which 
prol)ably swarmed from the ^reat sewer which led from 
the cathedral to the Liff'ey. His skeleton is said to have 
been afterwards found still oiaspin<r his sword, and sur- 
rounded by the bones of nund)ers of rats which he had 
slain before being overcome. The ancient piscina and 
font, removed at the time of restoration, are preserved 
in the cry[)t. The church plate, in silver-gilt Dutch 

29 



Scandi- 
navian 
Dublin 



repousse work, presented to the cathedral in 1698 by 
William iii. after the l)attle of the Boyne, is supposed 
to have been borrowed for the use of the castle chapel in 
1816, where it is still retained. 

The Cathedral precincts are interesting. South of the 
remains of the old chapter-house, of beautiful moulded 
thirteenth-century work, discovered in 1886 by Sir 
Thomas Drew, lay the calefactory of the old monastic 
foundation, separated from the former by the Slype. 
This was the site of the passage long known as ' Hell ' : 
it is supposed from the black figure popularly believed 
to represent the devil, to which Burns refers in the 
lines : — 

' Is just as true's tlie Deil 's in hell 
Or Dublin city.' 

As this passage led to the ' King's Courts,"" held after 
1610 in the Domus Convcrsorum and other buildings of 
the convent cloister, there is at least verisimilitude in the 
advertisement which appeared, 'To let, furnished apart- 
ments in Hell. N.B. — They are well suited to a lawyer." 




ANCIENT TILE 



30 



CHAPTER II 



AXt:i,()-N()RMAN DCni.IK 



THE news of 
the successes of 
the Aii<>lo- Norman 
haroiis had not been 
favourably received 
by Kino- Henry ii., 
who doubtless fore- 
saw liow dangerous 
an ally the disaffec- 
ted at home might 
find in their con- 
nexionsfirmly seated 
in Irish lordships. 
That so far-seeing 
a statesman as was 
Henry of Anjou 
should anticipate 
trouble from these 
early concjuerors of 
Irish territory nuist 
at least seem pro- 
bable in the light 
of after events, when 
the de Courcys, de Lacys, de Hurghs,and Geraldines 
were the most untiring enemies of the English Crown. 
^' 23 




ST. 1'ATKICK's CATllEDRAl. 



Dublin He determined accordingly to exert his feudal authority, 
and so to order matters that his paramouncy should stand 
unquestioned. He relied on the Bull of Pope Hadrian iv., 
brought to him from Home by John of Salisbury in 1155, 
to establish his lordship of Ireland ; and having sum- 
moned Strongbow to render an account of his conquest, 
and exacted from him full submission, he sailed for Ire- 
land, landed at Croch, now Crook, near Waterford, and 
held a synod at Cashel. He tiien proceeded to Dublin, 
where he kept his court for three months, having ordered 
to be constructed for him, ' close to the church of 
St. Andrew the Apostle outside the city of Dublin,"* says 
Roger de Hoveden,^ ' a royal palace, constructed with 
wonderful skill of peeled wands, according to the custom 
of that country.' He seems to have treated Dublin as 
his personal property, it having been surrendered to him, 
as their suzerain, by the Anglo-Norman adventurers, who 
had taken it from its Danish owners. The wattled 
dwelling on the Thingmount of the Norsemen may have 
had a significance as indicating a claim to a kind of 
elective lordship. Having ex})edited a charter to his 
' men of Bristol,"" wherel)y he gave his City of Dublin to 
the said men to inhabit and hold as they held Bristol, he 
appointed, as we have said, Hughes de Lasci, or Hugh 
de Lacy, jyro tempore Bailli thereof. The King's unhappy 
affairs now called him to England and to Normandy, 
leaving behind him in Ireland a turmoil which his 
presence had for a time somewhat abated. In 1174, by 
a charter dated ' Apud Sanctum Laudinum,' probably 
St. Laud or St. Lo, in Normandy, Henry granted to his 
burgesses of Dublin 'freedom from toll, passage, portage, 
lestage, pavage, murage, quayage, carriage, and all custom, 
for themselves and their goods throughout his entire 
land of England, Normandy, Wales, and Ireland.' The 
Ostmen, though expelled, were not entirely expatriated, 
but were probably confined, as in Limerick and their 

^ Rcrttin Angliiaiiariim Scriptoi'es post Beda. 

34 



other Irish cities, to a particular district outside the An«^h)- 
walls — most likely to that Ostniaustown, on the northern Norman 
hank of the river, which would thus retain its name. Duhlin 
That they were neither banished nor extirpated is evi- 
denced bv our findinsjj a bodv of the Ostnien of Duhlin 
with the force which, in 1174. Stron<>l)ow led a«i;ainst 
Donal OHrien of Thomond ; and in the Calendar of 
Patent Jlolls we find that Cristin the Ostman ceded to 
Strongbow a house which the Earl granted to de Ridles- 
ford. The men of Bristol were not the only colonisers 
of the deserted city. Besides the followers of the Anglo- 
Norman lords, who are specially referred to by the con- 
temporary chronicler as their hardy English vassals (' les 
vassals Engleis aduriz'), many English traders would 
naturally be attracted by the rej)utation of Dublin, with 
its ' far-famed harbour,"' say the English chroniclers, ' the 
rival of our Eondon in connnerce.' For instance, we find 
that when, in 1J537, a certain ^Master John Kees came as 
Treasiu-er to Ireland he brought with him ' many Welsh- 
men to the nund)er of 200, and arrived in the haven of 
Dublin.^ 

In 1170 died Strongbow, and his tomb, as we have 
seen, is still j^ointed out in Christchurch, which he had 
re-edified and enlarged ; and after more than one change 
of irovernors, the Enirlish Kino- determined to take the 
rule of Ireland into his own family. In 1177 he had, at 
the (.'ouncil of Oxford, with the authority of Pope Alex- 
ander, invested his youngest son John, then eleven years 
of age, as Lord of Ireland. At the same Council a royal 
charter was granted to the Priory of St. Thomas at 
Dublin. The first Antjlo-Norman coinage of Ireland 
bore the full face of John, with a diadem of five pearls, 
and the inscrij)tion JOHANNES DOM. : the reverse a 
double cross, with a ])ellet or annulet in each (juarter, 
with the names of the minters at Dublin and \Vaterford. 
In 1185 John sailed from Milford on the ^Vcdnesday 
after Easter, and landed at AVaterford on the following 

35 



Dublin day, 25th April, accompanied by Ranulf de Glanville, 
the King's viceroy in England, and Giraud de Barri, 
better known as the chronicler Giraldus Cambrensis. He 
was the grandson of Nesta, the mistress of Henry i., the 
ancestress as well of the de Barris as of the Fitz-Henrys, 
Fitz-Stephens, and Fitz-Geralds, whose families supplied 
so many of tiie barons of the English Pale. John had 
been preceded in 1184 by the successor of St. Laurence 
O'Toole, Archbishop Comyn, to whom the archiepiscopal 
estates had been granted in barony. A curious extract 
from the IMpe Roll for Devonshire records a payment of 
forty shillings to ' Ricardo de Rupe et aliis hominibus 
Johannis filii Regis ad transfretandum cum canibus pre- 
dicti Johannis per breve Ranulfi de Glanville,'' proving 
that John was not unmindful of the possibilities of sport 
in thus having his hounds shipped, probably from 
Normandy, to await his arrival in Ireland. The young 
prince did not favourably impress his new Irish subjects. 
At an interview with the Munster chieftains, accompanied 
by their leading retainers, we are told that ' two of the 
guard, Normans, pickthankes, shook and tare the Clownes 
by the glibs (long hair) and beards unmannerly';^ and 
we are not surprised that the chiefs considered him ' but 
a boy, peevish and insolent,' — he was then in his nine- 
teenth year. The same author says of his following : 
' About the young Earle were servants and counsellours, 
three sorts, first Normans, great quaffers, lourdens, proud, 
belly swaines, fed with extortion and bribery ; to whom 
he most relyed : secondly, the English brought with him, 
meetly bold ; thirdly, the English found in the land, 
whom being best worthy and most forward in all good 
services, hee least regarded.' On his arrival in Dublin, 
John confirmed the charter of his father to ' my men of 
Bristol,' and granted to the Canons of the Priory of 
St. Thomas of Dublin the tenth of ale and mead which 

^ Campion's Historie of Ireland {'^iwXzw in the yeare 1571). 
36 



he had 'by usage from the taverns of that citv."' Ilis Anglo- 
troops were defeated with great shiiighter by O'Brien, iN'ornian 
King of Tlioniond, and John retui'ned on JJlst l)ecend)er, J)id)lin 
'de|)arting away the same yeare lie eame and leaving the 
realme a great deal worse bestedde than he found it.' 

In 1190 Arehbishop Comyn founded the Chui-ch of 
St. Patriek, as a eollegiate or prebendal elua-ch, adopting 
the site, outside the eity walls, of the early Celtic 
church of St. Patrick's in Insula (i.e. in the holm or 
strath of the Coombe, the valley through which the now 
subterranean Poddle Hows). The church was solenndy 
dedicated on St. Patrick's Day, 17th March 1191, by the 
Archbishojjs of Armagh and Dublin, and the Legate 
O'Heaney, 'to God, our IJlessed Lad v, and St. Patrick.' 
This prelate conferred the Church of St. Audoen, founded 
by the Anglo-Normans in honour of the great Norman 
saint, Audoen or Ouen, on the convent of Grace Dieu, 
situated north of Swords. 

In 1192 King John issued a fresh charter, stipulating 
that the citizens 'shall have all their reasonable Guilds 
as the burgesses of Bristol have or hail.' 

The year 1^09 is unhappily noteworthy in the Dublin 
aiHials by the occurrence of the long-remembered ' Black 
Monday.' On Easter Monday in that year, the citizens, 
while anuising themselves, accortiing to custom, in Cullen's 
Wood, where, says Stanihurst, 'being somewhat recklesse 
in heeding the mounteine cnimie that lurked under their 
noses, they were wont to rome and roile in clusters,' were 
attacked by an ambuscade of the O'Byrnes and O'Tooles 
from their fastnesses in the Dublin and VVieklow moun- 
tains, and live hundred of their number slain. ' Where- 
upon the remnant of the citizens deeming that unluckie 
time to be a crosse or a dismall daie, gave it the appella- 
tion of Black Mondaie.' The district was thenceforth 
known till towards the close of last century as the ' Bloody 
Fields'; but was then built on as part of the urowinir resi- 
den tiary suburb of Uatlnnuies, and they are now repre- 

27 



Diil)Hii sentod by Palnierston Park find the adjacent roads, Uinp; 
between llathgar and llanelafrh. The depleted population 
of the city was reinforced by a new colony from Bristol ; 
and a custom was established whereby the citizens marched 
out on each succeeding Easter Monday, with banners dis- 
played, to defy the native Irish. In the following year 
King John, now under sentence of excommunication, re- 
turned to Ireland with a fleet of seven hundred sail. Land- 
ing at Crook, near Waterford, on 20th June, he marched 
into Meath, and reached Dublin on the 28th June, where 
twenty of the chieftains did him homage and fealty. 
The parts of Ireland under English rule he parcelled out 
into twelve shires, to which he aj)pointed sheriffs and 
other county officers. He appointed judges and circuits, 
and reformed the coinage. He also built, or caused to be 
built, the Castle of Trim, and doubtless some others of 
the many whose ruins in Ireland bear his name. He re- 
turned to England the same year. An interesting relic 
of the visit of this monarch was unearthed during the 
relief excavation works in the precincts of Christchurch 
in 1884. A small bronze object was picked up by a 
choir-boy, and proved to be a crescent surmounted by a 
star — the badge adopted by Richard i. in the Holy Land, 
and retained by John and Henry in. A similar device 
surmounts the stalls of the dean and precentor of 
St. Patrick's Cathedral, and forms the reverse of John''s 
Irish coinage. It has been plausibly surmised that this 
badge, which bears evidence of having been hooked to 
some leather trapping, was torn or struck from the 
clothing of one of his retainers in a broil, when it may 
have slipped into an interstice of the pavement.^ 

To John Comyn, who died in 1212, succeeded as Arch- 
bishop of Dublin Henry de Loundres, or the Londoner, 
who became Viceroy in the following year, and who 
' builded the King's Castle '' in Dul)lin 'four square or 
quadrangle wise." He constituted, in 1220, his pre- 

' Journal R. S.A.I, for 1901, p. 74. 
38 



deccssoi-s' c-liiirch of St. ratrick a catlKHlial, with a dean, Anj^lo- 
pivcentor, c-liaiifcllor, and treasurer, and henceforth con- Norman 
tinual hickerino- marked the intercourse of the two Dublin 
cathe(h-als. Tliis prelate's style and title ran as follows: 
' Ilenrv, by divine mercy Jlejiular Abbot of the Cathedral 
Church of the IIolv Trinity and liishop of St. Patrick's, 
Archbisiioj) and I'rimate of the Irish Church by grace of 
the Apostolic See, Dean of the free royal cha])el of 
St. Mary's of Fenkridge,^ Prince Palatine of Harold's 
Cross, Custos of the Suff'ra(>an Sees when vacant,' etc." 
De Loundres obtained the unenviable sobricpiet of 
' Scorch-bill, or Scorch-villeyn,'' from his attempt to burn 
the leases of the tenants and farmers of his see, when 
they had produced them, at his summons, for insj)ection.^ 
He was afterwards present at Ilunnymede, and officiated 
as Papal Legate. 

About this time an organised effort seems to have 
been made to fortify Dublin, as we find by a charter of 
Henry lu., dated 1221, that the citizens were empowered 
' in aid of enclosing tiieir city to levy a toll of '3d. on 
every sack of wool, Gd. on every last (12 dozen) of hides, 
and 2d. on every butt of wine brought into the city for 
sale until the King conies of age,' ^ — he was then four- 
teen; and in 123-5 and 1250 further tolls were authorised 
for enclosing and strengthening the city. In 1283 a dread- 
ful fire raged in Dublin, whereby the greater part of the 
city was consumed, including the ' camj)anile et capitulum 
Sanctae Trinitatis' (Cliristchurch) ; and in 1304 another 
accidental fire consumed St. Mary's Abbey with its church 

' On 13th September 121 5, Kinji John bestowed on the See of 
Dublin the advowson of the manor of I'enkridcje in Staffordshire, making 
the Archl)isliop and his successors Deans of the Collei^iate Church ol 
Penkrid','c. In the time of Aichbisliop King, the Bishop of LichfieUl 
a])|>licd to the Archbisiioj) of Dublin 'for leave to visit and confirm 
within his peculiar jurisdiction of I'enkridge. ' 

- Professor Stokes, Ireland atid the Atii^lo-Noriitan Church. 

* More probably, ' Kcorche villeyn ' = flay farmer. 

■* Marlcl>tirrough's Chronicle. 

39 



and steeples, and destroyed the Chancery rolls which 
were there depositee]. 

In 1308 Edward ii., in order to remove his favourite 
Piers Gaveston from the attacks of the English harons, 
appointed him by letters-patent Lord-Lieutenant of 
Ireland. He sailed from Bristol with a large retinue, he 
himself crossing the Channel in the royal barge. He 
seems to have acted with vigour and prudence, and kept 
splendid court in the Castle of Dublin. 'Ubi regaliter 
vixit, et fuit bene delectus, erat enim dapsilis et largus 
ni muneribus dandis, et honoribus et terris sibi adhaer- 
entibus procurandis.'^ 

In May 1815 Edward Bruce, brother of the King of 
Scotland, and descended in tlie female line from Dermot 
MacMurrough, landed near Carrickfergus with ' sixe thou- 
sand Scots fighting men,'^ and two vears later arrived 
near Dublin and captured the Castle of Knock, now 
Castleknock, budt by Hugh de Tyrrel, outside the 
western gates. The citizens had made j)reparations for 
the defence of the city. They hastily strengthened the 
walls, and, destroying for that purpose the Monastery of 
St. Saviour, erected an inner wall, a fragment of which 
still survives in St. Audoen's Arch, close to the church 
of that dedication. On the news of the approach of his 
forces they burned the outlying portions of the city, in- 
cluding ' St. Thomas his street, least he should upon his 
repaire to Dublin have anie succour in the suburbs';^ 
even setting fire to a portion of St. Patrick's Cathedral. 
Meantime Bruce's suspected ally, Richard de Burgh, the 
Red Earl of Ulster, lay in St. Mary's Abbey north of the 
Liffey, close to the Danish settlement of Ostmanstown, and 
at the rear of the north side of the present Capel Street. 
The Red Earl was here surprised by the citizens, who plun- 
dered and wrecked the Abbey, and imprisoned him in 
Dublin Castle. Fearing to expose his ally to the revenge of 



^ Adam Murimuth. - Campion. 

•* Stanihurst. 



40 



his captors, and doubtless impressed by the stremioiisness Aiifrlo- 
of the defence, Bruce raisetl the sie^e, and marched to Nornmn 
Kilkenny antl thence to Limerick ; but was in the fol- Dublin 
lo\vinj>- year defeated and slain by Sir John Maupas at 
Faujrliart, near Dundalk, on Sunday, 14th October 15318. 
His body was (piartered, and one portion, together with 
his arms'and heart, were sent to be set up in Dublin. We 
find successive remissions of Crown rent and of old debts 
due to the Crown by the city to the amount of ^^600, to 
enable the citizens to repair the destruction of the 
suburbs. Encouraged by the early successes of Edward 
Bruce, the O'Tooles, O'Byrnes, and O'Mores had wasted 
the country with fire and sword from Arklow to l^eix, 
but 'with them coped the Lord Justice' (Sir Roger 
Mortimer), 'and made a great slaughter, so that four- 
score of tlieir heads were set upon Divelin (Dublin) 
Castle'; which fortress, indeed, was seldom without such 
gruesome ornamentation. But the people of Dublin 
seem to have deemed the successes of the Viceroy against 
the Irish enemy as dearly purchased, for we read in 
Campion thai, ' Mortymer went over to the king indebted 
to the citizens of l^ivclin for his viandes, a thousand 
pounds, whereof lie ])avde not one smulkin, and many a 
bitter curse carried with him to the sea.' 

In 1320, under a Bull of Pope Clement v., a University 
was established, under the direction of the Franciscans, 
in St. Patrick's Cathedral by the Archbishop, Alexander 
de liicknor. Treasurer of Irdand, which iuid a lingering 
existence until the dissolution of the cathedral establish- 
ment by Henry viii. Pestilence and famine seem to 
have been freipient visitations: a notable dearth in 13.'}]^ 
was relieved by the appearance, in June of that year at 
the mouth of the Dodder, of a shoal of huge fish called 
' turlvhydes,' said to have been from thirty to forty feet 
long, in the caj)ture of which Sir Antoine de Lucy, Baron 
of Cockermouth, the newly landed Justiciary, with his 
soldiers assisted. These lish were doubtless a school of 

41 



bottle-nosed whales, a smaller specimen of which was 
captured in the Liffey in May 1905. 

In 1361 Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, third 
son of King- Edward iii., who had married Elizabeth, 
only child and heiress of William de Burgh, Earl of 
Ulster, to whom he had been affianced when three years 
of age, was sent as Viceroy to extend the English rule 
in Ireland: King Edward believing 'that our Irish 
dominions have been reduced to such utter devastation, 
ruin, and misery that they may be totally lost if our 
subjects there are not immediately succoured.'' He busied 
himself with various works, 'agreeable to him for sports 
and his other pleasures, as well within the Castle of 
Dublin as elsewhere."' By the Statute of Kilkenny he 
defined the English territory, afterwards known as the 
Pale, within which the King's writ ran, leaving the rest 
of the country to Irish laws and customs. This district 
varied in extent in ])roportion to the relative strength 
and cohesion of the native Irish and the English settlers, 
and of it Dublin was the acknowledged capital and 
centre. The Earldom of Ulster and the Lordships of 
Connaught, Meath, Leix, and Ossory, the great heritage 
of the de Burghs, which Lionel claimed in right of his 
wife, passed, by the marriage of his daughter and heiress, 
to her husband, Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March. In 
May 1380 Edmund de Mortimer, Earl of March and Ulster, 
and Marshal of England, arrived in Dublin as Viceroy 
while still a minor. He maintained considerable state, 
and the magnificence of the appointments of his table is 
particularly dwelt on by the chroniclers. On an expedi- 
iion into Munster in the following winter the Viceroy 
took cold from crossing a river, and died suddenly at 
midnight, on the 26th December, in the Dominican 
Abbey at Cork. 

In 1394< Richard ii., who had created his favourite 
Robert de Vere Earl of Oxford, Marquess of Dublin, and 
subsequently Duke of Ireland, conceived the idea of 
42 



stron<;tluMiiiif]j the power of the l'in<^H.sh colonists, ;ui(l, Aiif^lo- 
landinj:; at \Vateif'orcl, arrived with an army of 30,()()() Nonii.in 
men in Diihliii, where lie spent his Christmas, and on 1st Diihlin 
I''el)riiarv wrote to his uncle, the Duke of ^'o^k : — 

' In our land of Ireland there are three kinds of ])e()i)le 
— Wild Irish, our enemies; Irish rebels, and obedient 
Mniflish.'' In the second class we recoonise the Anglo- 
Norman barons, already Hiheiiiiores quavi Hihernw'i.s 
ip,s'is; the uld English as distinguished from the nezo 
English — the English h// blood from the English btj birth. 
In March Richard entertained some of the Irish chiefs 
with great splendour at Dublin, and conferred the order 
of knighthood on O'Neill, O'Connor, MacMurrough, and 
Olirien, apparently as representing the four provinces 
or kingdoms of Ireland. Their vigil was passed in 
Cliristchurch. Richard left behind him as Viceroy his 
cousin Roiier Mortimer, Earl of March and I Uster, Lord 
of \\^igmore. Trim, Clare, and Connaught, who was 
defeated and slain by the O'Briens, on 2()th July LS9S, 
at Kenlis, in the present Queen's County. ' The tray- 
torous death of Mortimer, whom he loved entirely, being 
wonderfull eag-er in hastenino- the revenge thereof ui)on 
the Irish,' ^ induced King Richard, in an evil hour for 
his own fortunes, again to visit Ireland, and he landed 
at Waterford on Sunday, 1st June 1899, almost simul- 
taneously with the landing of Henry of Lancaster at 
Ravens])ur, the news of which reached him in Dublin. 
It is a striking indication of the thriving state of the 
port of Dublin that it is recorded that, though 
Richard ii. occupied the city with an army of 30,()()0 
men for six weeks, yet there was no rise in the price of 
provisions. 

On the deposition and subsequent death of Richard ii., 

Henry iv. sent to Ireland, in 1402, his third son Thontas 

of Lancaster, Seneschal of England and Loid of Holder- 

nesse, afterwards Duke of Clarence, then twehe years of 

' Campion. 

43 



age, as Viceroy for a term of twenty-one years. He 
landed at Blowy k, now Bullock, near Dai key, bringing 
with him as his deputy Sir Stephen le Scrop or Scrope. 
The citizens of Dublin in the same year marched against 
the O'Byrnes under John Drake, their Major (i.e. Mayor) 
or Provost. Proceeding south along the coast they en- 
countered near Bray a force of 4000 of the O'Byrnes, 
whom they defeated with great slaughter, kilUng 500 of 
their number. In consequence, the king granted to the 
Mayor and his successors the privilege of having a gilt 
sword carried before them. 

In 1424 Edmund de Mortimer, the fourtli of his family 
who had held the office, landed as Viceroy, having a salary 
assigned to him of 5000 marks per annum. But Ireland 
proved as fatal to him as to his father and grandfather, 
as he died in Dublin of the plague in the following year. 
In 1449 Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, Lieutenant 
by letters-patent, landed at Howth, and nominally held 
the Viceroyalty for ten years. He had succeeded, 
through his mother Anne, daughter of Roger de Morti- 
mer, to the Earldom of Ulster and the other lordships of 
the de Burghs. He brought with him his wife, ' the Rose 
of Raby.' 'To this Richard then resciant in Divelin was 
borne within the Castle there," ^ on 21st October 1449, 
his sixth son George, the third who survived infancy, 
afterwards the ill-fated Duke of Clarence. By his firmness 
and tact the Duke of York made many friends among 
the great Anglo-Norman houses, and, on the triumph of 
the Lancastrians at Ludlow^, York with his second son, 
the Earl of Rutland, took refuge in Ireland. Here a 
compact with Gerald, seventh Earl of Kildare, chief of 
the eastern Geraldines, whom he had appointed his 
deputy, gave him the support of that powerful family ; 
their hereditary rival James Butler, fifth Earl of Ormonde, 
known as the 'White Earl,' supporting the Lancastrian 
cause. The latter fought on that side at St. Albans and 
^ Campion. 

44 



Wakefield, and after the defeat of the Lancastrians at Anglo- 
Towton (14'()1) was belieadcil at Newcastk', and the Norman 
English colony in Ireland became predominantly Yorkist. Dublin 

The accession of Henry vii. gave to the Geraldines an 
opportunity to exhibit Ireland as that ' home of lost 
causes' which she was to become in her relations to 
English royalty. In 1487 Gerald Fitzgerald, eighth 
Earl of Kildare, adopted the pretender Lambert Simnel, 
who had landed in Ireland, and who was joined there by 
the exile Lord Lovel, and by the Earl of Lincoln, 
nephew of Edward iv., and declared by Richard in. to 
be his heir. The Earl of Kildare, Lord Deputy, with 
' the lords of the council and other great men of (juality "" 
. . . ' in all haste assembled at Divelin' (Dublin), on 
Whitsunday, ^-ith May, 'and there in Christchurch they 
crowned this IdoU, honouring him with titles imperial), 
feasting and triumphing, rearing mighty shoutes and 
cryes, carrying him from thence to the King's Castle 
iij)on tall men's shoulders.'^ 

The crown used on this occasion is said to have been 
taken from the statue of the Virgin in the Church of 
Sainte Marie del Dam, and the ' tall man ' who carried 
the new-crowned king to the Castle was a huge Anglo- 
Irishman known as ' Great D'Arcy of Flatten. ' The 
pretender crossed to Lancashire with 2000 trained 
German mercenaries as well as the Irish troops of Kildare, 
but was utterly defeated at Stoke, and relegated to the 
royal kitchen as a scullion or turnspit. Undeterred by 
the fate of the pretender, Kildare and his kinsman, the 
Earl of Desmond, gave some support to Ferkin A\'arbeck, 
who landed at Cork in May l^J)^, which led to the 
temporary removal of the former from his post of Lord 
Deputy ; to which, however, he was soon after restored, 
it is said, for the whimsical reason that on his enemies 
complaining to tlie King that ' All Ireland could not 
rule this Earl,' the astute monarch replied, ' Then, in good 
* Campion. 

45 



faith, shall this Earl rule all Ireland/ Though the story 
be apocrvphal, yet the wisdom of the course adopted is 
unquestionable, for on Warbeck's again landing at Cork 
in 1497 he received neither shelter nor countenance. 

The constant rivalry between the Geraldines and 
Butlers led to continuai brawls in Dublin, from which 
even the churches were not always free, their precincts 
often resounding with the war-cries of ' Crom aboo' and 
' Botiller aboo' ; and in 1512 the Mayor of Dublin was 
forced to do public penance by walking barefooted 
through the city, in consequence of a riot in St. Patrick's 
Cathedral between the followers of the Earl of Ormonde 
and the citizens who guarded the Lord Deputy. In 1513 
died the Lord Deputy Gerald, eighth Earl of Kildare, 
known to Irish annalists as ' the Great Earl,' and was 
' intoomed in the new chappell builded by him in 1510, 
that standeth in the choir in Christchurch,'' 'a mighty 
made man, full of honour and courage.'^ He was 
succeeded alike in his title and office by Gerald the 
Younger, or Garrett Oge. 

During the early years of the reign of Henry viii. 
constant intriguing took place between the Geraldines 
of Kildare and the Irish branch of the Ormonde Butlers; 
Pierse Butler, afterwards Earl of Ormonde, for a short 
time holding the office of Lord Deputy. Kildare was 
ao-ain and again summoned to London to answer 
charges and even impeachment, and in 1530 Sir William 
Skevington, or Skeffington, was sent as joint-deputy with 
the Earl, but was recalled two years later. Soon after, 
Kildare was once more summoned to London and thrown 
into the Tower. He had left in Dublin as vice-dej)uty his 
son, not yet twenty-one years of age. This young nobleman, 
named by his Irish retainers ' Tomas-an-teeda,'' or Silken 
Thomas, either from the silken mantle worn by him, or 
from the silken streamers in the helmets of his followers, 
had a deadly enemy in John Allen, or Alan, Archbishop 

^ Campion. 
46 



of l)iil)liii, a s|)('c-i.il tViciul of ("aidiiinl Wolsey, wlioiii llu' i\iiglo- 
Depiitv, (iani'tt ()<!,•<-', had di-piivoil of tlie ( 'hanct'll()r.slii|). Norman 
IJv the niaehiiialioiis, it is said, of the Arclihisho|),a false Dublin 
luinoiir reached Lord Thomas that liis father had, by 
order of Ilenrv viii., been beheaded in the Tower of 
London on St. Swithin's lOve. The l*in<;lish officials with 
the Archbishops of Armat^h and Dublin were assend)led 
in council in St. iNIary's Ab})ey on St. Barnal)y''s Day, the 
11th June 1554, when the yount^ lord, surrounded by 
his armed followers, burst into the chamber, tore off' his 
robes of office atid showed himself in complete mail ; then, 
ffintijing the sword of state upon the council table, he 
renounced his allegiance to the Kn<Tlish monarch. To 
all ap|)earance, after nearly four centuries of don)ination, 
the Ku<^lish rule in Ireland had collapsed in a moment. 
Lord Thomas could have seized the Castle, but a quixotic 
scruple induced him first solennily to divest himself of 
his office aiid fealtv. On leaving- St. Mary's Abl)ey he 
found that the citizens had shut the gates against him, 
and he returned to Kilmainham to ])rovide for the gar- 
risoning of his castles in Kildare and Ofaly. lleinforced 
by some Irish chieftains he returned to beleaguer Dublin ; 
and, after a short siege, scarcity of provisions and water 
compelled a surrender of the city, though not including 
the Castle, which was strongly held by its Constable, John 
White. The Juiia/.s of the Four Jfd.sfcr.s inform us that 
'he took Dublin from Newgate outwards.' Meantime 
Archbishop Allen, knowing in what deadly peril he stood 
of the revenge of the Geraldines, determined on flight; 
'and being in shij) to dej)art towards Kngland,' '^ he was 
wrecked near llowth, and conveyed to Artane, where 
he was brought before Lord Thomas, and on a hasty 
connnand to ' take the clown away,"" was butchered by his 
retainers, or, as it is stated in a letter of the Prior of 
Kilmainham, was 'murdered in his sight and by his 
command.'' For this act he and certain of his followers 

' Campion. 

47 



were solemnly excommunicated in St. Patricks Cathedral. 
But Henry viii. was not a monarch to be thus trifled 
with. He at once despatched Sir William Skeffington, 
' \vhom the Irishmen call the Gunner, because hee was 
preferred from that office of the King's Master-gunner 
(i.e. Master of the Ordnance) to governe them.' ^ Landing 
in Dublin, he at once relieved the Castle, and, marching 
into Kildare, stormed the great Geraldine stronghold of 
Maynooth, hitherto supposed to be impregnable. This 
success was probably due to his battering train, of heavier 
metal than had yet been known i]i Ireland, but is commonly 
attributed to the treachery of its warden, Christopher 
Parris, or Ap Harris, a foster-brother of Lord Thomas, 
who stipulated for a reward of his treachery. In the words 
of Stanihurst, ' the Governor willed the money to be told to 
Parese, and presently caused him to be cut shorter by the 
head,' and twenty-six of the garrison to be iianged, giving 
occasion for the proverbial expression ' a pardon of 
Maynooth' for a summary execution. Lord Thomas's 
Irish allies fell away from him ; his castles, of which he 
had ' six of the chiefest ' in Ireland, one by one were 
taken ; and he and his five uncles were captured and 
brought as prisoners to London, where they were ' drawne, 
hanged, and quartered at Tiburne,'- and their heads set 
upon six spikes on London Bridge. The unfortunate 
Garrett Oge had died in the Tower on hearing the news 
of his son's rebellion and excommunication. 

Thus ended the rebellion of Silken Thomas, and with 
it the power of the Geraldines ; and from this date a new 
era in the history of their country may be said to 
commence. The English rule in Ireland had hitherto, 
save for spasmodic efforts, been merely nominal. The 
Anglo-Norman barons ruled from their strongiiolds their 
own immediate lordships. The maritime cities, mainly 
of Danish foundation, had developed some measure of 
corporate existence. But even for the citizens of Dublin 
' Campion. '" /6td. 

48 



tluTc was little security l)cv()n(l the citv walls. In 1327 Anglo- 
KiiiiT Donall MacMurrou^h j)lante(l his standard within Norman 
two miles of Dublin Castle. Twenty-two years later Sir Dublin 
Thomas de Ilokeby, Viceroy, entered into a pact with the 
septs of (VByrne, Archbold, and Harold, the last named 
undoubtedly a renniant of the Danish settU'i's, for the pro- 
tection of Dublin and its vicinity ; and also agreed with 
Aedh O'Toole to defend the Knglish borders about 
Tallaght, seven miles south-west of Dublin, with a force 
of twenty ' hobelers ' (light-armed horse) at fourpence 
each per day, and forty foot-soldiers at twopence; their 
leader to receive ten marks for himself, forty shillings 
for his brother Shane, twenty shillings for his n)aishal, 
and six shillings and eightpence for his chaplain, who 
was to explore and transmit intelligence to the Viceroy 
respecting projected hostile incursions. In 1374 the 
Government were obliged to send troops by sea to relieve 
the Castle of Wicklow, as they were unable to convey 
supplies by land. In I'iSfi the INIayor and connnonalty 
of Dublin received a grant to march with a body of 
men-at-arms and archers under the Viceroy, the Earl of 
Ormonde, to defend the frontiers of Louth. 

But the English power in Ireland had, in the reign 
of Henry vii., reached its lowest ebb. In 1515 the 
boundary of the English Pale was a line from Dundalk 
through Ardee and Kells, and so to Kilcock : thence to 
Naas, Kilcullen, and Ballymore Eustace; backward to 
Rathmore, and through Tallaght to Dalkey : i.e. por- 
tions oidy of the counties of Louth, Meath, Kildare, and 
Dublin ; a territory of some sixty miles by thirty. The 
policy of Henry had been to entrust the rule of the 
country alternately to the head of the Geraldines and of 
the Butlers. The most successful rebel thus became 
the Viceroy of the English king. ' What hadst thou 
been,' said Sir Gerard Shaneson to Silken Thomas, when 
endeavouring to incite him to rebellion, 'if thy father 
hail not done so.'' What was he set by until he crowned 
1) 49 



Dublin a king here' (alluding to liambert Simnel), 'took Garthe, 
the king's captain, prisoner; hanged his son; resisted 
Poynings and all Deputies; killed them of Dublin upon 
Oxmantown Green?" (in 1493). 

And life and property alike stood in equal jeopardy. 
In 14'41 James Cornewalshe, Chief Baron of the Ex- 
chequer, while at supper in his manor-house at Baggotrath, 
now immediately outside the east city boundary, was 
attacked and murdered by William Fitzwilliam of Dun- 
drum, at the head of a troop armed with swords, bows, 
lances, and clubs. A letter of a Mr. Dethyke, dated 
from Dublin 3rd September 1533, gives the following 
graphic picture of the condition of the city : — 

' . . . I assure your Mastership, all the butchers of 
Dublin hath no so such beaf to sell as would make one 
mess of browes ; so as they use white meat (foods made 
from milk) in Dublin, except it be in my Lord of Dublin's 
house, or such as have of their own provision. And 
cause thereof is, they be nightly robbed. There have 
been five or six preys taken out of St. Thomas, within 
this ten days, so that one butcher for his part hath lost 
220 kine. ... So as tiie poor butchers be remediless 
and have closed up their shops, and have taken to making 
of prekes (skewers), thinking there is a new Lent.'^ 

Evidently such a state of things could not be allowed 
to continue. England must either evacuate Ireland or 
decide on its conquest, and the latter course was adopted. 
The next stage in the history of Dublin finds that city 
the headquarters of a real, not a mythical, English rule. 
Her Viceroys are English captains, stern indeed, and 
often merciless; but slowly developing an order from 
the welter of bloodshed and rapine in which the land 
was plunged; enforcing an alien law, an alien faith, an alien 
tongue upon the native inhabitants, and filling the districts 
which they devastated with an alien population, kindling 
the flames, in fact, of that race hatred and creed bitterness 
^ Slate Papers, vol. ii. part 3, p. 181, 
50 




A BYE-WAY 



whose smoiililcriiig embers it has exercised all the genius 
of modern statesmajiship to endeavour to extintriiish. 

The eity, though it had grown in wealtli and in)port- 
anee, was still confined within narrow limits. The walls 
had been completed, and in the earliest published map 
of" Dublin — that of John Speed, 1610 — thev enclosed a 
district nortii of the Liff'ey, extending from Blackball 
Place east about as far north as Grangegorman, and from 
Henrietta Street along Capel Street on the west till it 
reached the Liffey between Upper and Lower (3rmond 
Quay. On the south of the Liffey the wall extended 
from liridgefoot Street to 'I'homas Street, along Thomas 
Street east to James's Gate, thence back to St. ('atherine''s 
Church, thence south to Tripoli, at the head of ]\I arrow- 
bone Lane, thence by Pimlico to the Coombe and by 
Long Lane, IJride Street, Kevin Street, and Mercer Street 
to South Great George's Street, and so back to the Liff'ey 
at foot of Essex Street. An extension west took in 
Trinity C'ollege, and on the opposite side of the Liffey 
a wall seems to have extended along Liff'ev Street to 
Henry Street. But little traces remain of the city walls. 

51 



Anglo- 
Norman 
Dublin 



Dublin T'he passage known as the ' Castle Steps/ leading from 
Castle Street into Little Ship Street, passes under St. 
Austin's Gate; hut the present archway is of modern 
construction, and tlie continuation of the wall which 
faced Hoey's Court was cased with limestone in 1856. 
Behind the houses in Back Lane, leading from Nicholas 
Street to Coriiinarket, portions of the old wall still exist ; 
and the curved wall of a house in Lamb Alley, at the 
rear of No. 23 Cornmarket, was once part of one of the 
outer towers of New Gate, used as a prison from the 
latter end of the fifteenth century up to 1794, when it 
was abandoned on the building of the present sherifTs 
prison in Green Street. At the ojiposite side of Corn- 
market stood Gormond's, now Wormwood Gate. But 
the most interesting relic of the ancient fortifications is 
to be found in St. Audoen's Arch, situated at a distance 
of fifty-one feet from the northern wall of the church of 
the same name, and forming part of the inner wall built 
by the citizens to repel Edward Bruce, and which ex- 
tended from that gate, north of St. Audoen's churchyard, 
to a building called Pagan's Castle in Page's Court, where 
there was another portal, and thence to New Gate. It 
measures twenty-six feet from the ground to the crown 
of the arch ; it is fifteen feet wide on the inside, and 
twenty feet deep. On the western side of the passage 
is a built-up doorway, possibly the remains of a postern. 
The Arch was formerly surmounted by a tower, men- 
tioned by Pembridge in the fourteenth century, and in 
which the Corporation of Tanners kept their hall until 
about 1760. In 1764 it became the printing office of 
The Freemans Journal newspaper, of which the first 
number had appeared on Saturday, 10th September 1763. 
The issue of 11th September 1764 contains the announce- 
ment — ' Printed by order of the Committee at their own 
Printing Office over St. Audoen's Arch, near Cook Street.' 
The Church of S. Audoen, the last surviving of the 
many mediaeval parochial churches of Dublin, was of 
52 



early Norman foundation, and was dedicated to tlie great Anglo- 
patron saint of the Noinians, Audoen or Ouen, IJi.sliop Norman 
of liouen in C40. In 1J219 Archbishop Ilinr}' de Dublin 
Loundres conferred the Jicia church of St. Audoen on 
the Treasurer of St. Patrick's. It formerly consisted of 
a group of separate gild chapels, and seems to have 
formed a kind of centre for the Dublin city gilds, as 
we find at the close of the eighteenth century in its 
inunediate neighbourhood the halls of the Smiths or 
Gild of St. Loy, the ]}akers or Gild of St. Anne, the 
Butchers or Gild of the Virgin Mary, the Feltmakers, 
and the Bricklayers or Gild of St. Bartholomew. The 
original plan of the church seems to have consisted of a 
nave and continuous chancel, with a quadrangular tower 
at its western end. In 1431 a chantry was erected 'in 
praise of God and of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and in 
honour of St. Anne.' This chapel forms a kind of side 
aisle, to the south of the nave, by the name of St. Anne's 
('ha])el. Some twenty years later a second chapel, form- 
ing a continuation of that of St. Anne, was added by 
Sir Roland Fitz-Eustace, Baron of Portlester (ob. 1455), 
Lord Deputy under the Viceroyalty of George, Duke 
of Clarence. The altar- tomb of the founder w'as re- 
moved, and now- occupies a place in the porch under 
the tower. It bears the recundxnt figures of lloland 
Fit/Eustace and of his wife, the daughter of Jenico 
d'Artois. The remains of the cha})el have been com- 
mitted to the custody of the Board of Works, under 
the Ancient Monuments Protection Act. St. Aiidoen's 
when complete ' exhibited a stvle of ])lan not very 
common — that of a double-aisled church eight bays in 
length, without distinctive chancel, and the side aisle 
nearly equal in breadth to the nave.'^ In its present 
state the church consists of the nave of the ancient 
building, which oj)ene(l into the chapel of St. Anne on 
the south by an arcade of six octagonal columns, support- 
^ Sir Thomas Drew. 

53 




THE PORTLESTER CHAPEL 



ing pointed arches. In the western gable is a beautiful 
twelfth-century Transition doorway, with deeply grooved 
semicircular arch mouldings, and capitals and bases of 
Early Pointed architecture. 

In addition to the Church of St. Audocn, those of St. 
Andrew, St. Martin, and St. Michael le Pole, or of the 
Pool, in Ship Street, stood amid trees and gardens along 
the banks of the Poddle stream. The remains of the 
last mentioned were converted into a schoolhouse in the 
reign of Queen Anne, which is now the Widows'* Alms- 
house of St. Bride"'s Parish. 
54 



On the north side of the Liff'ey, between Capel Street Anglo- 
and U])j)er Arran Street, are still to be found some traces Norman 
of the Abbey of St. Mary, the building in which the Dublin 
Council of State were assemblctl when 'Silken Tliomas"" 
renounced his allegiance to the English king. The 
origin of the Abbey is veiled in uncertainty : Irish 
annalists refer it to (71<^oli-echl<^ni^, or Malachy i., who 
reigned from 84() to 8()2. Archdall, with more ])lausi- 
bilitv, assigns to it a Danish foundation in O^S. It is 
certain that it numbered at least one ' Ostman "■ amongst 
its abbots. Possibly the Danes, as the Anglo-Normans 
in the founding of St. Patrick's, may have availed them- 
selves of an earlier Irish dedication. It was transferred 
from the Benedictine to the Cistercian order in 1139. In 
1238 Felix O'Ruadan, Archbishop of Tuam, and uncle to 
King Roderick O'Connor, retired to this monastery, and 
was buried in the chancel of the church on the left of the 
altar. In the course of excavations at the beginning of 
the eighteenth century a coffin, containing the body of a 
prelate in full pontificals, was exhumed, and, by the 
advice of Archbishop King, redeposited in the ]dace 
where it had been found. On the 2Tth May 1304 St. 
Mary's Abbey, with its church and steeple, was destroyed, 
as we have seen, by fire (p. 39). At the dissolution of 
the monasteries, under Henry viii., St. Mary's Abbey 
was surrendered to him ; and in the reign of Charles ii. 
Humphrev Jervis, I^ord Mayor of Dublin, emploved a 
|)ortion of the binlding to provide materials for the 
erection of Essex Bridge, which fell into the river, ten 
years later, while a coach and horses were passing over it, 
and the coachman was drowned. A life-size statue of the 
Virgin and Child in Irish oak, once an oinament of 
the Abbey, is still preserved in the Church of the Car- 
melites in Whitefriar Street, where it stands on a side 
altar at the e})istle side of the high altar. But little now 
remains of the original buildings of the Abbev, but the 
Chapter-house, dating from the rebuilding after the fire, 

55 



is still ill good preservation, abutting on Meetinghouse 
Lane, on tiie right of Mary's Abbey from Capel Street. 
It extends east and west, and measures 47 feet by 23 feet 
3 inches. The compass-roof forms a barrel arch, resting on 
finely moulded groinings, divided into four compartments 
by })arallel arches supported by columns. In the east 
wall may be traced three lancet-shaped windows, splayed 
inwards ; one of which, a fine example of the earliest 
lancet style, is still in good preservation. The building 
is disfigured by having been divided into two storeys by 
a modern floor — the upper, 10 feet in height, being used 
as a store, and the lower as a cellar. A fragment of the 
south wall of the Abbey church is still to be seen at the 
rear of the houses in South Arran Street. Some interesting 
tiles and pottery were unearthed during excavations made 
in 1886. 

But the chief memento of the Anglo-Norman period 
is undoubtedly the Cathedral Church of St. Patrick, since 
1872 the National Cathedral, having a common relation 
to all the Dioceses of the Church of Ireland. Founded, 
as w^e have seen, in 1190 by Archbishop John Comyn, 
and erected into a cathedral twenty-three years later by 
his successor in the see, Henry the Londoner, it has since 
had a chequered existence, until the munificence of a 
private citizen in 1865 renewed the dilapidated fabric, to 
which his family have since added all that was necessary 
to its complete restoration. In 1316 the spire was blown 
down in a violent tempest, and in the same year part 
of the building was destroyed by fire by the citizens on 
the approach of Edward Bruce. In 1362 the north-west 
end of the nave was burned down through the carelessness 
of John the Sexton. This damage was repaired by Arch- 
bishop Minot, by whom 'sixty straggling and idle fellows 
were taken up, and obliged to assist in repairing the 
church and building the steeple, who, when the work was 
over, returned to their old trade of begging and were 
banished out of the diocese by Archbishop de Wikeford.'' 
56 




Anglo- 
Norman 
Dublin 



MODERN SEDILIA, ST. PATRICKS CATHEDRAL 

To Arclibishop Minofs exertions is also due the erection 
of the <i;reat tower, strantrely out of S(juare with the 
church, 147 feet in iieight from the floor of the nave to 
the battlements, with walls of Irish limestone 10 feet 
thick, and said to be unsurpassed as 'a belfrv in the 
United Kini^dom." ^ l)urin<^ the confiscations of lienrv 
viii. the I'alace of St. Sepulchre, now a police barrack, 
was friven as a residence to the Lord Deputy, the Arch- 
bishop receiving the Deanery in exchange.- In 1544 we 
learn that the great stone roof had fallen in at its western 
end, and in 1633 the Lady Chapel was in ruins. The 
north transept, used from the fourteenth centurv as the 
jmrish church of St. Nicholas \V' ithout, fell into ruins in 
1784, but was rebuilt about 1822; and in 1792 the south 

^ Dean Bernard's S/. Palrick^s. 

- The Palace was purchased by (lovernment for ^^7000, deposited in 
the Hank of Ireland to an account for tlie fund for providing a see-house 
for the Archbishop of Dublin. 

57 




KEVIN STREET POLICE BARRACKS 



wall and the roof of the nave were found to be in a 
perilous position, the wall being two feet out of the per- 
pendicular. The first strenuous effort to preserve the 
structure was made by Dean Pakenhani, 1845-52, who 
restored the choir and the Lady Chapel, and effected 
many necessary repairs. But it was not till 1864 that 
anything like a complete restoration was even attempted. 
In that year Sir Benjamin Lee Guinness undertook, at his 
own proper cost, the renewal, within and without, of the 
dilapidated building, and the work was executed by 1865 
at a total expense of dP150,000. He took down and re- 
erected five bays of the south aisle and the bays of the 
original triforium in the nave, rebuilt the south wall of 
Irish granite, restored the clerestory throughout and the 
south front of the south transept. The north transept 
was rebuilt, the roof of the nave restored, and the porch 
added at the south-west corner. 

Entering the south-west porch and descending the 
flight of steps to the south-\vest door the visitor is at once 
struck by the noble proportions of the Cathedral, which 
58 



is the largest cluirch in Ireland. 'The ground plan as a Anglo- 
study on paper is of singular beauty of jjroportion and Norman 
perfect svnnnetrv, of which there is no similar example Dublin 
in England. It reveals itself as the design of a mathe- 
matical mind which arrived at the proportions of a Latin 
cross by the placing together a number of al)sohitely 
unifonn e(]uilateral triangles, which are found to agree in 
indicating the widths and proportions of every main 
feature. The choir, nave, and transe})ts in plan present a 
])erfect cross. The aisles of the nave and transe})ts and 
choir which surround this, extended on the same accurate 
system of triangulation, present another proportion of a 
Latin cross of no less beauty, the repeated dimension of 
16 feet being evident as a factor in the proportion of 
every feature of its plan.'^ The external length from 
east to west is 300 feet, the nave, exclusive of the aisles, 
measuring 132 feet 6 inches by 30 feet ; the external 
breadth across the transepts is 156 feet, and the height 
from floor to roof in the nave and choir is 56 feet 3 inches. 
On the left of the south-west door is the Baptistery, 
j)robably the oldest part of the building, as evidenced by 
the vaulting, and containing the old stone font which 
once shared with Strongbow's monument in Christchurch 
the notoriety of being commonly mentioned in deeds as 
the place where payment of sums of money due should 
be tendered. In a glass case are exhibited some of the 
ancient charters and seals, and some autographs of the 
famous Dean Swift. Proceeding up the south aisle we 
pass the robing-rooin, on the right of the door of which 
is the epitaph to ' Stella,' above the door the more famous 
epitaph composed by Swift for himself, and on the left a 
fine bust in Carrara' marble of the great Dean. Further 
on in the south wall is the historical tablet of the Deans 
of St. Patrick. Turning into the south transept we find, 
on a curious stone corbel in the west wall, a massive 

' Sir Thomas Drew. 

59 



fourteenth-century statue, believed to be that of St. 
Patrick, and possibly that referred to in the will of Dean 
Alleyne (1514), which directed that he should be buried 
'ante pedes vmaginis S. Patricii, qune stat in navi/ On 
the south wall are Archbishop Smyth's monument (1771) 
by Smyth, with handsome pillars of Sienna marble, 
and that of Viscountess Doneraile (1761), in front of 
which is the handsome recumbent figure of Archbishop 
Whateley (1863). East of the south transept is the 
Chapel of St. Paul, in which is preserved the door of the 
ancient Chapter- house exhibiting an interesting memorial 
of the riot of 1492 between the followers of Lord Oi-monde 
and those of the Deputy. The latter ' pursuing Ormonde 
to the chapiter-house doore undertooke on his honor that 
he should receive no villanie, whereupon the recluse crav- 
ing his ]ordship^s hand to assure him his life, there was a 
clift in the chapiter-house doore, pearsed at a trice, to 
the end botii the carles should have shaken hands and be 
reconciled ; but Ormonde surmising that this drift was 
intended for some further treacherie, that if he would 
stretch out his hand it had been percase chopt off, refused 
that proffer ; until Kildare stretcht in his hand to him, 
and so the doore was opened, they both im braced, the 
storme appeased, and all their quarrels, for that present, 
rather discontinued than ended.' ^ 

In the south wall of this chapel is the monument of 
Archbishop Marsh {oh. 1713), which originally stood in 
the churchyard. To the right of the choir in the south 
wall are some interesting tablets and brasses, notably 
those of Dean Sutton [oh. 1528), Dean Fyche {oh. 1537), 
and of Sir Edward Ffitton, President of Thomond under 
Queen Elizabeth, and his wife, whose fifteen children 
are represented kneeling behind their parents. Passing 
up the south choir aisle the Chapel of St, Stephen is 
entered, in which is the well-preserved recumbent effigy 
of Archbishop Tregury {oh. 1471), bearing, impaled witli 
1 Stanihurst. 

6o 



the arms of tlie See of Dublin, three f'ornisli tlioiighs, Anj^lo- 

tesLifying to the accuracy of the proverl) : — Norinaii 

c ij i> 1 'p 1 i> DubHn 

liy 1 olj 1 re, and leii, 

You may know the Cornisli men.' 

The beautiful Lady ('hapel ' with its lateral chapels 
of St. Stephen on the south, and of forgotten dedica- 
tion ' (probably of St. l*eter and the Aj)ostles) ' on the 
north side, are a rebuilding from nearly Hoor-level in 
184<(j, a scholarly, true, and careful reproduction from 
well-marked evidence of the chapels of Fulk de Saund- 
ford of 1260.'^ The design, it has been conjectured, 
mav have been modelled on that of the Chapter-house 
of Salisbury Cathedral. From a letter of Richard 
Hoyle, Earl of Cork, of 1633, we learn that the Lady 
Chapel was then in ruins, and that the arch at the east 
end of the choir had been filled up by a lath and plaster 
partition. Thirty years later it was assigned as a church 
to the French Protestant refugees, conditionally on their 
conforming to the rites and discipline of the Church 
of Ireland. The opening service was attended by the 
Lord-Lieutenant, the Uuke of Ormonde, and the French 
pastor, M. Hierosme, chaplain to the Duke, read the 
pravers and ])reached the sermon. The chapel of St. 
Stej)hen was used by this congregation as a vestry-room. 
The restoration of the Lady Cha))el was taken in hand 
by Dean Fakenham, but unfortunately soft Caen stone 
was used, which necessitated further extensive repairs 
executed at the cost of Lord Iveagh in J90L 'The 
roof is su])ported on slender piers consisting of four 
detached Furbeck marble shafts clustered round a core 
of Caen stone.' ' The arcade which now surrounds the 
walls of the Lady Chapel was the gift of Sir J. G. 
Nutting in 1892. One of the two old high-backed 
chairs which stand outside the altar rails was used by 
King William iii. when he attended service here after 
' Sir Thomas Drew. - Uean Bernard's S/. Patritk's. 

6i 



the Battle of the Boyne. The remarkable oaken chest 
was constructed of wood from the beams of Archbishop 
Minot's tower, and its materials have thus been in use 
for a period of nearly five centuries and a half. 

Ahnost the entire north choir aisle is ancient work 
restored, including some uninjured thirteenth-century 
shafts, some missing capitals only being of modern work- 
manship. This aisle contains the defaced effigy of Arch- 
bishop Fulk de Saundford {ob. 1271), and opposite to it 
is the grave of the Duke of Schomberg, killed at the 
crossing of the Boyne. The latter was marked by the 
slab, erected in memory of the Duke by Dean Swift, 
bearing the caustic inscription : — 

' Plus potuit fama virtutis apud alieuos 
Quam sanguinis proximatas apud suos,' 

in allusion to the refusal of his relatives to contribute 
to the cost of a fitting memorial. Passing round the 
stone pulpit, erected by Sir Benjamin Guinness in 
memory of Dean Pakenham, we enter the choir, hung 
with the banners of the Knights of St. Patrick, whose 
escutcheons are emblazoned on the stalls. The Dean, 
Precentor, Chancellor, and Treasurer have their stalls 
at the four corners, the Dean's ' Stall of Honour ' being 
at the south-west. Above the two former is King 
John''s badge of the star between the horns of a crescent 
(see p. 38). The head of that monarch is carved as 
the south terminal of the arch at the east end of the 
choir. At the south-east end is the Loftus vault, above 
which hang the spurs of Lord Lisburn, killed at the 
siege of Limerick, and the cannon-ball which caused his 
death. ' The arches of the choir are narrower than 
those of the nave, and the mouldings are richer. The 
piers are octagonal as in the nave, and between the 
shafts a roll moulding is continued to the ground. 
The noble groined roof of stone, with its great bosses 
representing the four evangelic symbols, follow strictly 
62 



Llie lines of the ancient wall ribs wliicli survived in Anglo- 
19(H); antl the oracef'iil Marly Kiifjlish arches at the Norman 
tritbriuni and clerestory levels are of beautiful design. Dublin 
The rich mouldings of the triforiuni openings rest on 
detached shafts of Irish limestone, two on each side, 
with foliaged caj)itals ; the central shaft is also of 
limestone. The triforium is returned across the east 
end, over a dignified arch, opening into the Lady 
Chapel. The aumbrey recesses at either side of the 
sacrarium are an interesting feature. The absence of 
a re red OS impoverishes the general appearance of the 
choir, but there is some compensation in the uninter- 
rupted view of the l^ady Chapel, which can be had 
from the nave.' ^ The mosaic pavement, the steps of 
black Kilkenny marble, and the oaken sedilia and screens 
are the gift of Lord Iveagh. 

Returning to the north transept — the beautiful spiral 
staircase, designed in 1901 by Sir Thomas Divw from a 
similar one in the Cathedral of Mayence, leads to the 
new organ-chamber, pronounced by the builder of the 
new organ, Mr. Henry AVillis, to be 'an ideal position 
for an organ.*' The construction of this chamber at a 
cost of i,'ll,000, defrayed by Lord Iveagh, rentlered 
possible the restoration to the church of the beautiful 
chapel of St. Peter and the Apostles, 'for centuries 
built off and unknown, and since 1864 occupied by 
the organ. The masonry walls which closed its east 
and west ends have been removed, and the whole 
beautifully groined arch of five bavs, terminating in a 
triplet window to the east lately fitted with a fine 
memorial window, constitutes in itself a gem of 
thirteenth - century architecture, such as few would 
believe remained to be discovered in any part of the 
kingdom.''^ 

In the eastern corner of the transept is the seven- 
teenth-century monument of Dame Alary Sentleger, 

' Dean Bernard's 67, Pairick^s. - Sir 'I'homas Drew. 

63 



wife of Sir Anthony Sentleger, ' Knyglit, Mr. of ye 
KoUs,' her fourth husband, whom she predeceased at 
the age of tliirty-seven. There are also some military 
memorials, notably a representation, by Farrell, of the 
storming of the Shoe Dagon Pagoda, Rangoon, 14th April 
1832. The north aisle is peculiarly rich in monuments, the 
principal being those of Lord Chief-Justice Whiteside 
{oh. 1876), Lord Buckingham, Viceroy in 1783, when the 
Order of St. Patrick was founded. Dean Dawson {oh. 
1840), and Archbishop Jones {oh. 1619), Of more 
than common interest are the bust of John Philpot 
Curran, close to the entrance to the tower ; the slab to 
Samuel Lover, the Irish song-writer {oh. 1868), close 
to the monument of Archbishop Jones ; and the bas- 
relief to Turlough Carolan, last of the Irish bards {oh. 
1738), which is in the wall of the north aisle at the corner 
of the north transept. In the north-west corner is the 
granite stone, bearing two ancient Celtic incised crosses, 
found during the excavations in 1901 consequent on the 
main drainage works, in the precise jjosition marked by 
Sir Thomas Drew in 1890, on his map of the precincts, 
as the spot where any trace of St. Patrick's ' famous 
and sacrosanct well ' might be looked for ; and of which 
he later warned ' antiquaries of reverend instinct, and 
ecclesiologists ... of a coming chance of recovery." ^ 
The well itself has disappeared, probably owing to a 
diversion of the Poddle stream by an arched culvert 
of the time of Charles ii. There is little reason to 
doubt that this inscribed stone originally stood over 
St. Patrick's Well, and dates, from the ninth or tenth 
century. Close to the west window stands the old 
wooden eighteenth-century pulpit from which Dean 
Swift preached. In the west end of the nave, adjoin- 
ing the north wall of the Baptistery, is ' the very 
famous, sumptuous, glorious tombe,' of black marble 
and alabaster, of Richard Boyle, first Earl of Cork, 
1 Jour7ial R. S.A.I, for 1899. 
64 



the removal of wliieh, in l();i4, from its former position Aiiglo- 
in the east wall of the choir by Tliomas Went- Norman 
worth, Earl of Strafford, was never forgiven ])y the Dublin 
Hoyies, whose enmity contributed to procure his execu- 
tion. Amoii<^st the kneeling figures of the children 
on the monument is that of the celebrated Robert 
Boyle, 'the father of Pneumatic Philosophy, and the 
brother of the Earl of Cork.' Opposite to this structure 
at the west end of the north aisle is an unpretending 
monument to Captain John M'Neill Boyd, K.N., of 
H.M.S. Ajna\ who lost his life on the 9th February 
1861, ofF the rocks at Kingstown, in attempting to 
rescue the shipwrecked crew of the brig Neptune. 

Tlie windows, though modern, are worthy of notice. 
The three-light Early English west window, by Wailes 
of Newcastle, representing scenes in the life of St. Patrick, 
replaced during the Guinness rebuilding the seventeenth- 
centiu-y Perpendicular window restored by Dean Dawson 
in 1830. The east window, by the same artist, is in 
memory of Dean Pakenham {oh. 18()8), the first of the 
modern benefactors of the Catliedral. The (juintuplet 
of windows over the east arch represents the three Irish 
patron saints, SS. I'atrick, Columba, and Brigid. The 
window at the west end of the north aisle, representing 
the martyrdom of St. Stej)hen, is a memorial to the Earl 
of Mayo, Viceroy of India, assassinated in the Andaman 
Islands in 187Ji. In the east wall of the north transept 
the memorial window to the 18th Royal Irish who fell 
at the siege of Sevastopol is being replaced (1907) by 
a more worthy tribute to that regiment, Royal Irish 
Fusiliers, including a noble Celtic cross, nine feet high, 
in white marble, conunemorative of the South African 
campaign, gr()U])ed with those of Burmah and China. 
The three-light ('rucifixion window in the east wall of 
the north choir aisle is in memory of Dean Jellett 
{oh. 1902). In the same aisle is preserved a sacristan''s 
chest of great antiquity. 

E 65 



Dublin The organ, the gift of Lord Iveagli, built in 1902 by 

H. Willis of London at a cost of nearly 1^6000, is one 
of the finest in the United Kingdom. Some of the old 
bells, preserved in the parvise chamber of the tower, 
were recast in 1670 by William, Roger, and John Purdue 
of Salisbury, and rang a peal on the 25th October 1798 
in honour of Nelson's victory of the Nile, fought on 
August 1st, the news having taken that time to reach 
Dublin. The present peal often bells was presented by 
Lord Iveagh in 1897. 

The precincts present many features of interest to the 
antiquary who may undertake the task of tracing and 
defining the situation of the ancient ' Liberties of 
St. Patrick." The ancient Liberty of St. Sepulchre was 
independent of the Lord Mayor and Corporation up to 
1840, and extended from Miltown to St. Stephen's Green 
south. The district to the north, once portion of the 
' Dean's Liberty,' and covered, prior to 1903, with squalid 
and ruinous dwellings, has been acquired by Lord Iveagh, 
and laid out by him as a public garden for the poor of this 
ci'owded neighbourhood. The library of St. Sepulchre, 
known from its founder (1707), Archbishop Narcissus 
Marsh, as ' Marsh's Library,' which lies east of the 
Cathedral, with an entrance in Guinness Street, contains 
an interesting collection of 20,000 volumes and about 
200 manuscripts. 




66 







TEKKACE, ROYAL HOSPITAL, KILMAIXHAM 



CHAPTER III 



DUBLIN UXDEU THE TIDOKS AND STUAUTS 



T N June 1541 a 
1 notable • Irish 
Parliament met in 
Dublin, in which the 
Ansrlo-Norman lords, 
such as the Earl of 
Desmond, Lord Fitz- 
maurice,a descendant 
of Raymond le Gros. 
and liord Bermin^- 
ham, sat in council 
with the Irish heredi- 
tary chieftains of the 
Kavanaghs,0'Rcillys, 
and O'Mores, and 
MacGillapatrick with 
his brand - new title 
of liaron of Upper 
Ossorv. The Lord 
Deputy, Sir Anthony Sentle<j;er, 'caused an Act to pass 
which gave unto Kiufj; Henry viii., his heirs and succes- 
sors, the name, style, and title, already su<jgested by 
Lord Cliancellor Allen in 1537, of King of Ireland, 
whereas before that time the Kings of England were 
styled but lords of Ireland/ The proclamation of this 

69 




WARUKOHE TOWER 



new title, together with a general pardon, was received 
with great rejoicings in Dublin, and on the following 
Sunday the lords and gentlemen of Parliament went in 
procession to St. Patrick's Cathedral, where solemn Mass 
was sung by Archbishop Browne and the Te Deum 
chanted. ' There were made in the city,' writes Sentk-ger 
to the King, ' great bonfires, wine set in the streets, great 
feasting in their houses, with a goodly firing of guns,' 
Thus was ushered in the new era of English rule in Ire- 
land, which was productive indeed of many burnings and 
much firing of guns, but scarcely of feastings and 
rejoicings. The pacification of the Pale, however, went 
on apace. Two years previously the northern Irish had 
led a •plundering expedition as far south as Tara, in 
Meath, and Lord Grey ' made a complete muster of all 
the English in Ireland, the forces of the great towns of 
Meath . . . and all the fleets in the adjacent harbours,' 
to oppose them ; whereupon ' O'Neall and O'donill 
colourably required a parley with the Deputy, but in the 
way as they rode they burned the Navan and the towne 
of Ardee. Wherefore the Deputy, with the helpe of the 
Maior of Divelin, lames Fitz Symonds, and the Maior of 
Droghedagh, and the English pale, met them, flighted 
them, slew four hundred of their trayne, and there the 
Maior of Divelin, for notable service in that journey, 
was knighted.' This aftair took place at Bellabroa, or 
Belahoe (Irish Bel-aiha-hoa), a ford near the old bridge 
of Belahoe, four and a half miles south of Carrickmacross, 
on the boundary of Meath and Monaghan. The O'Tooles 
too seemed desirous of alliance with the men of Dublin. 
In 1546 one of that sept was sheriff" of Dublin County, 
and when in the following year the Geraldines, headed 
by two nephews of the late Earl, made insurrection with 
the O'Byrnes, Sentleger, with the aid of the O'Tooles, 
defeated them at Three Castles, near Blessington. 
About this time the Lord Deputy 'erected a Mint within 
the Castle of Divelin, which,' we are quaintly told, 
70 



'quickly wearyed them for want of fucll/ ^ The Dublin Dublin 
citizens, meanwhile, continued to give proof of their under 
ability to protect their own neighbourhood. Sentleger the 
had been recalled more than once during the changes Tudors 
which marked the reigns of Kdward vi. and Mary, and and 
we read that ' while the De}Kity staggered uncertaine of Stuarts 
continuance, the Tooles and the Cavenaghes waxed 
cockish in the Countis of Divelin, rangeing in flockes of 
seven or eight score, on whom set forth the ^Marshall and 
the Sheriffes of Divelin, Buckley and Gygen, with the 
cittie's lieljK', and overlayde them in sudden skirmishes, 
of which three score were executed for example."' These 
marauders seem to have been Kavanaghs, and, being 
hennned into Powerscourt Castle, were forced to sur- 
render, and seventv-four of their number were hanged in 
Dublin. Again, when in 15(i6 Shane (TNeill laid siege 
to Dundalk, ' Master Sarsfield, then Major of Divelin, 
with a chosen band of goodly young men Citizens brake 
the rage of the enemies,'' and compelled O'Neill to raise 
the siege. For this exploit Sarsfield was, on his return, 
knighted bv the Deputy. 

In 155() Sir Thomas Radcliff'e, Viscount Fitzwalter. 
eldest son of the second Earl of Sussex, to which title he 
soon after succeeded, landed at Dublin on Whitsunday, 
24th May. Next day he visited Sentleger at Kilmainham, 
and the following day received the sword of state 'on 
the left hand of the altar' in Christchurch. ' That done, 
the trumj)ets sounded and drums beat, and then the 
Lord Deputy kneeled down before the altar until Te 
Dcum was ended.' He summoned a Parliament in the 
following year, which made shire land of the districts of 
Leix, Slievemargy, Tregan, Glemiialier, and Off'aly, and 
' did by Act of Parlian/ent, 3rd and 4th Philip and Mary, 
reduce those countries into two several counties, naming 
the one the King's and the other the Queen's County'; 
tiieir respective chief towns of Philipstown and Mary- 
* Campion. 

71 




SIR HENKY SIDNEY RIDING OUT OF DUBLIN CASTLE 



borough serving' as a record of what monarchs were 
commemorated in their names. His commission as 
Viceroy was renewed on the accession of Queen EHzabeth, 
with the title of Lieutenant-General instead of that of 
Lord Deputy. 

He landed at or near Dalkey, and next day rode into 
Dublin, outside which he was received on St. Stephen's 
Green by the Mayor and Aldermen. The sword of state 
was twice entrusted, in his absence, to his brother-in-law, 
Sir Henry Sidney, called in the Annals of the Four 
72 



Ma.s'tcn- ' Hi^ Ileiiry of the Bcor."' Sidney was appointed Dublin 
Lord Deputy in October 1565, and in January he landed under 
and was received in Dublin with <i;reat ceremony by the the 
Lord Justice, the Mayor and Corporation, and the people Tudors 
' in great troops came and saluted iiim, clapping and and 
shouting with all the joy they could devise.''^ He was Stuarts 
followed in spring bv troops from Bristol and from 
Berwick, and by Edward Uandolj)h, an experienced 
captain, with one thousand foot. He caused the old 
ruinous Castle of Dublin to be re-edified, and on the 
death of Shane O'Neill caused his head to be fixed on a 
pole and set on the highest tower. He seems to iiave 
been anxious to provide for a reliable record of the pro- 
ceedings of the Irish Parliament, and issued a licence, 
dated Castle of Dublin, 20th March 1568, to Joiin 
Hooker in the following terms : — 

' Whereas divers Parliaments have been holden within 
L-eland, and divers laws, statutes, and acts made in the 
same, which laws being hitherto never put in print have 
been altogether turned into oblivion . . . and forasmuch 
as John Vowell alius Hoker, Gent., being one of the said 
assembly has offered at his own charges to imprint all 
the said statutes and acts heretofore made, we grant him 
the sole privilege and licence to imprint the same for ten 
years next ensuing."' - Sidney seems also to have been 
ifar-seeing enough to recognise how best to introduce 
manufactures, for he caused 'above forty families of the 
reformed churches of the Low Countries' to settle in the 
ruined town of Swords in the north of the County Dublin. 
In 1575 a ])lague raged in Dublin and in many towns of 
the Pale, including Naas, Ardee, Mullingar, and Athboy. 
' Between these places many a castle was left without 
a guard, many a flock without a shepherd, and many 
a noble corpse without burial.'^ Grass grew in the 
streets of Dublin, and the citizens fled to Drogheda, 

' Staniliurst. - Carew MSS., vol. i. p. 387. 

" Annals of the Four Masters. 

73 



where the Lord Deputy also kept liis court, finding ' the 
infection of the plague so generallie dispersed, and especi- 
allie in the English pale, that he could hardlie find a 
place where to settle himselfe without danger of infec- 
tion/ ^ 

On Friday, 12th August 1580, Arthur Grey, fourteenth 
Lord Grey de Wilton, landed at Howth as Lord Deputy, 
bringing with him as his secretary the poet Edmund 
Spenser ; and next day received the sword of state in 
St. Patrick's Cathedral. He found the Pale ' sore vexed 
through the undutifulness of Viscount Baltinglas and his 
associates,' Pheagh M'Hugh O'Byrne of Glendalough and 
one of the Kildare Fitzgeralds. With an impetuosity 
born of ignorance of the conditions of Irish warfare, he 
determined to attack the insurgents in their fastnesses, 
and marched into the district known as the 'glynnes' of 
VVicklow, about twenty-five miles from Dublin. Here his 
forces were attacked in the Pass of Glenmalure, called by 
Spenser Glan-malor, 'a vallie or combe, lieng in the middle 
of the wood, of a great length, between two hils, and no 
other waie is there to passe through. Underfoot it is 
boggie and soft, and full of great stones and slipperie 
rocks, verie hard and evill to passe through : the sides 
are full of great and mightie trees upon the sides of the 
hils, and full of bushments and underwoods.""^ So is it 
described by John Hooker (p. 73), possibly an eye- 
witness of tiie events of ' the black day,' as he terms it ; 
and the description would even now be fairly accurate. 
Caught, like the English forces in the Khyber Pass, in 
this natural trap, mowed down by a heavy fire from the 
surrounding underwood, the troops hastily took to flight, 
and were slaughtered by the pikes of the Irish as they 
struggled over the broken ground ; Sir Peter Carew and 
othe"!- captains being slain in the action. Lord Grey de 
Wilton returned to Dublin, only to discover soon after a 
dangerous conspiracy to seize the Lord Deputy and his 
1 Holinshed's Chronicles. '^ Ibid. 

74 



household, to taki' possession of Dublin Castle, to massacre Dublin 
the Kn«i;lish soldiers and settlers, and to overthrow the under 
Kn<rlish (iovernnunt. These occurrences may be taken the 
as the grounds for the merciless severity of the rule of 'I'udors 
Lord Grev, which was marked by massacres whicli spared and 
neither woman nor child, and by indictments for hioh Stuarts 
treason whereby forty-five persons were hanged in Dublin 
alone. The suppression of the rebellion of the southern 
Geraldincs, and the death of Gerald, fifteenth Earl of 
Desmond, seem to have produced the tranquillity of 
utter exhaustion, and even to have led some of the 
turbulent Irish chieftains to submit their quarrels to 
the English courts. For instance, a suit between Teigue 
MacGillapatrick (TConnor, who charged his cousin and 
kinsman. Con MacCormac O'Connor, with ' sundrie trea- 
sons in the late rebellion,"'^ was laid by them before the 
Lords Justices, and referred by the latter to the ordeal 
of judicial combat. 'And then the court was called, and 
the appellant or plaintiff was brought in before the face 
of the court, being stripped into his shirt, having only 
his sword and target (which werethewea])ons appointed) ; 
and when he had done his reverence and duty to the lord 
justices and to the court, he was brought to a stool 
set in the one of the ends within the lists, and there sat. 
After him was the defendant ])rought in, in the like 
manner and order, and with the like weapons : and when he 
had done his duty and reverence to the lord justices and 
to the court, he was brought to his chair j)laced in the 
other end of the lists. . . . And then, when by the sound 
of a trumpet a sign was given unto them when they 
should enter into the fight, they arose out of their seats. 
... In which fight the appellant did prevail, and he 
not only did disarm the defendant, but also with the 
sword of the said defendant did cut off his head, and 
upon the point of the same sword did present it to the 
lord justices, and so with the victory of his enemy he was 

' Hooker. 

75 



acquitted.' ' And,' adds the chronicler, 'as for the combat, 
it was so valiantly done, that a great many did wish that 
it had rather fallen upon the whole sex (sept) of the 
O'Connors, than upon these two gentlemen.'^ 

Lord Grey left Ireland on the 31st August 1582, and 
was succeeded two years later by Sir John Perrott, who 
had at one time been Lord President of Munster. In 
1591 Trinity College was incorporated by charter of 
Queen Elizabeth, and opened to students on the 9th 
January 1593. In 1592 occurred the memorable escape 
from Dublin Castle of the young Ulster chieftains Hugh 
Roe O'Donnell, and Henry and Art, sons of Shane O'Neill. 
The former had been captured by an unworthy stratagem 
on the shores of Lough Swilly, where he had been visiting 
MacSwiney in Dundonald Castle. A ship laden with 
Spanish wine anchored in the Lough, and when most 
of the cargo had been sold to the people of the district, 
MacSwiney and his guest were decoyed on board, clapped 
safely under hatches, and conveyed to Dublin Castle, where 
for three years young O'Donnell shared the captivity of his 
cousins, the sons of the great Shane O'Neill. An attempt 
to escape had consigned them in fetters to the Berming- 
ham Tower ; but, aided by their servant and fosterer, 
Turlough 0'Hagan,Bard of Tullahogue, who had gained 
access to them in disguise, they knocked off their fetters, 
and by means of a long rope succeeded in reaching the 
deep trench that surrounded the Castle. They climbed 
its outer side, and, passing through the city, found the 
gates open at that festive season, and reached the Red 
Mountain, near the great O'Byrne stronghold of Glenma- 
lure. Here they were enveloped in a snowstorm in which 
Art O'Neill perished of cold and exposure ; but the others 
were hospitably received by Pheagh MacHugh, chieftain 
of the O'Hyrnes, who expedited their flight to Dungannon, 
where they joined their cousin, Hugh O'Neill, Earl of 
Tyrone. In 1595 Walter Fitzgerald gathered a body 

' Hooker. 

76 



of the O'Hyrncs and pliiiulered iiiid burned the village of Duhlin 
Crundin, three miles south-west of the city walls, carryinc; under 
off" the lead from the roof of the church. The conHa<;ra- the 
tion was plainly visible from the streets of Dublin. Fitz- Tudors 
gerald was soon after taken prisoner, carried to Dublin and 
and hanged. Stuarts 

On 11th March of the following year, one hundred 
and forty-four barrels of gunpowder, sent by Queen 
Elizabeth for the use of the royal forces in Ireland, were 
landed at a place known as ' The Crane,' at the northern 
extremity of VVinetavern Street. The buikiing was used 
as the Custom House of Dublin prior to the erection of 
the new Custom House in the reign of James i., and ships 
generally discharged their heavier cargoes at Dalkey and 
the remainder at the Crane. The barrels, when landed, 
were drawn to Wine Street, and in course of transit some 
of them acciilentally exploded, occasioning great damage. 
In the subsecpient investigation, conducted by 'Michael 
Chamberlin, Maior, and John Shelton and William Pallas, 
Shrietfs,"' no less than six-score bodies were identified, 
besides ' sondrie headles bodies and heades without bodies 
that were found and not knowne.'' 

The ojjening of the seventeenth century found the 
whole of the County Dublin south of the Liffey overrun 
by the Leinster rebels; but Sir George Carew, the Lord 
Deputy, reduced the (VByrnes of Wicklow, and 'the 
mountains and glynnes on the south side of Dublin were 
made a shire of itself and called the county of Wicklow,' 
whereby the inhabitants, which were wont to l)e thorns in 
the side of the Pale, are become civil and (]uiet neighbours 
thereof/^ The death of Queen Elizabeth synchronised 
with the submission of Shane CNeill, and the cost of the 
war, in less than five years, is stated as i;^l, 198,718. In 
Se[)tember 1607 the two northern earls, Tyrone and 
Tyrconnell, heads of the great septs of O'Neill and 
O'Donnell, set sail from the shores of Lough Swilly never 

^ Fynes Moryson. 

11 




heads of sir cahir 
o'dogherty and an- 
other ON NEWGATE 



to revisit their native land ; and in May 
of the following yearoccurred theabor- 
tive rising of Sir Cahir O'Dogherty, 
Lord of Inishowen. This chieftain, 
then in his twenty-first year, had 
been knighted, and in the course of 
a personal quarrel with Sir George 
Paulett, Governor of Derry, the latter 
struck Sir Cahir. The chieftain 
brooded over the insult, and soon 
after he seized Culmore fort, marched 
on Derry, which he took by surprise 
at daybreak, and put to death Paulett 
and many of the garrison and towns- 
folk. Wingfield, the English marshal, marched against 
O'Dogherty and set a price on his head. The Lord 
Deputy, Sir Arthur Chichester, hastened to the assistance 
of the marshal, and in an engagement near Kilmacrennan 
O'Dogherty was defeated and soon after slain, it is said, 
by a man named Alexander Ramsay, a Scotch settler, 
whose cattle had been driven off and his wife and children 
slaughtered by Sir Cahir. By this man his head was cut 
off and taken to Dublin, where it was set over Newgate 
on the city walls. As a consequence of the flight of the 
earls, and the local rising in Inishowen, 800,000 acres 
of land in Ulster were forfeited, and thus room was made 
for the plantation of Ulster. At the commencement of 
the reign of James i. the rule of the most successful 
Viceroys of his predecessor is thus characterised by Sir 
John Davies : ' Sir A. Sentleger, the Earl of Sussex, Sir 
Henry Sidney, and Sir John Perrot were good governors, 
but they did not abolish the Irish customs, nor execute 
the law in the Irish countries, but suffered the people to 
worship their barbarous lords, and to remain utterly 
ignorant of their duties to God and the King.' That is 
to say, they had striven to govern Ireland according to 
Irish ideas, and had failed. 
78 



Such contkict would naturally not be pleasing to the Dublin 
great exponent of the divine right of kings. To the under 
agents of the Irish recusants, who had been admitted to the 
plead their cause before the council in London, James i. Tudors 
expressed himself in no measured terms, 'In the matter and 
of Parliaujent," said that monarch, ' vou have carried Stuarts 
yourselves tumultuously ami undutifully, and your pro- 
ceedings have been rude, disorderly, and inexcusable, and 
worthy of severe punishment/ 

Under Charles i. religious animosities developed in 
Dublin, of which the following may be taken as a sample. 
On the 26th December (St. Stephen\s Day) 1629, the 
Lords Justices — xVchxm Loftus, Viscount Ely, the Irish 
Lord Chajicellor, and Richard, Earl of Cork, Lord High 
Treasurer — were attending divine service in Christ- 
church, when tidings reached them that the Carmelites^ 
were celebrating Mass in Cook Street. The Archbishoj) 
of Dublin, Liincelot Bulkeley, accompanied by the Lord 
Mayor, with a body of soldiers, proceeded thither, seized 
the officiating priest, and carried him off' with all the 
sacred vessels. The priest was rescued by the populace, 
but fifteen religious houses, lately founded in Dublin, were 
seipiestratetl to the King. Two years later the Roman 
Catholic College, which had been established in Rack 
Lane, was closed by order of the Government and handed 
over to Trinity College, whose governing body established 
a weekly lecturership therein*. 

In the summer of 1632 Thomas, Viscount Wentworth, 
afterwards Earl of Strafford, landed as Lord Deputy. It 
is characteristic of the condition of the hijih seas at the 
time, that the Viceroy ""s voyage from England was delayed 
until he could secure the convoy of a ship of war. 
Algerine corsairs infested the Irish Channel, and had, in 
the previous year, landed on the coast of Cork and 

' So Harris, who quotes a tract entitled Foxes and Firebtands. 
Gilbert says they were Franciscans. Both orders had houses in Cook 
Street. 

79 



Dublin sacked the town of Baltimore, carrying a hundred of its 
inhabitants into slavery. Lord Wentworth found on his 
arrival that the lodgings of the Lord Deputy were in need 
of repair, and that new stabling accommodation was re- 
quired. 'There is not,' he writes to the King, 'any 
stable but a poor mean one, and that made of a decayed 
church' (St. Andrew's), ' which is such a profanation as I 
am sure his Majesty would not allow." ^ 

On the 14th July 1634 the Irish Parliament met in 
Dublin, ' undoubtedly with the greatest civility and 
splendour Ireland ever saw.'^ The Lord Deputy and chief 
officers of state, with the membys of both houses, 
attended service in St. Patrick's Cathedral, where the 
sermon was preached by Archbishop Usher. The cere- 
monial observed on the attendance of the Lord-Lieutenant 
at service in the Cathedral was stately and impressive. 

'On leaving the church there marched before him a 
company of footmen, beating the drum, and with match- 
locks ready for action. Then followed a company of 
halberdiers, his body-guards, and sixty gentlemen on 
foot, with four noblemen well-mounted, and the Viceroy 
in the midst upon a white Barbary horse.' ^ The rule of 
Strafford, though strict, was eminently successful. He 
introduced the culture of flax, and developed manufac- 
tures ; he cleared the coasts of pirates, and increased the 
volume of trade. Bv 1637 the revenue exceeded the 
expenditure by ^£"60,600 ; and the Irish army was at the 
same time well equipped, well disciplined, and regularly 
paid. The Lord Deputy purposed 'once every year to 
bring the whole armv for a month together to Dublin.' 
Shortly after the execution of Strafford on Tower Hill, 
Robert Sidney, second Earl of Leicester, was appointed 
to the Lord-Lieutenancy, but never even visited the 
country, and Ireland continued to be ruled by Lords 
Justices, nominated by a committee of the English House 

1 Strafford s Letters, vol. i. p. 131. ^ Strafford Papers. 

* M. de la Boullaye le Gouz. 

86 



of Commons, witli the twelfth Earl of Ormonde as lieu- Dublin 
tenant-general of the army. 'J'he Lords Justices were under 
Sir William ]*ars(nis, an Englisli Piu-itau adventurer, and the 
Sir John Borlace, Master of the Ordnance. Early in Tudors 
1641 a rumour had been spread of the intended blowing and 
up, by servants of the late Earl of Strafford, of the Stuarts 
apartments in l)ubh"n Castle occupied by the Houses of 
Parliament. Though this rumour proved unfounded, it 
was felt that conspiracy was in the air. Warnings had 
reached the authorities from Sir Harry Vane, Secretary 
of State in London, and from Sir William Cole of Ennis- 
killen,as to suspicious meetings in Ulster; and finally, on 
the ^Ist October, full ])articuhirs of an alleged consjnracy 
were furnished them by the latter. Yet the Justice's 
remained in heedless security. The English army in 
Ireland, now reduced to ^000 foot and 900 horse, was 
scattered in small garrisons, many of them far from the 
capital ; and Dublin Castle — in which were deposited all 
the royal stoics collected during the Yiceroyalty of 
Strafford, including 35 pieces of or(hiance, 1500 bai'iels 
of powder, and 10,000 stand of arms — was under no 
better guard than was afforded bv eight worn-out old sol- 
diers as warders, and forty halberdiers, the personal guard 
attached to the Lord Deputy. The gates also were in 
bad repair and ill-calcidated to repel an assault. On the 
evening of Eriday, the 22nd of October, Sir William 
Parsons was in his house on Merchant's Quay, when a 
man named Owen (VConnolly, 'much in drink," waited 
on him with the information that a plot had been formed 
for the seizure of Dublin Castle early the next morning. 
This man, a servant of Sir John Clotworthy. had been 
bred a Protestant, but was foster-brotiier to Colonel Hugh 
MacMahon, one of the Ulster leaders, who had, while 
drinking with him in Winetavern Street, been weak 
enough to disclose to him full i^articulars of the con- 
spiracy. Parsons at first discredited the information, 
and dismissed his infoiniant ; but, on reflection, decided 
F 8i 



Dublin on consulting Borlace, who took the matter more 
seriously. They sent messengers after O'Connolly, whom 
they found in the hands of the watch, and on interroga- 
tion he gave a detailed account of the plans of the con- 
spirators. Several of these were arrested, and the Castle 
was placed the same night in the charge of Sir Francis 
Willoughby, Governor of Galway fort, who happened to 
be in Dublin, and who garrisoned the Castle with 200 
men of his own disbanded regiment reinforced by volun- 
teers from the Protestant lovalists of Dublin. On the 
night of Saturday bonfires blazed upon the hills of Ulster, 
and the disinherited Irish of the Plantation rose upon 
their Saxon neighbours. Burnings and massacres took 
place in many districts, which led to reprisals on the 
Irish in the territories of the Pale. The public records 
were removed from the Castle to Cork House, immedi- 
ately outside its gates. The Roman Catholics were 
disarmed and expelled the city, and the loyal citizens 
were commanded to bring in their plate to be minted for 
the service of the Government, which they did to the 
value of ^12,000. The Earl of Ormonde was ordered to 
Dublin with his troop of horse, and many of the Pro- 
testant gentry of the Pale hastened with their families 
to place themselves within the walls of the capital. They 
were soon followed by fugitives from Ulster, and ' many 
empty houses in the citv were by special direction taken 
up for them, barns, stables, and outhouses filled with 
them ; vet many lay in the open streets, and others under 
stalls, and there most miserably perished."'^ The Ulster 
forces advanced southwards, captured Dundalk and laid 
siege to Drogheda, while in Wicklow another body of 
insurgents committed great havoc, and threatened the 
important post of Fort Carew. This proximity of the 
Irish forces caused a positive panic in Dublin ; the 
citizens forsook the suburbs, and to add to tlieir dismay 
a portion of the city wall fell down. Tidings had been 
^ Sir John Temple. 
82 



sent to the English Parliament, now on the eve of their Dublin 
armed struijgle witli the King, and orders were given by under 
them for ships to guard the eoasts, and for the immediate the 
levy and despatch to Dublin of a force of 6000 foot and Tudors 
2000 horse, with stores of provisions for the relief of the and 
garrison. While awaiting these succours the Lords Stuarts 
Justices hastily raised some raw troops, 600 of whom 
they sent to relieve Sir Henry Tichborne in Drogheda. 
These were attacked by the insurgents and utterly routed 
at Julianstown bridge, with the loss of their arms and 
ammunition. The vacillations of the Lords Justices, and 
the severities of Sir Charles Coote, had succeeded in 
alienating the Roman Catholic lords of the Pale, who 
rose in rebellion, headed by Lord Gormanston and the 
Earl of Fingall, and beleagured Dublin, thereby hinder- 
ing the arrival of provisions from the surrounding 
country. Eurther to distress the citizens, the beleaguer- 
ing forces established their headquarters at Swords, and 
threatened to occupy Clontarf, so as to cut off all sea- 
borne suj)plies. But on the last day of the year 1642 
the hopes of the King's adherents were raised by the 
arrival from England of 1100 men under Sir Simon 
Harcourt, the first instalment of that reinforcement pro- 
mised by the English Parliament. These wx're speedily 
followed by 1500 foot and 400 horse under Sir Richard 
Grenville and Colonel George Monk, afterwards the chief 
agent in the restoration of Charles ii. Drog-heda was 
relieved and Dundalk retaken ; but the Lords Justices, 
with whom were now associated two Commissioners from 
the English Parliament, incurred much odium by putting 
to the torture, in Dul)lin Castle, men of good position 
known to be in sym))athy with the L'ish, in the ho})e of 
implicating King Charles i. in the responsibility for the 
rising. 

This conduct seems to have inspired the King with 
the idea of availing himself of the services of those 
lords of the Pale who were still loyal to the Crown, at 

83 



Dublin the head of whom stood the Marquis of Ormonde, to 
whom he offered the Viceroyalty, which that nobleman 
unaccountably declined. Tlie King issued a commission 
to these lords to treat in his name with the Irish con- 
federates, wlio, however, refused all overtures. The 
straits to which the English troops had been reduced 
by scarcity of provisions, combined with his own 
necessities to induce the King to promise large con- 
cessions to the confederates, and a ' cessation ' for one 
year was agreed upon, by which both parties bound 
themselves to release their prisoners and remain in- 
active, while the Irish agreed to supply King Charles 
with 10,000 men, and to grant to him a subsidy of 
<iP30,000, one-half in money and the remainder in 
cattle. Once more provisions poured into Dublin where 
Ormonde held high state, while the confederates main- 
tained a rival court in Kilkenny, ' with all manner of 
stage plays,' and other festive proceedings. On the 
expiry of the truce in 1646, a peace was agreed on 
between Ormonde and the confederates, which was 
solemnly proclaimed in Dublin on 30th July; but the 
Papal Nuncio, Ilinuccini, who had arrived in Kilkenny, 
in concert with Owen Roe O'Neill repudiated its terms, 
and the latter recommenced hostilities. Two armies, 
one commanded by General Preston, the other by 
O'Neill in person, moved simultaneously on Dublin, to 
which Ormonde had hastily retreated, and encamped 
within ten miles of the walls. Ormonde, now appointed 
to the Lord-Lieutenancy, which at the King's request 
Leicester had resigned, felt his position to be one of 
extreme peril. His small army was still too great to 
be provisioned in Dublin while so closely besieged, his 
estates had been moi'tgaged to provide subsistence for 
his troops, and the city walls were in a condition so 
ruinous that the Marchioness and other ladies of rank 
headed the citizens in carrying materials to those 
engaged in their repair. In these conditions he entered 
84 



into negotiations with the Knfrlish Parliament, now Dublin 
completely masters of England, and agreed, on behalf under 
of himself and the Council, to resign their patents and the 
to treat with Commissioners for the surrender of his Tudors 
government and garrisons. A force of 2000 foot and and 
300 horse under Colonel Michael Jones, whose brother Stuarts 
was the Protestant Bishop of Clogher, accordingly 
landed in Dublin, to whom, after prolonged negotiations, 
Ormonde surrendered the Castle on the IGth July 1647, 
and on the 28th of the same month gave u]) the regalia 
to the l*arliamentary Commissioners, and sailed for 
Bristol. Colonel Jones, appointed Governor of Dublin, 
and Connnantler of the forces in Leinster, lost no time 
in attacking the army of General I'reston, on whom 
he inflicted a severe defeat at Dungan's Hill, in County 
Meath. Owen Roe O'Neill, now left without a rival, at 
once marched on Dublin, and from the steeple of St. 
Audoen^ the terrified inhabitants saw two hundred fires 
blazing from Castleknock to Howth. But scjuabbles 
and bickerings hampered all his movements, and when 
on 29th September 1648 Ormonde landed at Cork with 
full j)owers from the King, the majority of the con- 
federates made conmion cause with him, and O'Neill 
and his Ulster Irish found themselves once more isolated 
and unsupported. Colonel Jones had been busying 
himself in repairing the walls of Dublin and putting 
the city in a posture of defence. On the execution of 
Charles i., 30th January 1649, his son was proclaimed 
as Charles ii. at Cork and Youghal bv Oiinonde, who 
had landed at the former in (ictober of the previous 
year, and who now pre})ared for active hostilities on 
behalf of royalty. On the 21st June he encamped at 
Castleknock with 7000 foot and 4000 horse, and after 
seizing the Viceregal residence in the Phoenix Park, on 
the site of the present magazine, he ])repared to invest 
Dublin. The following day Ormonde removed his camp 
to Finglas, in order to cut off the connnunication 

85 



Dublin between Dublin and the garrisons of Drogheda and 
Dundalk, which were held for the Parliament, and there 
remained inactive for the following month. Colonel 
Jones, however, was not idle. He succeeded in obtain- 
ing some much-needed supplies by sea, and utilised the 
assistance of some ships' crews in completing the repair 
of the fortifications. The fall of Drogheda and Dun- 
dalk, and the capture of Trim by the forces of Lord 
Inchiquin, enabled that nobleman on the 21st of July 
to add his forces to those of Ormonde, who had then 
under his command some 6000 foot and 3000 horse. 
The siege had been hitherto but languidly prosecuted ; 
cavalry skirmishes, indeed, were of almost daily occurrence, 
and the Royalist trenches were pushed within musket-shot 
of the defences ; but save for the storming of Patrick's 
Fort on the north bank of the LifFey, and the driving of 
the Parliamentarians from the village of Ringsend, but 
little effect had been produced. Ormonde at length 
determined on more active measures. Leaving 2500 men 
under Lord Dillon of Costello to press the siege on 
the north, the Viceroy with the remainder of his forces 
crossed the Liffey and established himself at Rathmines. 
But the movement had been too long delayed. On the 
22nd July Colonel Venables had already reached Dublin 
with three regiments of foot, and was followed on 25th 
by Colonel Reynolds with a regiment of horse, and on 
26th by still further reinforcements, who bore the 
ominous tidings that Oliver Cromwell himself, at the 
head of an army of 12,000 men, awaited only a favour- 
able breeze to pass over into Ireland. Ormonde en- 
camped near the present Palmerston Road, on the 
historic ground of the ' Bloody Fields,' and cut off the 
Dublin water-supply at Templeogue, thus depriving 
the citizens of water power for driving their corn mills, 
and causing much inconvenience to the besieged. On 
the 28th July Rathfarnham Castle, which had been 
garrisoned for the Parliament, was taken ; the Irish 
86 



ofJkers iirjied their {jcneral to seize and fortify the Dublin 
castle of Ba<i^gotrath, dismantled by Colonel Jones, under 
which then stood on the site of the present dwelling- the 
houses, Nos. 44 and 45 IJj)j)er IJagorot Street, near the Tudors 
spot where Queen \'ietoria and Kin<r Edward vii. entered and 
the city. After dark on the night of 1st August, Stuarts 
Major-General Purcell, with a force of 1500 men, was 
despatched to occupy and repair the castle ; but owing, 
it is said, to treachery on the part of a guide, who led 
them through Dundrum, they did not reach the castle 
till day was breaking. Jones, becoming aware of the 
movement, and seeing that the possession of a strong 
post in that direction would not only cut him oft' from 
pasture for the horses of his cavalry, but also facilitate 
the erection of works to command the mouth of the 
Liffev, was already marshalling the veteran English 
regiments, which had lately joined him, under earth- 
works behind Trinity College at the head of the present 
Townsend Street, then known as Lowsy (a corruption of 
Lazar's) Hill. Perceiving this, Ormonde conunanded 
reinforcements for Baggotrath, ordering at the same 
time his whole force to remain under arms. Fearing no 
immediate attack he had lain (h)wn to rest, but was 
roused by heavy firing towards IJaggotrath, only to find 
that the party engaged on fortif^ying the castle had 
been driven off", and that the covering force were re- 
treating in disorder. This emboldened Jones to push 
on further than he had at first intended, and having 
routed the right wing he moved on Ormonde's main 
body, consisting of the troops of Lord Inchi(piin, com- 
manded by Colonel Giff'ard. To sujiport his centre, 
Ormonde moved up the regiment commanded by his 
brother Colonel Richard Butler, but a troop of Parlia- 
mentary horse having by a skilful detour taken them 
in the rear, while the victorious foot delivered a frontal 
attack, they threw down their arms and surrendered. 
After an ineffectual effort to rally his left wing, who 

87 



fled panic-stricken by the fate of the centre and right 
wing, Ormonde himself headed the flight of the broken 
remains of his forces towards Kilkenny. The body on 
the north of the Lifiey hastily retreated to Drogheda, 
and only escaped the pursuit of Jones by the opportune 
arrival of Sir Thomas Armstrong with 1000 horse, who 
covered the retreat of the northern contingent, and 
rejoined them in Drogheda. The whole of Ormonde's 
artillery, baggage, and provisions fell into the hands 
of the victorious Parliamentary troops, who the follow- 
ing day captured the castles of Rathmines, Rathgar, 
and Rathfarnham, and retook the Viceregal residence. 
Ormonde's losses are stated by him to have been only 
600 slain, and Jones gives the numbers as 4000 killed and 
2517 prisoners. The latter figure is probably correct, 
but the number of killed seems grossly exaggerated. 
The moral effect of the battle was very great ; Dublin 
was delivered from all apprehension of immediate 
danger; and though an attack on Drogheda by Jones 
was easily repulsed by Lord Moore, the safety of that 
garrison was but short-lived. 

On 15th August Oliver Cromwell, having been in- 
vested by the unanimous vote of the English Parlia- 
ment with the title of Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland and 
Commander-in-Chief of the English forces, landed in 
Dublin, and signalised his arrival by a proclamation 
against drunkenness and profane swearing. He then 
commenced that ten months' career of unchecked 
successes and ruthless terrorism, which has rendered 
'the curse of Cromwell' the bitterest malediction 
which, even to our own days, the Irish peasant can 
invoke upon his enemies. On 25th May 1650 Crom- 
well returned to England, to meet the Scottish sup- 
porters of Charles ii., leaving behind him his son-in-law, 
Major-General Ireton, to complete the conquest of an 
almost subjugated Ireland, which, by a proclamation 
(dated 26th September 1653) of Fleetwood, who succeeded 



Iietoii, was declared to be, for tlie first time since the Dublin 
landing of Strongbow, conipletely subdued. under 

Dublin had meantime suffered severely from pesti- the 
lence, which had commenced in 1()50, when liishop Martin, Tudors 
Provost of Trinitv College, died of it, and raged during and 
the sununer of 1()51, when it was reported by the Par- Stuarts 
liamentary Commissioners that, having in(|uired 'into 
the present state of the College of Dublin . . . (and the 
House being at present visited with the pestilence),' 
they were moved ' to dissolve that Society until it shall 
please God to remove the sickness.'' 

Henry Cromwell, appointed Commander-in-Chief in 
1655, was, on the death of his father, created by his 
brother Richard Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, but was 
withdrawn the following year by the restored Long 
Parliament. A council of officers seized Dublin Castle, 
and, on a |)etition of the Mayor and Aldermen of Dublin, 
summoned a convention which, on 14lh ^Lay 1660, 
accepted the Declaration of Breda, and King Charles ii. 
was proclaimed with great rejoicings in all the chief 
towns of Ireland. • Not unmindful of the attitude of 
the Dublin municipality, the restored King ])resented 
the Ahivor with a collar of SS, and assigned him a 
foot-companv of guards; and in 1665 further dignified 
him with the title of Lord Mayor, and granted him 
VoOO in lieu of the foot-company. In 1663 dissatisfac- 
tion with the Act of Settlement foimd expression in a 
plot to seize Dublin Castle, the ])rime mover in which 
was the subsecpiently notorious Colonel Blood. The 
j)lot was discovered and the ringleader escaped, but three 
of his fellow-conspirators. Colonels Jephson and Warren 
and Major Thompson, were tried, found guilty, and 
executed at (iallows Green, near Dublin, on 15th 
Novendoer. In 1670 the Blue Coat IIosj)ital, for children 
of decaved citizens, was founded, and a wooden bridge 
was erected at some distance west of the old one over 
the Liffev. The crossing had heretofore been effected 

89 




lin by a ferry, granted, in consequence of tlie fall of a pre- 
existing bridge, by Richard ii., ' with all profits and 
customs for four years."' This inter- 
ference with a vested interest seems 
to have excited much popular in- 
dignation , and an attack was made 
on the new bridge by the apprentices 
in the interests of the ferry. Twenty 
' BLOODY ■ BRIDGE ^^ ^^^ Hotcrs Were seized and com- 
mitted to the Castle, but as a 
guard of soldiers were carrying them to Bridewell they 
were rescued, four of them being killed in the affray, 
whose death earned for the wooden structure the sobriquet 
of the ' Bloody Bridge,' a name transferred to Barrack 
Bri(ige, its more permanent successor in stone, and still 
in fairly common use. 

The lawless condition of Dublin about this time may be 
gauged by the attempt on the life of the Duke of Ormonde, 
who, when on the way to Clarendon House, his town resi- 
dence, within a stone's throw of Trinity College, was, at 
about six o'clock on the evening of Tuesday, 6th December 
1670, dragged from his coach by a band of eight hired 
bravos, headed, by his own confession, by the infamous 
Colonel Blood. These ruffians stated their intention of 
hanging the Duke at Tyburn ; and it was only by his own 
coolness and intrepidity that he succeeded in making 
his escape, after having been fired at, ridden over, and 
struck with swords and pistols. His son, the Earl of 
Ossory, attributed this murderous attack to the Duke 
of Buckingham, whose creature Blood notoriously was, 
and uttered the well-known threat, in presence of King 
Charles ii., that should his father 'come to an untimely 
or violent death ... I shall pistol you though you 
stood behind the King.' 

The Viceroyalty of the Duke of Ormonde, 1662-69 
and 1677-85, was notable for the marked increase of 
material prosperity. He re-established the linen manu- 
90 



facturc at Chapeli/od and C"arrick, and worsted at Dublin 
Clonmel. »"'*^'" 

The so-called 'Popish Plot' of Titus Oates was not the 
without its echoes in Dublin. The principal informer Tudors 
in Ireland, a man named David Fitzgerald, confessed and 
indeed that his informations were false, but his accomplices Stuarts 
and imitators persisted in their charges, denouncing all 
favourers of the Roman Catholics as ' Tories,' the name 
given in Ireland to those dispossessed landholders of the 
confiscations who had become a species of armed free- 
booters — thus introducing a new political term into the 
English vocabulary. On the statements of these informers 
the" Roman Catholic Archbishop of Armagh, Dr. Oliver 
Plunkett, was imprisoned in New Gate, Dublin, and 
conveyed thence to London, where, after the grand jury 
had refused to find a true bill against him, a second most 
im|)robable charge was brought forward, under which the 
unfortunate prelate was convicted and executed at Tyburn 
in 1()81, the last victim of the Popish Plot. In 1905 he 
was solenndy beatitied by the present pontifll'. Pius x. 

In the reaction w hich ensued on the downfall of Titus 
Oates, Richard Talbot, a favourite of James, Duke of 
York, obtained considerable influence in Ireland. His 
brother Peter had been created by the Pope titular 
Archbishop of Dublin, and had celebrated Mass there 
with great splendour and publicity to the alarm of the 
Irish Protestants. Shortly after the accession of James ii. 
Richard Talbot was created Earl of TyrconncU and 
lieutenant-general of the Irish army, and the Kings 
l)rother-in-law, the Earl of Clarendon, arrived in Dublin 
as Lord-Lieutenant. The influence of Tyrcoiniell was 
soon felt in the composition of the army and in all 
Government appointments, and much friction was experi- 
enced between the Lord-Lieutenant and the lieutenant- 
general, which led to the recall of Lord Clarendon and 
the appointment of the Earl of Tyrconnell. with the less 
dignified title of Lord Deputy. So great was the alarm 

91 



caused by this announcement that, on the departure of 
Lord Clarendon from Dublin in P'ebruary 1687, he was 
accompanied by 1500 Protestant families. 

The landing of William of Orange and the flight of 
James to France produced but little effect in Dublin, 
which was largely controlled by partisans of the latter ; 
and on 12th March 1689 King James, with some French 
officers, landed at Kinsale to fight out on Irish soil that 
quarrel which had in England been allowed to go by 
default. 

On Palm Sunday, 24th March, King James made 
his public entry into Dublin, which he entered, as 
we learn from a contemporary account, by St. James's 
Gate, the street from which leading to the Castle, about 
a mile in length, was lined by the soldiers of the garrison, 
and strewn with fresh gravel. 'And at his first entry 
into the liberty of the city, there was a stage built, 
covered with tapestry, and thereon two playing on Welsh 
harps ; and below a great number of friars with a large 
cross, singing ; and about forty oyster-wenches, poultry 
and herb w omen, in white, dancing, who thence ran along 
to the castle by his side, here and tiiere strewing flowers. 
. . . At the utmost limits he was met by the Lord 
Mavor, aldermen, common council, master wardens, and 
brethren of the several companies, in their formalities, 
the King and herald-at-arms, pursuivants, and servants 
of the household, and there received tiic sword of state 
(which he gave to Tyrconnell, who carried it before him 
through the city), and the sword and keys of the city, 
and there had a speech made to welcome him to that 
loval city and people, by Counsellor Dillon, who that 
morning was sworn recorder in the room of Counsellor 
Barnwell. . . . And beino; come thus to the castle the 
Kino; alighted from his horse. . . . And from thence he 
was conducted into the chapel there (made by Tyrconnell 
of Henry CromwelTs riding house) where Te JJcum was 
sung for his happy arrival; and thence he retired into 
92 



an apartment prcparetl in a new house built before in Dublin 
the castle by Tvrcomiell, and there dined and refreshed under 
himself; 1 " the 

Want of funds forced Kiiii^ James to the expedient, so Tudors 
bitterlv remembered against him, of seizing the machine and 
of a man named Moore who held a patent of Charles ii. Stuarts 
authorising him to strike copper coins ; and having 
melted down old brass guns, broken bells, and other 
worthless lumber, he issued a coinage, enforced by suc- 
cessive proclamations, to the nominal value of one million 
and a half sterling, of which pieces which constituted a 
legal tender to the amount of £5 were intrinsically worth 
4d. ! James expelled the fellows and scholars of Trinity 
College, seized upon the property of the University, 
including the communion plate, converted the chapel 
into a magazine, and the cliand)ers into prisons. The 
battle of the liovne soon altered the as])ect of affairs in 
Dublin, James, after sleeping one night in the city, 
once more fled to France, and the Irish army evacuated 
Dublin on Wednesday, 2nd July, and marched to Limerick. 
William occupied Finglas on Thursday, 3rd July, halted 
his victorious troops there for some days, fearing outrages 
on the Dublin citizens, while he entered the city on 
Fridav, 4th July. Dublin Castle had been seized for 
King William by Captain Farlow, who had been incar- 
cerated therein. 

On Sunday. 6th Julv. A\'illiam attended a thanks- 
giving service in St. Patrick's Cathedral, when the sermon 
was preached by Dean King, lately released from imprison- 
ment in the Castle, and shortly to be promoted to the 
bishopric of Derry. In 1692 a new and extended 
charter was granted to the ' President and Fraternity 
of Physicians,'' founded in 1654 by John Stcarne, ISI.D., 
senior fellow of Dublin University, and incorporated 
twentv-three years later by a charter of Charles ii. The 
society was thenceforth known as the King and Queen^s 
' /history of Ireland, Thomas Wright, vol. ii. book v. p. 204. 

93 



College of Physicians until 1889, when, under a new 
charter of Queen Victoria, it received its present name 
of the Royal College of Physicians. In 1697 Bartholo- 
mew van Homrigh, Lord Mayor of Dublin, obtained 
from King William in. a new collar of SS, to replace 
that lost in 1688. It is still in use by the chief magis- 
trate of Dublin, and bears attached to it a miniature of 
the royal donor. The last decade of the century saw the 
issue of the second Dublin newspaper, the Flyhig Post, 
published at Dick's Coffee House in Skinners' llow. 

The city, during the two centuries and a half of Tudor 
and Stuart rule, though steadily increasing in wealth and 
importance, still occupied an area to our modern ideas 
quite incommensurate with its influence and position. 
Even so late as 1649 the castle of Baggotrath was an 
isolated building amongst fields. In 1670, during a great 
storm at the time of new moon, the river overflowed the 
ground now occupied by Brunswick Street and reached 
the walls of Trinity College, still aptly described a.?, juxta 
Dublin ; and in the same year St. Stephen's Green was 
first enclosed, the walks gravelled, the green levelled, and 
a double row of lime-trees planted along the wall. At 
the same time trenches were made to carry the water 
away which much ' annoyed the Green.' ^ The ground 
between the rear of the edifices on the north side of 
Dame Street and the Liff'ey seems to have been un- 
built on at the beginning of the seventeenth century. 
There then existed at the foot of Dame's Gate a small 
harbour, possibly the original ^ul3-bnn, or Blackpool, 
whence the city took its name, and whence in 1534 the 
Archbishop of Dublin took boat to be wrecked at Howth, 
and to meet his death at the hands of the followers of 
'Silken Thomas' at Artane. Shortly before the close 
of the seventeenth century a portion of Grafton Street 
was still set for wheat-growing at 2s. 6d. per acre, and 
the southern part was known at the beginning of the 
^ History of the City of Dublin — Harris. 

94 



eighteenth century as Crosse's Garden. The great bridge Dublin 
'going to Ostmaiitown,""^ at the head of Bridge Street, under 
was the only coninumication between the north and south the 
banks of the Lili'ey until the ereetion in IGTO of the Tudors 
wooden strueture known as IJloody Bridge (p. 90). Six and 
years later the construction of Kssex Bridge (rebuilt in Stuarts 
175-3) was connncnced by Iluniphrev Jervis. sheriff of 
Dublin two years before, afterwards Lord Mavor, and 
knighted in 1081 ; and in IG'S^ were built Ormonde 
Bridge, named from the first Duke of Ormonde, and Arran 
Bridge, named from the Earl of Arran, grandson to the 
Duke, and his deputy two years before. The latter 
structure was carried away by an inundation in 1763, 
and the former swept away by a flood in 1802, when 
boats plied in Patrick Street. In 1644 M. de la BouUaye 
le Gouz, a Fiench visitor to Ireland, describes Dublin as 
a town about the size of Angers, which would give a 
population of between 20,000 and 30,000. This popula- 
tion had in 1682 increased to 60,000, and piobably 
exceeded 100.000 before the end of the century. The 
Reformation introduced a new line of cleavage between 
Dublin and the rest of Ireland exclusive of the 'planta- 
tions."' The people of Dublin, true to their west of 
England and AVelsh ancestry, early became Protestant, 
and indeed rather Puritan and C'alvinistic, in their re- 
ligious oj)inions. Thus the city became, like London, 
a stronghold of the l^arliamentary partv in the great 
rebellion, and eagerly welcomed William of Orange after 
the exodus caused by the ascendency of Tvrconnell. 
Of a population estimated in 1644 at 24,000, something 
like 70 per cent, are stated to have been Protestants. 
Even fourteen years previously, of 239 householders in the 
populous parish of St. Werburgh only twenty-eight were 
RomanC'atholics. Several new churches,mostof which have 
long since disappeared, were erected during the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. The church of St. Nicholas 

' History of the City of Dublin — Harris. 

95 



was re-edified in 1578, and that of St. Bridget or St. 
Bride in 1684 ; and, towards the close of the seventeenth 
century, the parish of St. Michan, which then inckided 
all the city north of the LifFey, was divided into those 
of new St. Michan's, St. PauTs, and St. Mary's, and 
churches provided for the two latter by a tax on the 
inhabitants. The Society of Friends, commonly known 
as Quakers, had secured many adherents in Ireland during 
the ascendency of the Commonwealth, and their con- 
gregation of Eustace Street was formed in 1662. Other 
churches had meantime been sequestrated to secular uses. 
As we have seen, the materials of St. Mary's Abbey had 
been used in the construction of Essex Bridge, and in 
1577 we read of the chapel of St. George, near the 
present South Great George's Street, outside the walls 
and the eastern gate, that ' this chappell hath been of 
late razed, and the stones thereof, by consent of the 
assemblie, turned to a common oven, converting the 
ancient monument of a doutie, adventurous, and 
holie Knight, to the colerake sweeping of a pufloafe 
baker.' 

Under James ii. two nunneries were established in 
Dublin : one known as ' Gratia Dei,' in Ship Street 
(properly Sheep Street), by charter of 5th June 1690; 
the other in Channel Row, now North Brunswick Street. 
The chapel of the latter, consecrated by Archbishop 
Patrick Russell 6th June 1689, is said still to form part 
of the Richmond Surgical Hospital, and is commonly 
known as the ' Chapel Ward ' of that hospital. 

The principal remains of the Tudor and Stuart periods 
are the Castle, the Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, and 
the King's Hospital, Oxmantown, or ' Blue Coat School.' 
The Anglo-Norman Castle of Dublin was erected prob- 
ably on the same site as the ' Dun ' of their Scandinavian 
predecessors — a strong position on the summit of a ridge 
of land running east and west, defended on the north by 
the Liffey, and having its fosse filled by the stream of 
96 



Stuarts 



the I'oddlc. The need of such a stron<;hold was realised Dublin 
by Henry ii,, as is evidenced by the following letter : — under 

'To Meiler Fitz-IIenrv, Lord Justice of Ireland,— f,'?^'. 
Greetinc^. " ludors 

' Vou have given us to understand that you have not ^ 
a convenient place wherein our treasure may be safely 
deposited, and forasmuch, as well for that use as for 
many others, a fortress would be necessary for us at 
Dublin, we connnand you to erect a castle there in such 
competent place as you shall judge most expedient, as 
well to curb the city as to defend it if occasion shall so 
require, and that you make it as strong as you can, with 
good fosses and durable walls. But you are first to 
finish one tower, unless afterwards a castle and palace 
and other works that may require greater leisure may be 
more conveniently raised and that we should command 
you so to do : for which you have our pleasure, according 
to our desire — at ])resent you may take to this use 300 
marks from G. Fitz-Robert, in which he stands indebted 
to us. 

'Geddington, 2isi August 1205.' 

The Castle so begun, and continued by John de Gray, 
was refounded and completed by Henry the Londoner, 
Archbishop of Dublin, as recorded by Stanihurst : 'The 
Castell of Dublin was builded by Henrie Loundres . 
about the yeare of our Lord one thousand two hundred 
and twentie. This castell hath beside the gate house 
foure goodlie and substantiall towers of which one of 
them is named Bermingham his tower, whether it were 
that one of the Berminghams did enlarge the building 
thereof, or else that he was loiig in duresse in that 
tower.' ^ The Archbishop, in clearing the site for the 
Castle, removed the churches of St. INLartin and St. Paul, 
while that of St. Andrew, which then occupied the site 
of No. 10 Dame Street, was used as the Castle stable in 
' Slanihurst in HolinshecTs Chronicle. 
G 97 



Dublin the reign of Charles i. The vicus Castri, now Castle 
Street, north of the Castle, was early occupied by 
armourers, a portion of it being known in 1235 as 
Lormeria, from the lorrimers, or makers of horses' bits. 
The Castle was further altered and improved by Lionel, 
Duke of Clarence, and rendered strong enough to endure 
a siege at close quarters in the rebellion of 'Silken 
Thomas.' He obtained the reluctant consent of the 
citizens to occupy the city in order to lay siege to the 
Castle, which the municipal authorities had already 
victualled ; Alderman John Fitzsimons havingr secretly 
conveyed thither twenty tuns of wine and twenty-four of 
beer, two thousand dried ling, sixteen hogsheads of salted 
beef, twenty guns, and an iron chain for the drawbridge 
newly forged in his own house. The troops of the 
Geraldine planted their batteries between the Castle and 
Isoud's Tower, in 'a void roome called Preston his 
innes.'^ On the arrival of Sir Francis Herbert, alderman, 
who had been sent to England on behalf of the citizens 
to ask advice of King Henry vm, and who brought back 
promise of speedy succour, the gates of the city were 
closed, and many of Fitz-GeraWs troops surrendered. 
The siege of the Castle was soon afterwards recommenced 
from Ship Street, but without success. The Castle first 
became the Viceregal residence in the time of Queen 
Elizabeth. Previous Viceroys had resided in the house 
known as Thomas Court, in the Episcopal Palace of 
St. Sepulchre's, in the Abbey of St. Mary or in the 
sequestrated Priory of the Hospitallers at Kilmainham. 
The last having been seriously injured during a violent 
storm, Queen Elizabeth, with her usual thrift, considered 
it less expensive to alter and enlarge the Castle, which 
stood badly in need of repair, than to rebuild the Priory 
of Kilmainham. Accordingly Sir Henry Sidney entered 
into an indenture with a certain George Ardglass to 
renovate and extend the ' Castell and house of Dublin, 

^ Stanihurst in Holinshed's Chronicle. 
98 



Stuarts 



which before his comniing was ruinous, foule, filthio, and Duhh'n 

fjfreutly (iecaied. This he repaired and re-edified and under 

niatle a verie faire house for the lord deputie or the the 

chief <;'overn()r to reside and dwell in.'^ Tudors 

In a panegyric on the \'iceroy occurs the line : — and 

' Vfi-uin Sidnaei /antics- hwc ,s(i.ra loquinitur.' 

The Castle was again allowed to fall into disrepair, 
and on the arrival of Strafford in 1632 the V^iceregal 
apartments were found to be ruinous, ' the l)akehouse in 
present l)eing just under the room where I now write, 
and the wood reek {sic) just full before the gallery 
window.""' Tlie Castle shared in the benefits of Straf- 
ford's rule; and the same French visitor already referred 
to thus speaks of the building: 'I found the Castle 
indifferently strong, without any outworks, and prettv 
well furnished with guns of cast metal/'* The guarding 
of the Castle was committed to a Constable, which office 
could only be held by one of English birth, a gentleman 
porter, and a body of warders, archers, and pikemen, 
commonly veteran pensioners. The pay of the Constable 
was i.'18, 5s. per annum, that of each warder i?2, 5s. 6d. 
The gate towers were reserved as an abode for the 
Constable and for State prisoners. There were other 
dwellings within the Castle precincts. A Mint was more 
than once established in the Castle, and the Master of 
the Mint, pcrcussor rnonetae, resided therein. Bevond 
the Castle walls towards the east were a chapel, the 
prison of the Provost Marshal, an armoury, the offices, 
as at present, of the Ordnance Department, an office for 
registry of deeds, and the stables of the governor. In 
1606 Sir Arthur Chichester complains that a court of 
law was held in the Castle directly over a store of muni- 
tions. In a seventeenth-century lease we find the lettin'r 

^ Holinshed's Chronicle. 

2 Strafford's Letters, vol. i. p. 131. 

" M. de la Boullaye le Gouz. 

99 



of ' all the place, tenement, or house and shop occupied 
by Thomas Pinnocke, goldsmith, deceased, with two 
small gardens annexed, situate tclthhi the precincts of 
the castle ditch, and extending from the castle bridge to 
the city wall west ot the said bridge, and from the castle 
west and north of the said castle.' Dean Swift occupied 
rooms within the Castle, which narrowly escaped being 
burnt through his carelessness while reading in bed. 
From the time of Sidney to the end of the seventeenth 
century the appearance of the Castle was pretty much as 
follows. The entrance was, as at present, from the north 
on the south side of Castle Street, and was approached 
by a drawbridge between two strong round towers, called 
the Gate Towers, as in Derrick's view. The gateway 
between them was furnished with a portcullis armed with 
iron, and two pieces of ordnance stood on a platform 
opposite the gate. The east Gate Tower was taken down 
about 1750 to admit of a more convenient entrance, and 
the western was subsequently removed. From the Gate 
Tower a strong and high curtain wall ran westward, 
parallel to Castle Street, to the Cork Tower, the work of 
Richard Boyle, which replaced an old one that fell in 
May 1624. From the Cork Tower the wall was continued 
in one curtain, of equal height with the former, till it 
joined the Bermingham Tower, named either from John 
Bermingham, Earl of Louth and Atherlee, Lord Justice 
in 1321, or from Walter Bermingham, Lord Justice in 
1548, or from William Bermingham and his son Walter, 
imprisoned there in 1331. The Bermingham Tower, 
supposed to have been built in 1411, was shattered by 
an explosion of gunpowder in an adjacent store, and 
rebuilt in 1775. From the Bermingham Tower the 
curtain extended to the East Gateway, a building oblong 
and quadrangular, strengthened by a broad deep moat. 
In the walls were two sallyports or postern gates, one 
near the Bermingham Tower, the other affording a 
passage to the Castle-yard. The former was closed in 
100 



l(j().'3 by the Duke of Oriuoiule, in consetiuence of Colonel 
lilood's plot to surprise the Castle. The Wardrobe 
Tower, now known as the Record Tower, havinjif been 
used as a storehouse of" the public records since 1579, is 
the sole survival of the edifice described by Harris. In 
15iS() it is said to have been the ])lace of imprisonment of 
Henry and Art OWeill and Hu<i;h Roe O'Donncll, and a 
modern inscription placed on one of the still existing 
cells records tlie unauthenticatcd tradition that this was 
their ])lace of confinement. This also was threatened 
with destruction at the end of the eighteenth century, 
as we learn from the Diiblhi Evening' Fast of 3rd Sep- 
tember 1793, 'that the old black tower to the westward 
of the chappell is to be demolished as a useless fabric 
that ffives a disgraceful <;loominess to the Viceregal 
residence, little according with the style and elegance of 
the other })arts.'' This proposed demolition was, however, 
not carried out, but in 1813 the upper storey was rebuilt, 
the embattled parapet was added, and the interior 
altered and refitted for the storage of the records. 
These were in turn transferred to the Record Office, and 
the Record Tower is now only used for the custody of 
modern State papers. It contained also the permanent 
office of Ulster King of Arms, which, however, has now 
been removed to the Bedford Tower. The Castle, as it 
now exists, is divided into two courts or yards known as 
the Upper and Lower Castle- yards. 
The upper or western (|ua{lrangle 
is entered from Cork Hill, on the 
north, by the principal gateway, 
surmounted by a statue of Justice. 

Retween this gateway and a cor- ^ _ 

res))onding artificial one, 'built -^^s*'^ 

merely to j)re6erve uniformity,' is a mmikicial gateway 
building of two storeys exhibiting Ionic columns on rus- 
ticateil arches supporting a pediment from which rises a 
circular lantern of the Corinthian order, terminating in a 

lOl 



Dublin 

under 

the 

Tudors 

and 

Stuarts 




Dublin 




THE BEDFORD TOWER, DUBLIN CASTLE 



cupola, from which floats a flag on State occasions. This 
structure, known as the Bedford Tower, is appro- 
priated to the use of the Master of the Ceremonies, and 
above it the Imperial imited standard was displayed on 
the union of the kintrdoms, 1st January 1801. On the 
north side of the upper quadrangle are the offices of the 
1 02 



Chief Secretarv for Ireland and llii' Ollicers of tlic lioiisf- Dublin 
hold. The south side, havini^ at the west end tlie under 
Wardrobe Tower, is ocruj)ied by the Viceregal apart- the 
ments. These include the Council-room, the Throne- Tudors 
room, and St. Patrick's Hall. The first is adorned with and 
portraits of Viceroys of the eiorhteenth and nineteenth Stuarts 
centuries; the second contains the throne erected for 
George iv.,and a handsome lustre presented by the Duke 
of Rutland ; in the last is annually held St. Patrick's 
Hall on the 17th March. It is decorated in white and 
gold, and lit by electric lights along the cornice, and its 
walls are enriched with the coats-of-arms and hung with 
the ])anners of the Knights of St. Patrick, the ceremony 
of whose investiture is held here. Its ceiling, painted in 
1783 by \'incentio Valdre, represents the conversion of 
the Irish by St. Patrick, the reception of the chieftains 
by Henry ii., and, in the centre. King George in., sup- 
ported by Liberty and Justice. At the rear of the 
apartments of the Lord-Lieutenant is a small Italian 
garden, entered by a drawbiidge. In the Lower Castle- 
yard, approached from Palace Street, is the Bermingham 
Tower, the Arsenal, with stores for sixty thousand men, 
the Ordnance Office, and the office of the Metropolitan 
Police. In the corner on the south side is the Castle 
chapel, built of Irish limestone (1S07-1S14), under the 
Vicerovalty of John, Duke of Bedford, at a cost of 
<r42,0()(), "in the fforid style of Pointed Gothic, the 
architect being Francis Johnston. On the exterior are 
the heads, in dark blue Iri^h marble, of all the sovereigns 
of iMigland, and over the north door the busts of 
St. Peter and Dean Swift, over the east those of St. Pat- 
rick, l))ii<^n l)o|ion)ihe (Brian Boru), and the Virgin ]\Iary. 
The interi(n' woodwork is of Irish oak. 

The district north-west of Dublin had received, prior 
to the Scanilinavian invasion, the name of Kilmainham, 
i.e. the ' kil,' or church, of St. Maignend, who is said to 
have established a monastery here as early as G06 .\.n. 

103 




GATEWAY, ROYAL HOSPITAL, KILMAINHAM 

The district was a favourite camping-place of the Irish in 
their attacks on Dublin, and it was the headquarters of 
l)tti<^n l)(5pc»nnlie (Brian Boru) before tlie battle of Clon- 
tarf (p. 10). About 1174 Strongbow founded here a 
Priory of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, or Knights 
Hospitallers ; not of Knights Templars as has long been 
incorrectly affirmed. The Knights Hospitallers received 
a charter from King John in 1201, which was confirmed 
by Henry iii. in 1220. In August 1212 Pope Innocent in. 
confirmed the 'Knights Hospitallers of Kilmainham,' and 
in 1309 we read 'of the latter foundation (Hospitallers) 
was the priory of St. John's at Kilmaynham besides Dive- 
lin.'' The knights of the order were valuable allies of the 
Anglo-Normans in their conflicts with the native Irish : 
104 



William Fitz-Rogt-r, I'rior of Kiliiiaiiili.iin, was taken Dublin 
prisoner by the latter in a buttle fought in 1274. The under 
IViors of the order sat as IJarons in the Irish rarlianient, the 
which sometimes met in the I'riory. In 1418 Thomas le Tudors 
Botiller (or Butler), Prior of Kilmainhani, with a body of and 
eight thousand (' bien huict mille ') Irish troops ' in mail, Stuarts 
with darts and skeyns,' attended King Henry v. to France 
and took part in the siege of Jlouen, where 'they did so 
their devoir that none were more praised, nor did more- 
damage to their enemies/ James Keating, Prior in 14()1, 
was perhaps the most notable of the tenants of that 
office. He wasted much of the property of the order, 
even going so far as to raise money by j)awning a piece of 
the true Cross. He was deprived of his dignities by the 
Grand Master at Rhodes, who appointed Marmaduke 
Lundey, an Englishman, as his successor; but on landing 
at Clontarf the latter was seized by armed men, and 
compelled by Keating to surrender his patent of office. 
Keating, unfortunately for himself, es])()used the cause of 
Lambert Simnel, and on the defeat of that pretender 
was deprived of his office of Constable of Dublin Castle. 
He held forcil)le possession of the Priory and Hospital for 
a few years, but was expelled in 1491, and soon after died 
in poverty. At the dissolution of the religious houses 
bv Ilenrv viii., the Prior of Kilmainham surrendered all 
the property of his order to the King, and was created 
Viscount Clontarf, with a pension from the funds of the 
Priory. 

The Hospital was reconstituted under (^)ueen iMary,and 
in 1557 Sir Oswald Massing])erde was aj)pointcd Prior, 
' with the sanction of Cardinal Pole, the Pojie's Legate,' 
and 'restored to the former j)ossessions of the house ; but, 
on the accession of Queen Elizabeth, he privately withdrew 
from the kingdom, and died in obscurity.'' In 155(j the 
N'iccroy, Thomas Radcliffe, Viscount Fitz waiter, after- 
wards Earl of Sussex, had kept his court at the Priory of 
Kilmainham, which in 1535 is describetl by the Deputy, 

105 



Lord Grey, son to the Marquis of ])orset, as ' assuredly a 
goodly house, and great pity that it should decay.' Yet 
on the landing of Sir Henry Sidney in 1565 it was found, 
as we have seen, unfit for his occupation ; and when 
Beverley Newcomen, the last Keeper, resigned in 1617, 
the buildings were allowed to fall into complete decay. 
In 1675 the maintenance of the veterans of the Irish 
garrison of seven thousand men, who, when unserviceable 
by reason of age, still continued in the ranks ' for want 
of some other fitting provision for their livelihood,"' 
demanded settlement. The founding of the 'Invalides'' 
in Paris by Louis xiv. pointed the way to a similar 
solution of the question in Ireland. Accordingly, the 
Duke of Ormonde obtained from Charles ii. in 1679 a 
letter authorising the erection of an Hospital for the 
reception of army pensioners, and a deduction of 6d. in 
the =£"1 on the pay of the troops was ordered to be 
applied to the maintenance and convenience of aged and 
maimed soldiers in the army of Ireland, whose number was 
then computed at three hundred. This financial arrange- 
ment ceased in 1794, since when the hospital has been 
supported by parliamentary grants. The lands of Kil- 
mainham, amounting to sixty-four acres, then included 
in the Phdenix Park, were considered to afford the most 
suitable position ; but the site of the ' old ruinous build- 
ing, commonly called the Castle of Kilnminham,"' was not 
chosen for the erection of the new building, the present 
situation being selected as highest and nearest the city. 
Here, says the charter of Charles ii., 'we directed an 
Hospital to be erected near our City of Dublin for the 
reception and entertainment of such antient, maimed, 
and infirm officers and soldiers ... as have faithfully 
served, or hereafter shall faithfully serve Us, our Heirs 
and Successors.' This charter was lost on its removal to 
England in 1688, but found amongst family papers and 
restored to the Hospital by Eilward W. Newenham, 9th 
Regiment, in 1848. The foundation stone was laid by 
io6 




ENTRANCE, ROYAL HOSl'ITAI, 



tlif Duke of Oniioiulc on 
29th Ai)ril H)SO, and the 
building, (lesioned by Sir 
Christopher Wren, was, as it 
now stands, completed in 
1()S4 with the exception of 
the chapel, consecrated two 
years later, and the steeple, 
added in 1701. The total 
cost, exclusive of the latter, 
was i.'23,500. 1 1 is described 
in a contenij)orary record as 
' a stately, spacious, and com- 
modious building, wherein 
four hundred invalids are 
decently maintained/ The 
Uoval Hospital has two a|)proaches — the more ordinary 
one from the north, by the Kingsbridge terminus; the more 
imposing from the west, by the South Circular lload, 
through a gateway surmounted by a Norman tower. 
This entrance, erected from a design of F. Johnston in 
1812 during the Viceroyalty of the Duke of Richmond, 
and hence known as the Richmond Tower, formerly stood 
at the foot of Watling Street, near Rarrack, formerly 
' Bloody,' Rridgc, where the south (piays then ended. On 
the opening of the Great Southern and Western Railway 
in 184-6, and the conveyance to them of twenty-one acres 
of the lands of Kilmainham. it was removed to its present 
position by the Roard of Works, at the expense of the 
railway company. The Royal Hospital is a plain and 
massive ])uilding. forming a quadrangle surrounding a 
court, and measuring 306 feet from north to south, and 
288 feet from east to west. The principal front faces 
north towards the Liff'ey. In the centre is th(; great 
hall, approached by an entrance with an ornamental 
Corinthian front, over the door of which are the arms 
of the Duke of Ormonde, having the chapel to the east 

107 



and the residence of the Commander of the Forces in 
Ireland on the west. Above tlie entrance is a square 
steeple (1701), with a Gothic window on each of its 
sides, over each of which is a clock-dial, the whole 
terminated by an octagonal spire with a ball and vane. 
The east front contains the beautiful Gothic east window 
of the chapel, sole relic of the Priory of the Knights Hospi- 
tallers, from the ruins of which it was carefully removed 
and re-erected in its present position. The stained glass 
of the upper portion is old, that of the lower was pre- 
sented by Queen Victoria in 1849. The great hall is 100 
feet in lengtli by 50 feet in breadth. Its walls are hung 
with portraits of King Charles ii., William and Mary, 
Queen Anne, and Prince George of Denmark, James, first 
Duke of Ormonde, and others ; and decorated with flags 
and tattered remnants of regimental colours, including 
the standard carried by the Inniskilling Dragoons at the 
battle of the Boyne. The lower part of the walls is 
wainscotted in oak, and adorned with trophies of armour, 
mainly brought from the collection in the Tower of 
London in 1829, including suits of armour of the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries, early matchlock and 
flintlock muskets, and a representative display of modern 
weapons. 

Behind the door of the chapel is a handsome wrought- 
iron gate, said to have been presented by Queen Anne. 
The handsome ceiling is ornamented with designs of fruit 
and flowers, an exact reproduction in lighter materials of 
the original fine Italian stucco work of Cipriani, and the 
carved oak of the chancel is by Grinling Gibbons. Many 
interesting relics are preserved in the Hospital, including 
charters, curious old books, and some good church-plate. 
Many ineffectual attempts have been made to abolish the 
in-pensioners of the Royal Hospital, the last in 1853; 
but the number fixed by lloyal Warrant in 1854 at one 
hundred and forty is still maintained. 

Adjoining the Hospital is the ancient graveyard said 
io8 



to have l)con Hic burying-place of Prince Murcliadh, Dublin 
son ot" liiiaii, and others slain at tiie battle of Clontarf ; under 
the upright shaft of a granite eross, ornamented with an the 
interlacing knot and divergent sj)irals, being traditionally Tudors 
believed to be portion of his monument. The enclosure, and 
formerly known as ' Bully's Acre,' was used for interments Stuarts 
up to 1S32, when, in the great cholera visitation, five 
hiuidred burials took place within ten days, and three 
thousand two hundred in six months. It was then closed 
as a burving-j)lace by the governors from fear of the 
spread of the pestilence. 

Educational facilities in English Ireland may be said 
to date from the seventeenth century. The close of the 
sixteenth century had, indeed, witnessed the foundation 
of Trinity College, but it was not till IGOS that the Royal 
Free Schools, the first public schools in Ireland, were 
established by Order in Council. In l(jl7 Foyle College, 
Londonderry, was founded ; and in 1669 Erasmus Smith, 
a large Irish landowner, endowed the schools which still 
bear his name, of which foundation is the High School 
in Harcourt Street, Dublin. The following year saw the 
foundation by Charles ii. of the King's Hospital, or Blue 
Coat School, and before the close of the century the 
colleges or collegiate schools of Kilkenny, Clonmel, Navan, 
and Middleton had been founded. The only one of these 
which concerns the history of Dublin is the King's 
Hospital, which still stands at the south-east corner of 
Oxmantown Green, and was the first charity of the kind 
in the kingdom. The district is, as we have seen, an 
historic one. One of the early settlements of the Ostmen, 
we learn that in the twelfth century 'the faire greene or 
commune now called Ostmontowne-greene was all wood. 
. . . From thence, Amio lOiW, King William Kufus by 
license of Murchad had that frame which made uj) the 
roofe of Westminster Hall, where no English spider 
webbeth or breedeth to this day.''^ Here, in 1670, 
^ Ilannier's Chronicle. 

109 



Charles ii. founded the King"'s Hospital, since generally 
known as the ' Blue Coat School,' from the quaint 
uniform of the scholars, ' for the sustentation and relief 
of poor cliildren, aged, maimed, and impotent people, 
inhabiting or residing in the city of Dublin.' In 1680 
the latter object was dropped and the charity limited to 
the education and support of children of freemen, none 
of whom should be admitted who were under 3 feet 9 
inches in height, or who were lame, deformed, or afflicted 
with any infectious disease. The children were taught 
reading, writing, and arithmetic, and a fee of £5 was 
paid on leaving to apprentice them to some suitable 
calling. In 1089, as we learn from a petition to the 
Privy Council, Tyrconnel ' turned out all the poor 
Blew Boys,' sixty in number, and sent their beds ' to the 
great Hospital near Kilmainham for the use of the 
wounded soldiers.' The present structure was erected, 
from the plans of Thomas Ivory in 1777, a little to the 
west of the oriorinal buildino;, which stood on the west 
side of Queen Street, and hence was sometimes incorrectly 
called the Queens Hospital. It presents a curiously in- 
complete appearance from the absence of the large central 
steeple included in the original design, still to be seen 
at the school. The charity was endowed with ddOOO 
real estate, worth i^SOOO per annum in 1780, when there 
were 170 scholars in residence; which number had fallen 
to 120 before the end of the eighteenth century. The 
school now affords maintenance and a first-class classical 
and mathematical education to 100 boys. 



no 




rW WW 

'mil 




CHAPTER IV 



TRIXITY COLLKGE, DITHLIX 



rHE history of 
Dublin would be 
incomplete did it not 
include that of its 
University. Thou<»h 
Trinity College does 
not bear to Dublin 
that intimate rela- 
tion which the Col- 
leges of Oxford and 
Cambridge bear to 
the cities which thev 
respectively occupy, 
yet the bonds uniting 
the Irish metropolis 
to the centre of Irish 
learn inji are strong 
and permanent ; and 
PKovosT-s HOUSE Trinity College has 

struck its impress deeply on the lives of many of Ireland's 
greatest sons, has moulded and sha})ed their destinies, 
and through them has profoundly influenced the history 
of the Irish nation. 

The earliest attempt at an Irish University was based 
H ■ 113 




Dublin on a Papal Bull of the early fourteenth century. Little 
progress, however, was made on this foundation, and at 
the close of the fifteenth century another Bull was ob- 
tained from Pope Sixtus iv. under which the Dominicans 
acram attempted the foundation of a University in Dublin. 
Once more did the scheme flicker out ; but the close of 
the next century saw a wave of that intellectual activity 
which was surging over Europe strike on the shores of 
Ireland ; and a little group of scholars appealed to the 
Mayor and Corporation of Dublin, then the all-powerful 
rulers of the city, for their help in carrying into effect a 
project which had been already mooted by Stanihurst in 
the Irish House of Commons, of which he had thrice been 
Speaker. The Corporation in their petition to the Lord 
Deputy gave ample evidence of the sincerity of their 
request, bv offering to grant to the University, should it 
be established, a substantial endowment in the seques- 
trated lands and buildings of the monastery of All 
Hallows, immediately outside the city walls. This 
monastery, founded on Le Hogges by King Dermod 
MacMurrouo-h in 1166, had been bestowed on the Dublin 
Corporation in 1538 by King Henry vui., and had since 
remained practically derelict, producing only a rent of 
dt^SO per annum. The petition was entrusted by Sidney, 
tiie Lord Deputy, to Henry Usher, Archdeacon of Dublin, 
a graduate of both the English Universities, for presenta- 
tion to the English Privy Council, and by them was 
favourably received. A warrant was issued empowering 
the Mayor and Corporation to proceed with the erection 
of the College, and a charter was obtained from Queen 
Elizabeth, nominating to the provostship of the new 
University Adam Loftus, Archbishop of Armagh, to 
which primacy he had been appointed at the age of 
twenty-eight. An appeal to all the Irish baronies for 
the necessary funds produced the considerable sum of 
dCSOOO, equivalent to some =£^1 6,000 in the present day ; 
the foundation stone was laid on 16th March 1591, 
114 



and in January 1593 the College was opened for the Trinity 
'admission of students/^ With Archbishop Loftiis were Collt-frc, 
associated as fcUows Lucas Challoncr, and the Scotch Dublin 
masters of the Dublin (iraimiiar School, James Fullerton 
and James Hamilton. The first of these is commemorated 
by an alabaster tomb at the rear of the present chapel, 
with the inscription : — 

' Coiulitur lioc tuimilo Chaloiieri triste cadaver 
Cujus ope et precibus coaditur ista donius.' 

The total income of a CoUeoe founded, in the words of 
Lord Deputy Fitzwilliam, ' for the benefytt of the whole 
countrey,' only reached at first the miserably insufficient 
sum of ,X'i3()0 [)er annum; but Queen Elizabeth in 1598 
endowed it with l"200 yearly under the IVivy Seal ; and 
James i., that noted patron of learning, assigned to the 
foundation a pension of X'400 per annum, together with 
considerable grants from the forfeited estates in the 
province of Ulster, thus increasing the available yearly 
income to more than X^IOOO. The buildings, too, gave 
little promise of their present stateliness, consisting only 
of a small (piadrangular pile of red brick of three storeys, 
between the present Campanile and the Theatre. On 
the north was the original steeple of the Priory of All 
Hallows, and the tideway of the Liff'ey practically 
washed the northern front. This was, for more than 
a century, the main front of the College ; the western 
entrance not being in use before 1697, and the present 
handsome west front, with the scjuare behind it, dating 
only from 1752. In 1617 a bridewell, shown on Speed's 
maj) of 1610, situated on Iloggen Green, due west of the 
College, was purchased from the city by the L^niversity 
for X';J{), and converted by them into Trinity Hall, a 
place of residence for students. It was, however, found 
inconvenient, and in 164-0 had fallen into a ruinous con- 
dition. It was soon after occupied by Dr. John Stearnc, 
' Trinity College, Dublin. Trofessor William MacNeile Dixon. 

115 



Dublin one of the Fellows, and became the meeting-place of 
the city physicians (p. 293). In 1630 the University 
obtained a grant of the church of the Discalced Car- 
melites in Bridge Street, together with the house and 
chapel of the Jesuits in Back Lane, The former was 
known as St. Stephen's or Kildare Hall, and is men- 
tioned by Sir William Brereton, who visited Dublin in 
1635 ; and the latter were remodelled and named the 
New College.^ Again in 1658 it was proposed by Henry 
Cromwell that a new College should be founded on the 
lands of Baggotrath, and a Free School in the Liberty of 
St. Sepulchre's beside the Cathedral of St. Patrick, but 
this project was ultimately abandoned. Under the pro- 
vostship of Sir William Temple (1609-1627) the number 
of Fellows was increased from four to sixteen, then first 
divided into Senior and Junior Fellows ; and a Professor 
of Theological Controversies, now the Regius Professor 
of Divinity, with two Deans, a Bursar and other minor 
officials were appointed. The rule of celibacy for the 
Scholars and Fellows was introduced by Bedell, Provost 
1627-29, afterwards Bishop of Kilmore. He also fostered 
the study of Irish amongst the undergraduates, and 
arranged for a lecture in Irish and for Irish prayers. 
Under the Viceroyalty of Strafford, and the provost- 
ship of his nominee, William Chappel, the College 
statutes were altered under a new charter of Charles i. 
By this the number of visitors was ' reduced to two, the 
Vice - Chancellor and the Archbishop of Dublin, the 
tenure of Fellowships was extended from seven years to 
an optional tenure for life, the appointment of the 
Provost and the power of making statutes reserved to 
the Crown, and the authority of the Chancellor and of 

^ It was soon discontinued, and after a time lapsed again into the hands 
of the Jesuits, and became a Government Hospital under Charles ii., 
and finally in 1672 a charter issued for reopening in it the old City Free 
School. It is referred to in the Calendar of Ancietit Records of the City 
of Dublin, under date 23rd August i67i,as 'The Great House commonly 
called the Hospitall situate in Back Lane.' 
116 



the Provost considerably extended. . . . The govern- Trinity 
niont of the College \v<as comniitted entirely to the College, 
Provost and seven Senior Fellows,'' and Itonian Catholics Dublin 
were excluded from the l'\'ll()wshij)s.^ 

The College passed through grievous times during 
the rebellion of 1()41 and the subse(|uent troubles, 
llents could be collected neither in Ulster nor Munster, 
and the College plate had to be melted down or sold to 
provide for immediate necessities. The year 1678 saw 
the appointment as Provost of an Oxford scholar in 
Narcissus Marsh. His tenure of office will long be 
remembered in Dublin, of which he became Archbishop, 
by the foundation of the valuable library, which bears 
his name, attached to St. Patrick's Cathedral (p. 66). 
While Provost he commenced the building of a new 
Chapel and Hall, finished by his successor. Put evil 
times were again in store for the ('ollege. The line of 
action pursued by James ii. towards the English Uni- 
versities which tended to cost that monarch his crown, 
was also followed towards the Ii'ish University. In 1687 
a roval imtnddmus was issued to admit a Roman Catholic 
named Doyle to a Pellowshi]) in Trinity College. The 
non-compliance of the authorities was punished by the 
withdrawal of the Concordatum Fund of i.^400 a year, 
and the College, already ham})ered by the expenses of 
the new buildings, was once more driven to the expedient 
of selling the College plate. An attempt to ship 5000 
ounces to iMigland was met by the refusal of Tyrconnel, 
the Lord Deputy, to sanction its removal, and the 
College was reduced to great straits. Put worse was to 
follow. On Pith March 1689 King James landed in 
Ireland, and on the 16th September the College ' was 
seized on for a garrison by the King's order, the Fellows 
tui-ned out, and a Regiment of Foot took possession and 
contiiuied in it.""- The Chapel was used as a storehouse 

' trinity Collate, Dublin. Professor William MacNeile Dixon. 
- Register of Trinity College. 

117 



Dublin foi' gunpowder, and, in the words of Archbishop King, 
' many of the chambers were turned into prisons for 
Protestants. The garrison destroyed the doors, wain- 
scots, closets and floors, and damnified it in the building 
and furniture of private roomes, to at least the value of 
two thousand pounds.'^ The Provost nominated by King 
James was Dr. Michael Moore, a Roman Catholic secular 
priest, who together with the King's chaplain. Rev. 
Teigue Macarthy, who had been made custodian of the 
Library, did much to preserve the College from further 
pillage and destruction, and interested themselves on 
behalf of the Protestant prisoners within its walls. Such 
broad-minded liberality, exhibited at a period of violent 
passion, confers honour on the Church of which they were 
priests, and Trinity College has not been slow to 
acknowledge her indebtedness to her only Roman 
Catholic Provost. The opposition of Dr. Moore to 
the proposal of Father Petre to hand over the College 
to the Jesuits, incurred for him the royal disfavour, and 
he retired to Paris, in the University of which city he 
afterwards filled the Rector's chair. The victory of 
William iii. at the Boyne, and the flight of James ii., 
allowed those Fellows who had fled to England to return, 
and matters assumed their wonted aspect. On the 9th 
January 1693 the first centenary of the University was 
celebrated with great solemnity. ' Preces tempore meri- 
diano solenniores (una cum concione) in sacello habebun- 
tur."" In the afternoon 'Hora secunda promeridiano, Post 
musicum Instrumentorum concentum,*'"- a Latin panegyric 
in honour of Queen Elizabeth, was pronounced by Peter 
Browne, F.T. CD., followed by a 'Carmen sa^culare' in 
Latin hexameters, and laudations of King James i., 
Charles i., Charles ii., and William and Mary. King 
James ii. was, for obvious reasons, ignored, but the 
City of Dublin secured a ffrateful recoo-nition of the 

. o o 

^ The Stale of the Protestants of Irelatid. London, 1 69 1. 
^ College Register. 
118 



iHMU'fits conferred bv her inajrist rates on the infant ITni- Trinity 
vcrsity. After a Lut'in debate and a ' Cai men sa-culare CoUei^e, 
Iviieuni,' recited by Anthony Dopping, son of the Bishop Dublin 
of Meath, Kiii,aMie Lloyd, Proctor of the University, 
closed the Acts, ' Discedentes j)r()sequitur perita Musi- 
coruni nianus/i Nahiun Tate, Poet Laureate, contri- 
buted an ode on this occasion, as befitted a graduate 
of Dublin University. 

The tliscipline of the College had become very lax 
iluring the early years of the eighteenth century, but 
the long tenure Of the provostship of Richard Baldwin 
(1717-5S) ilid much to rectify matters in this respect. 
He was tyraiuiical, overbearing, and unjust, and did little 
for the intellectual develo})ment of the University; but 
he enforced some degree of order, and proved his affec- 
tion for his College by bequeathing to it not only his 
savings of 1'24,000, but in adiiition real estate to the 
value of over i^50,000. His monument in the Theatre 
represents the dying Provost, on a sarcophagus of por- 
phyry, turning affectionately to the University who weeps 
over him, while an angel points to a crown of immortality 
which she holds before his closing eyes. The monument 
was the work of Hcwetson, a Dublin artist, who executed 
the work in his studio in Rome at a cost, including 
carriao-e, of i^L50(). Baldwin's successor Francis Andrews 
was a man of very different stamp, as may be inferred 
from his sobricpiet of ' Frank with many friends.' His 
position in the fashionable society of the day enabled 
him to serve the University by procuring through his 
inHuence those grants from the Irish House of Connnons 
to which she owes much of her present architectural 
magnificence. The library, it is true, dates from 171^-J3!5, 
and the ])rinting-house from 17J54; but the west front 
was commenced, by a grant of the House of Connnons, 
in 175'i ; the dining -hall was rebuilt in 17()L the 
examination theatre in 1777, and the chapel in 17cS7-9N. 
' College Register. 

119 



The bicentenary of Trinity College was allowed to go 
uncelebrated, but a noble memorial of its date is to be 
found in the Act passed in 1793 admitting Roman 
Catholics to the degrees of the University of Dublin. 
In this connection it is interesting to note the progressive 
action of Trinity College in all such mattci-s. ' More 
than lialf a century before the Test Act, which admitted 
Nonconformists to the membership of English Universities, 
the degrees of the University of Dublin were thrown open 
to the world. She was the first University to grant de- 
grees to Jews. In 1845 she founded scholarships for 
students of any religious creed who declined to take the 
declaration at that time required from candidates for 
scholarships on the foundation. In 1858 she established 
studentships open to members of any religious community, 
and five out of eighteen of those awarded in the first nine 
years went to Roman Catholics. In 1873 she gave her 
cordial support to the Act whicii abolished religious tests, 
and threw open to all comers her scholarships, her fellow- 
ships, and her professorships, with the single and un- 
avoidable excepti(m of those in the Divinity School. In 
1880 and again in 1890 she elected a Roman Catholic 
Fellow.^ These are the services rendered by Trinity 
College to the Liberal cause.' ^ We may add, the last 
instance of this liberality was the admission of women 
students to the degrees of the University by Royal Letters 
Patent received 16th January 1904, and in June 1904 
the honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred on Miss 
Isabella Mulvany, one of the earliest women graduates of 
the Royal University, and that of D.Litt. on Miss Jane 
Barlow and Mrs. Sophie Bryant, the first women to hold 
the degrees of any of the older Universities. 

Amongst eighteenth-century Fellows probably none is 

1 In 1902 another Roman Catholic Fellow was elected in the person of 
Mr. Stephen B. Kelleher, selected at the suggestion of the Provost to sit 
on the Royal Commission of Inquiry appointed in 1906. 

'- Trinity College, Dublin. Professor W. MacNeile Dixon. 

120 



so well known as the famous 'Jackv^ Barrett, immortal- Trinity 
ised hy Lever in Cluirle.s (rAfti/Ic//, and the subject of as Collei^c. 
nianv stories perliaps as Dean Swift himself. His learn- Dublin 
int>, his miserliness, his uneleanliness, his stranf^eOaths, 
iiis voluntary eonlinement to his roon)s, his conse(|uent 
surprise at sight of a live sheep or of a turkey-coek, the 
admiration excited in him by his first view of the sea. 
which had once washed the walls of the College in which 
his life was spent, are all well known. He has laid 
IJiblical critics under an obligation by his acute discovery 
of the palimpsest Codex known as Z, and has contributed 
to the mirth of nations by such stories as that of his cat 
and her kitten. 

The visit of George iv. was not unnoted in the Uni- 
versity, The presentation of the usual loyal addiess 
induced that monarch to signify, more .v?/o, his gracious 
intention of dining in the College, Temporaiy vestibules 
and covered galleries were erected connecting the library 
with the theatre, in the latter of which the banquet took 
place. A more academic occasion for hos])italitv was 
afforded by the occasion of the visit of the British 
Association in 1S!35, when such distinguished visitors as 
Agassiz, de Toqueville, and INIontalembert wx^re enter- 
tained, and the honour of knighthood conferred by the 
Earl of Mulgrave, then Viceroy, on William Rowan 
Hamilton (p. J5i21). The year 1858 witnessed one of 
the most regrettable incidents in the history of the Uni- 
versity. The 'Town'' and 'Gown' riots, which had, in 
the seventeenth century, taken the form of serious conflicts 
between the resident undergraduates and the 'Ormonde'' 
butchers, had by the middle of the nineteenth century 
been modified into the thi'owing of scpiibs and bags of 
Hour by the former, during j)ul)lic festivities, amongst such 
citizens as were supposed to hold political views obnoxious 
to a majority of the students. The State entry or 
departure of a Viceroy afforded, and even still affords, 
a peculiarly favourable occasion for such a display. The 

121 



return of the Earl of Eglinton for a second term of office 
had excited much popular enthusiasm, and the conduct 
of the undergraduates in the space before the west front 
of the CoUeo-e was more than usually turbulent. Colonel 
Browne, Superintendent of Police, lost his temper, and 
called on the colonel commanding the detachment of 
Scots Greys, who ' lined ' College Green, to charge the 
students. This the colonel very properly declined to do, 
whereupon Colonel Browne ordered his own mounted 
police to charge with drawn sabres, followed by the 
constables on foot with their batons ; and the unarmed 
students were savagely maltreated, one particularly in- 
offensive youth actually losing his life from the effects. 
Colonel Browne was obliged to resign his post, and no 
such incident has since marred the relations between the 
University and the civil authorities. 

The tercentenary of the University was celebrated with 
great magnificence in 1893 on Tuesday, 5th July, and the 
following days, when representatives of seventy-five uni- 
versities and of learned bodies from all the quarters of 
the globe were present at the festivities. A splendid 
memento of the occasion is to be seen in the Graduates' 
Memorial Building facing the library in the great quad- 
rangle, the cost of which was subscribed by past students 
as a token of affection for their Alma Mater. The Book 
of Tr'miUj College^ prepared for the occasion, formed a 
fitting souvenir for each guest who took part in the 
proceedings. 

When we come to examine structurally the College of 
to-day, we are struck by the fact that of the original 
buildings of All Hallows, or of the College of Elizabeth 
and the early Stuarts, not a vestige remains. The earliest 
building wliich still survives, the east side of Library 
Square, facing the main entrance, dates only from the 
reign of Queen Anne. The removal, in 1894, of the old 
roof and the picturesque dormer windows of the attic 
storey has completely altered the character of these 
122 




buil(lin<^s; but the 
happy thoiifj;lit of \ cil- 
iiif^ the red brick walls 
with Ampelopsiti Vc'itchi'i 
lemls colour in summer 
and autumn to the 
otherwise somewhat 
cold and repellent as- 
pect of the (piadranprle. 
The main characteristic 
of the CoUei^e is the 
sense of roominess, the 
absence of cramping 
confinement in her 
spacious enclosures. In 
all some twenty-eight 
acres, now in the very 
heart of a busy city, are 

111 -II • ' U WEST FKONT.TKIN'ITY COLLEGE 

nicluded within her 

boundary walls. The west front, facing College Green, 
is a Pailadian fa^-ade 300 feet in length and 65 feet 
in height. Tlu' great gateway is flanked on each side 
by two Corinthian columns resting on bases of rustic 
ashlar, and supporting a bold pediment surmounted 
by an entablature. In the centre of this is a clock, 
a similar one occupying the same place in the interior 
fa(,-ade, the cast-iron dials of which, feet 6 inches in 
diameter, within and without the College, are ena- 
melled in the College colour, royal blue, the ancient 
national colour of Ireland. The wings of the front are 
formed by projecting pavilions, decorated with coupled 
Corinthian pilasters, supporting an attic storey crowned 
with a balustrade. Passing through the gateway we 
enter Parliament Scjuare ^ through an octagon vestibule 
7i2 feet in length, with a groined and vaulted roof, 

' So called in conimemoration of the grant of the Irish Parliament 
(p. 119). 

123 



Trinity 
Colli'ge, 
Dublin 



piercing the main building, and having on the left the 
porter's lodge. Above the gateway, extending the full 
depth from east to west, is the Regent House, 62 feet 
by 46 feet, now used as an examination hall. It is 
approached from the gateway by a handsome staircase, 
on the right of the vestibule, the supports of which are 
singularly massive and rich in their design. The in- 
terior facj'ade is simpler, and the pavilions are replaced by 
the residentiary buildings of Parliament Square, running 
at right angles to the main front. At the extremities of 
these are, on the left or north side, the Chapel, and on the 
right or south, the Theatre, while in the centre rises the 
Campanile, beyond which is Library Square. 

The Chapel, designed by Sir William Chambers, 
erected in 17S7-89 at a cost of =£^22,000, has a hand- 
some tetrastyle portico of four Corinthian pillars sup- 
porting a pediment, and is approached by an ante-chapel 
in which is the doorway. The Cliapel proper, facing north 
and south, is 83 feet in length and 40 feet in width. Over 
the entrance is a gallery and organ-loft, the front of 
carved oak, and the north end terminates in a semi- 
circular apse. The walls are panelled in oak, elaborately 
carved, to a height of 12 feet, above which are the 
windows, the piers between which are ornamented with 
fluted Ionic pilasters, supporting an ornamental frieze 
and cornice. The coved ceiling is adorned with stucco 
work of florid Italian design. In the apse are memorial 
windows dating from the close of last century. The 
centre window over the communion table was erected by 
Dr. Butcher, Bishop of Meath, in memory of Archbishop 
Ussher. The organ is mainly modern, but the choir 
manual formed part of the original instrument by Green, 
organ-builder to George in. 

Facing the Chapel is the Theatre, or Examination 
Hall, of precisely similar architectural exterior. The 
interior, 70 feet in length, exclusive of the semi- 
circular apse, is hghted by three windows in the upper 
124 



end, and by a row of small lijjjhts above the cornice. Trinity 
The walls are adorned with twelve composite pilasters, ('ollc<Te, 
ornamented with stucco scroll-work, each on a rustic Dublin 
basement 10 feet in height. Resting on the pilasters 
is a stucco frie/e and cornice by Italian artists. The 
j)aiiited ceiling, by jNIayers, springing from the cornice, 
similar in design to that of the Chapel, was executed 
under the direction of Sir William Chambers. From the 
centre hangs the graceful carved oak candelabrum, con- 
structed to hold sixtv wax-lights, belonging to the old 
House of Connnons. Over the ])ortico is an organ-loft 
containing a small organ, said to have been taken from 
one of the wrecked vessels of the Spanish Armada. This 
is, however, a popular error, as it was cajjtured in 1702 
bv Admiral Uooke in a vessel in \ igo IJay. The Duke 
of Ormonde, who connnanded the tro()j)s on board the 
Heet, seems to have claimed the prize, and presented it 
to Trinity College on his appointment as Viceroy the 
following vear. The case is that of the original organ, 
now surmounted by the Royal Arms, but the pipes are 
those of an oi-fjan built bv Telford of Dublin for the 
College Choral Society in ISJJT. The Theatre contains, 
besides the monument of Provost Baldwin (p. 119), in the 
iive panels of the eastern side modern portraits of Queen 
Elizabeth, Archbishop Ussher, Archbishop King, Rishop 
Berkeley,^ and Provost Baldwin, and in those on the 
western Edmund Burke, by Hoppner, William iNIolyneux 
(p. JJ20), John Fitz-Gibbon, Earl of Clare, and Dean 
Swift. 

The Campanile, a handsome structure, standing oppo- 
site the entrance in the great quadrangle between Parlia- 
ment Scjuare and Library Scpiare, replaced the old belfry 
designed by Cassels, taken down in 1791, and was the 
gift of Eortl John George Beresford, Primate of all 
Ireland, in 18512. From a scjuare Doric basement on a 

^ This portrait is supposed by Professor Uixon to represent Provost 
Peter Brown. 

125 



lin 




BACK OF WEST FRONT, FKOM CAMPANILE 



podium of rusticated 
granite, rises a grace- 
ful circular belfry of 
eight Corinthian pil- 
lars, standing on 
pedestals which rest 
on a stage of circu- 
lar steps, and sur- 
mounted by a dome 
representing over- 
lapping leaves, 
crowned by an open 
lantern and smalher 
dome, terminating in 
a gilt cross. On the 
keystones of the 
arches of the base- 
ment storey are 
carved heads of 
Homer, Socrates, Plato, and Demosthenes, and above 
the four angles of this storey are seated figures repre- 
senting Divinity, Science, Medicine, and Law, by the late 
Thomas Kirk, R.H.A. In the portion above the 
circular steps the material employed is Portland stone, 
the basement being of granite. The total height is 
about 100 feet. The bell, weighing 37 cwt., is too 
large to be swung in the belfry, and is therefore only 
rung by chiming. 

On the right or south of the Campanile is the Library, 
opposite to which is the new building, designed by Sir 
Thomas Drew, of the Graduates" Memorial,^ and the 
square is closed on the east by the Queen Anne building 
already referred to. The Memorial Building now serves 
as the Students' L^nion, and houses the College Societies, 
the leading ones of which are the College Historical 

^ This is not shown in our illustration (p. 112), which gives Parliament 
Square as it was at the celebration of the tercentenary. 
126 



Society, founded in 1747 by Ednuiiui liuike under the Trinity 
name of" tlu- Historical Club; the University I'liilosophical College, 
Society, and the Theolo<;ical Society. Ik'side the Chapel, Dublin 
but slaudin*;- soniew hat back from it, is the I)inin<r-hali, 
and at the rear of the (Traduates' Memorial is the 
residential s(|uare familiarly known as 'Botany Bav,*' and 
east of Library Square, behind the Queen Anne building, 
is New Square. At the back of the Library is the 
Fellows'' Garden, and south of New Square is the fine 
expanse of the College Park, separated from Nassau 
Street by a substantial granite wall surmounted bv iron 
railings 7 feet in height, and replacing in 1842 the ugly 
brick wall erected in 1688. 

The Librar}', erected 1712-52, is, as befits its contents, 
a plain and sober stone building 270 feet in length, 
including the eastern and western pavilions. The base- 
ment storey was originally an open and)ulatory with 
double arcaded cloisters divided by a central wall. The 
constantly increasing demand for sj)ace led, in 1892, to 
the walling up of these to the injury of the architectural 
effect, but greatly to the convenience of readers. The 
two up])er storevs are surmounted by an entablature and 
balustrade. The interior leaves nothing to be desired. 
Including the east wing, now occupied by the Fagel ^ 
library, the great room extends nearly 240 feet in length, 
' and the breadth and height are so propoitioned as to 
give the eye the impression of distance without narrow- 
ness, while the galleries and curved ceiling suggest space, 
and about one hundi'ed magnificent windows Hood the 
whole with light."- It has, indeed, been declared to be 
the finest room in Europe applied to the purposes of a 
library. Between the windows on both sides are lofty 
oaken partitions forming stalls formeily fitted with seats; 

^ The library of M. Grcffier Fagcl, Pensionary of Holland, consisting 
of 20,000 volumes, removed lo England for sale in 1794, was purchased 
in 1802 for ;^io,ooo by the Board of Krasmus Smith, and presented by 
them to the College. 

" Trinity College, Dublin. I'rofessor W. MacNeile Dixon. 

127 



these have been replaced by short book-cases. The parti- 
tions terminate in fluted Corinthian columns of carved 
oak connected by a cornice supporting a balustrade, also 
of carved oak, forming the front of a galleiy furnished 
with similar stalls. In front of each of the columns is a 
pedestal on which stands a white marble bust. The first 
of these were the work of Roubiliac, then a comparatively 
unknown sculptor, recommended by Sir Edward Walpole 
to the College in 1743. He executed fifteen of these 
busts, including that of Swift, and possibly that of his 
friend Dr. Delany. The contents of the Library are of 
much greater interest than the building, admirable as is 
the design of the latter. The origin of the collection is 
probably unique in the history of libraries. On the 
suppression in 1601 of the Munster rebellion, the English 
army in Ireland subscribed a sum of ii^TOO for the pur- 
chase of books to be presented to the College. In nine 
years 4000 volumes had been acquired, many of them 
now of great rarity and interest. Fired by the example 
of these 'souldiers,' the Parliamentary army in Ireland 
purchased in 1661 the library of the great Archbishop 
Ussher, whom straitened means had forced to bequeath 
his books to his daughter, who was compelled by Cromwell 
to accept the offer of the English soldiery. Further 
grants, bequests, and donations added largely from time 
to time to the contents of the Library ; and in 1801 
Trinity College acquired the right to claim, within one 
year of publication, a copy of every book published in 
the United Kingdom. The number of books and MSS. 
now probably exceeds a quarter of a million. The con- 
tents of the Library are too varied and interesting to 
admit of any detailed account. The Book of Kells, 
probably written in the eighth century, justly termed 
' the most beautiful book in the world,' overshadows its 
Latin companions The Book of Armagh (807 a.d.), in its 
handsome embossed satchel, The Book of Mulling, The 
Book of Dhnma, and The Book of Durrow. Of at least 
128 



equal interest is the twelfth-century Bool- of Lr'nisto; in Trinity 
the Irish vernacular, and the later YclUnc liook ()f Licdu. CoUef^e, 
Oriental MSS. and K^yptian papyri are not wantinf^ in Dublin 
the collection ; and the Codex Z, already referred to 
(p. 121), and the sixth-century Codtw Usscrianvs are 
representative of early Greek and Latin MSS. The 
celebrated Irish harp with sounding-board of oak. fitted 
for thirty strin^js, and believed to have belon<^ed to l)|ii<^ti 
bopouiihe (j). 10), is of undoubted historic interest. Two 
conHicting versions of its subsecjuent history are current ; 
but they agree in stating that it was brought to Uonie 
by Donogh, son of Brian, and presentetl by a later Pope 
either to Henry viii. or to Charles ii., from either of 
whom it passed to an Earl of Clanricarde, and eventually 
came into the possession of the Right Honourable \\'illiam 
Conyngham, who presented it to Trinity College. Dr. 
George Petrie assigned the harp to the year 1400, basing 
his conclusion on the silver badge attached to it on 
which are the arms of O'Neill, armorial bearings dating 
only from the fourteenth centui'y. But as the carving 
beneath the badge is continuous, this argument loses 
much of its weight. The Library also contains some 
early Irish specimens of gold and silver Celtic work, 
amongst which is the largest gold jihnla yet found in 
Ireland, weiffhino- 3-'} o/. 4 dwt. Its ornamentation seems 
to point to pre-Christian origin. 

The Dining-hall was built from the j)lans of Cassels, 
who died before its completion about 1761, the nucleus 
of its cost being provided by a becjuest of J^IOOO from 
Dr. Elwood, Vice-Provost, in 1740. Previous to its 
erection, the fellows and students dined in a large and 
spacious room flagged and open to the air at both ends, 
grajihically described as 'the coldest room in Europe.'' 
The present Hall has a handsome granite front 50 feet in 
width, between the Chapel and the Graduates"' Memorial 
Building. Above a spacious flight of ten steps ai'e six 
Ionic pilasters supporting an angular pediment, in which 
I 129 



is a clock, constructed by Chancellor in 1846, which, 
previous to 1870, kept the ' College Time,' a quarter of 
an hour behind the rest of Dublin. Passing through a 
lofty vestibule the dining-room is entered, a fine apart- 
ment 70 feet long by 35 feet broad, wainscotted with oak 
panels to a height of 12 feet. The room is lit by four 
round-headed windows on its eastern side, opposite to 
which are recesses, finished with stucco mouldings, and 
containing full-length portraits of Henry Grattan, Barry 
Yelverton, William Downes, Walter Hussey Burgh, 
Arthur, Viscount Ki I warden, William, Earl of Rosse, and 
Henry Flood. At the south end, over the entrance door, 
are portraits of Frederick, Prince of Wales, Chancellor, 
1728, Archbishop John George Beresford, and Hugh 
MacCalmont Cairns.^ The coved ceiling springs, at a 
height of 35 feet, from a bold cornice, also in stucco 
work of Italian design. At the north end is a large 
Venetian window flanked by portraits of Arthur Price, 
Archbishop of Cashel, and Provost Richard Baldwin. 

Near the Fellows"' Table is the interesting wooden 
pulpit, removed from the old chapel, from which the 
scholars of the House pronounce the quaint Latin graces 
before and after meat. Over the vestibule is the Common 
Room, 50 feet long by 30 feet broad, adorned with 
portraits of distinguished Fellows, including that of the 
late Provost, Dr. Salmon, and of his earliest predecessor, 
Adam Loftus, the latter presented to the College by 
Lord Iveagh in 1891. Beneath the dining-room are the 
kitchens, cellars, and buttery, a favourite show-place for 
lady visitors, with ingenious arrangements for roasting on 
spits turned by the smoke of the chimneys, and cooking 
facilities on a Gargantuan scale for 300 diners. 

At the north entrance from Library Square to New 
Square stands the beautiful little Doric temple devoted 

^ First Earl Cairns, educated at Trinity College, Dublin, Lord 
Chancellor of England in Mr. Disraeli's government of 1874, and 
Chancellor of Dublin University from 1867 until his death in 1885. 
130 



to the University Press, This was built in 17''34 from Trinity 
the designs of Cassels at a cost of <XU200, provided by College, 
Bishop Stearne, Vice-Chancellor of the University. It Dublin 
has a tetrastyle portico, ' with a bold cornice and 
triglyphs, and a plain metope all in fine Portland stone."' ^ 
The University Press recalls the fact that the slifrhtintj 
designation of 'The Silent Sister' can no longer be justly 
applied to Dublin University, while the writings of Dr. 
Mahaffy, of whom may be said as of Goldsmith ' (jui 
nullum fere scribendi genus non tetigit, nullum (juod 
tetigit non ornavit,"' of the late Provost, Dr. Salmon, of 
Professor Tyrrell, Professor Dowden, Dr. Webb and 
J. IJ. Bury, now Regius Professor of Modern History in 
Cambridge University, are standard works in many 
departments of learning. On the south of New Square is 
the very beautiful and original building of 'The Schools,"" 
overlooking the College Park. This building, erected in 
1854-55, from the designs of Woodward and Deane, at 
a cost of i^2(),()00, secured the warm encomium of jVIr. 
Ruskin. The beautiful stone carvings of the exterior, 
copied from groups of natural flowers, were the work of 
the O'Sheas, two Cork handicraftsmen of extraordinary 
talent, who were afterwards employed by the same 
architects on the Oxford Museum. The Moorish interior 
is richly ilecorati'd, the marbles employed being, with 
one exception, of Irish origin, no less than iive counties 
being drawn on for specimens; and the building may 
thus be regarded as tyj)ically Modern Irish in niaterials, 
design and execution. The pendulum of the clock in 
'The Schools'' is connected by electric wire with that in 
Dunsink (p. 134). South and west of the New S(piare 
is the fine expanse of the College Park, extending from 
the boundary of the Fellows"' Garden about 270 yards 
along; Nassau Street to Lincoln Place, where there is an 
entrance and a porter's lotige, and no less in depth at 
its wider end, including the ground formerly known as 
* Ulick R. Burke in the Book of Trinity College, Dubliti. 

13' 



' The Wilderness,"' now cleared and levelled. In 1688, as 
we have seen (p. 17) the old Danish Thingmote was 
removed, and its materials used to raise and level St. 
Patrick's Well Lane, now the fine thoroughfare of Nassau 
Street. It was not till 1722 that the College Park was 
first laid out and planted with elm and thorn trees. 
Previous to that date, the only recreation-ground was 
a walled-in quadrangle on the site of New Square, 
approached by arches under Nos. 23 and 25 in the Queen 
Anne building. The main portion of the present spacious 
expanse is a fine quadrilateral, 250 yards by 170 yards, 
surrounded by raised banks and shady walks, and devoted 
to cricket and football. It is also annually the scene of 
the College athletic and bicycle sports. At the western 
end is the Pavilion, at the rear of which are the fine pile 
of buildings occupied by the Anatomical Museum and 
Dissecting-room (1876), the Histological Laboratory 
(1880), the Medical School (1886), and the Chemical 
School and Laboratories. The building of these was 
provided for from funds ol^tained in 1869 under the Irish 
Church Act, as compensation for the loss of eighteen 
advowsons granted to tiie College by James i. Close to 
the buildings of the Medical School are tennis courts, 
and the ancient and once much-frequented racquet court, 
a permanent and convenient structure. At the opposite 
or eastern end of the College Park is the Fellows'' Garden, 
south of the Library and at the rear of the Provost's 
House. In the garden is the little classical building, the 
exterior of Portland stone, with Doric portico from an 
Athenian model, erected in 1837, at the suggestion of Dr. 
Humphrey Lloyd, from the design of Frederick Darley, 
as a magnctical observatory ; then, with the exception of 
that at Greenwich, the only observatory for such purposes 
in the kingdom. It measures 40 feet by 30 feet, and 
the interior is of the argillaceous limestone of County 
Dublin, found to be entirely devoid of magnetic influence. 
The walls are studded internally so as to preserve a 
132 



uniform temperature, the nails are of copper, and all 
other metal -work employed of brass or gun metal. The 
buikliiig is lighted by a dome, and by one window at 
either end.^ In a corner of the garden, imder the granite 
wall and opposite the end of Dawson Street, is the once 
famous Holy Well of St. Patrick, now arched over, which 
gave its name to Patrick's Well Lane, vcnclla qua; diu'it 
ad fontern^ S. P., mentioned in 1592 as the southern 
boundary of All Hallows.^ To it, on the 17th March, 
crowds of pilgrims once made annual resort. 

South of the west front of the College, on the east side 
of Grafton Street, is the Provost's House, built in 1759 
from plans prepared by a local architect named Smith, 
from the desi<i:n of Lord liurlington for General Wade''s 
house between Cork Street and Old Burlington Street, 
London, and now forming j)art of the liurlington Hotel. 
The front of the Provost's House has a granite fac^-nde of 
200 feet, and is divided from Grafton Street by a court- 
yard 60 feet in depth enclosed by a granite wall support- 
ing an iron railing. The handsome, though somewhat 
heavy gateway, has a carriage entrance ornamented with 
iron-work and Hanked by doorways in arched granite 
settings. From a rusticated ground storey rises a range 
of Doric pilasters crowned by architrave, frieze, and 
cornice supporting a high-pitched roof. The centre of 
the upper storey is occupied by a large Venetian window 
flanked on either side by two smaller windows. The 
interior is handsome, the large dining-room on the 
ground floor, now used as the l*rovost's library and IJoard- 
room, and the drawing-room in the second storey are 
spacious and magnificent apartments ; the latter, a fine 
specimen of eightcentli -century decoration. It contains 
a half-length portrait of Queen Elizabeth by Zucchero, 
and a line portrait by Gainsborough of John llussell, 
fourth Duke of Bedford, Viceroy and Chancellor of the 

' Ulick R. Burke in the Book of Trinity College, DuNiii. 
- Trinity College, Dublin. Professor W. MacNeile Dixon. 

133 



University. The house contains many other fine paint- 
ings of College notabilities, including Archbishop Adam 
Loftus, Archbishop Ussher, Narcissus Marsh, Sir Hans 
Sloane, Bart., M.D. of Dublin University, and George iii. 
as Prince of Wales, Chancellor of the University, 1715. 
On either side of the main building are wings containing 
the household offices, and to the south, extending along 
Nassau Street, are the stables, of fine cut granite, erected 
in 1842. 

The handsome Botanic Gardens of the College, con- 
sisting of eight acres, surrounded by a lofty iron railing, 
at the angle of Pembroke and Lansdowne Roads, on the 
tram-line to Ball's Bridge, and close to the latter station 
on the Dublin and Kingstown railway, were first leased 
by the Board in July 1806. The first curator was James 
Townsend Mackay, author of Flora Hihernica, Dublin, 
1836. The Gardens had a predecessor at the southern side 
of the College Park in the early eighteenth century, trans- 
ferred after fifty years to the neighbourhood of Harold's 
Cross, Orders to visit the Gardens may be obtained 
from any of the Fellows of the College, or from the 
Professor of Botany of the University. The study of 
astronomy likewise is provided for by the Observatory at 
Dunsink, founded by Frances Andrews, Provost 1758-74, 
who becjueathed a sum of £3000 and an annual income 
of .£^250 to build and endow an Astronomical Observatory 
in the University. The site selected was a rising ground, 
300 feet above sea-level, beyond the northern boundary of 
the Ph(£nix Park, and five miles north-west of Dublin. 
The Chair of Astronomy in the University has been held 
by a series of distinguished occupants, the first being Dr. 
Henry Ussher, S.F.T.C.D., who wrote an Account of the 
Ohservatoiy for the Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy for 1785. On his death in 1790 he was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. John Brinkley, of Caius College, 
Cambridge, whose Astronomy is still a text-book. He 
received in 1792 the title of Royal Astronomer of Ire- 
134 



liuul, by Letters Patent (-52 Gcornje iii.). A Great Trinity 
(•irele, 10 feet in diameter, gratluated all round, v/iis College, 
ordered in 1785, but afterwards reduced to 8 feet, and Dublin 
not completed till twenty-three years subsequent to its 
connnencement, and after the death of the optician who 
undertook its construction. Dr. IJrinkley died as Bishop 
of Cloyne in 1835, and his monument is at the foot of the 
liibrary staircase. He had been succeeded thirty years 
j)reviouslv, on his accession to the episcopate, by William 
Rowan Hamilton (p. 321), who obtained the appoint- 
ment at the unheard-of age of twenty-two, while still an 
undergi-aduate, the great Airy having been one of the 
competitors. Already at the age of seventeen, Hamilton 
had written original mathematical papers. His successor, 
Dr. Brunnow, first provided, in 18CJ5, for the mounting by 
Messrs. Grubb of the Great Equatorial presented to the 
University by Sir James South in 18G3. Seven years 
later a Meridian Circle was erected at a cost of ot'800. 
Dr. Brliiniow was succeeded in 1874 by Sir Robert Ball, 
now Lowndean Professor of Astronomy to the University 
of Cand)ridge, whose charming lectures and works on 
astronomy have done so much to popularise a once 
repellent subject. A splendid reflecting telescope, the 
gift of Isaac Roberts, Esc)., F.R.S., now enables the Ob- 
servatory at Dunsink to engage in work on the stellar 
photographic survey. The present Astronomer Royal is 
Edmund Taylor Whittaker, Esq., F.R.S. 

Amongst the athletic proclivities of the alunnii of 
Trinity College, not the least cultivated is rowing. The 
Dublin University Rowing Club was established in 1840, 
and by a secession from its ranks, the Dublin University 
Boat Club was formed in 1867. Three years previous to 
the latter date, a public regatta was first held at Itings- 
end, the Rowing Club having reclaimed a stretch of land 
along the Dodder and erected a Club-house, Crews from 
Dublin University have secured the Ladies' Plate and 
Visitors' Cup at Henley. On 7th May 1898, the rival 

135 



Dublin clubs coalesced, and the rowing course was removed from 
tlie somewhat unsavoury surroundings of Ringsend to a 
pretty reach of the upper waters of the LifFey, near 
Island Bridge, where the regattas of the Club have been 
held since 1898. 



136 



CHAPTER V 



EIGHTEENTH-CENTUH Y I) 11 15LI X 



THE eighteenth centuiy 
in Ireland is generally 
known as the ' period of the 
penal laws/^ or the period 
of Protestant ascendency. 
It was marked bvthe stru<<i;le 
between the Irish Parlia- 
ment and that of Great 
Britain, which, after the 
brief existence of the (juasi- 
in dependent legislature 
known as ' Grattan's Par- 
liament,^ terminated with 
the century in the Act of 
Union. Though Dublin 
suffered during this period, 
in common with the country at large, from the un- 
generous and unenlightened restrictions on Irish manu- 
factures and connnerce, yet its j)()})idation being, as we 
have seen (p. 95), largely Protestant, had a large share 
in any prosperity which a time of comparative rest, 
succeeding the struggles and the turbulence of the pre- 
ceding centuries, conferred on the island. As the (juiet 

' History of Ireland. Joyce. 




CUSTOM IIOUSK, KROM GEORGE'S 
QUAY 



Dublin which ensued on the termination of the Wars of the 
Roses in England fostered the growth in wealth and 
population of London, so the lassitude which followed 
the hopeless struggle in favour of the Stuarts gave to 
Dublin full scope to develop her trading and commercial 
importance. The population, estimated in 1682 at 
60,000, had more than doubled forty years later ; and 
the number of inhabited houses rose between 4711 and 
17^8 by more than 4000, an estimated increase of popu- 
lation of 30,000. The suburbs commenced that rapid 
development which has continued to the present day, so 
that the city of the Tudors, cramped within the narrow 
circuit of its walls, had, by the middle of the eighteenth 
century, reached a circumference of seven and a quarter 
miles, and had become, in population and extent, the 
second city in the kingdom and the seventh in Europe. 
This is all the more noteworthy in view of the fact that 
during the same period the population of Ireland gener- 
ally had remained almost stationary. The great majority 
of our charitable institutions owe their foundation to 
the earlier portion of the eighteenth century ; and many 
of the parish churches, most of the more noteworthy 
public buildings for which Dublin is deservedly famous, 
and all its historic houses, were erected during this period 
of prosperity. 

The era of Protestant ascendency was fitly inaugurated 
by the erection, in 1701, on the anniversary of the battle 
of the Boyne, of the equestrian statue of King William in., 
which still stands on its original site on College Green, 
and which has been selected ever since to symbolise that 
ascendency. Within the memory of the author, the 
'Town"" and 'Gown' riots of Dublin were generally 
prefaced bv processions of the 'College Boys' round 
the statue, leading to attacks by the lower order of the 
citizens, and, on one unhappy occasion, ending in a charge 
of mounted police, in which an unoffending student lost 
his life. The stones of the east gate of the city, the 
140 



Port Saiiil. INIarir, or Dame's Gate, were used to form tlie Kiglit- 
pedestal for this shitiie. Tliat the increase of popuhition eeiith- 
was not iinaccoiiipaniecl l)y distress amonirst the poorer Century 
classes, is evidenced by the {)assin<;- in ITOJJ of an x\et of Dublin 
the Irish Parliament, enjoining the erection of a work- 
house in the city of Dublin 'for employin<>' and main- 
taining the poor thereof,' to be supported by a tax levied 
on hackney coaches and sedan chairs, and a rate of 3d. in 
the X'l on every house. The present poor rate foi- the 
city has reached the enormous figure of ^Zs. ^d. in the X'l. 
A site of about 14 acres at the west end of St. James's 
Street was granted by the city, and on 12th October 
of the year following this enactment, the foundation 
stone of the workhouse was laid by Mary, Duchess of 
Ormonde, attended by Sir Francis Stoyte. J.ord Mayor, 
with the recorders, aldermen, and sheriff's.^ A more 
pleasing function marked the following year, when Castle 
Market, in Dame Street, was built on tlic site of St. 
Andrew's Church and churchyard by Alderman AVilliam 
Jones and Thomas Pooley, and opened on 2Cth July by 
the Lord Mayor 'with proclamation and beat of drum.'^ 
This market was removed to the site of the present South 
City Markets, between South Great George's Street and 
AVilliam Street, in 1782, when the ground on which it 
originally stood was required for the widening of Danu- 
Street. Within the next five years the Society of the 
Ousel (ialley,-' for deciding mercantile disputes, and the 
Dublin liallast Board had been incorporated, the new 
Custom House at Essex Bridge connncnced, and the 
churches of St. Ann in Dawson Street, St. Nicholas 
Within in Nicholas Street, and St. Luke in the (,'oonibe, 
had been built. In 1706 the Uoyal Barracks were 
erected at the western extremity of the city, on rising 

1 History of the City of Dublin. Harris. - Jbid. 

•' This Society derived its name from a vessel which lay, in 1700, in 
Dublin Harbour, and was the subject of a long and complicated trial. 
The costs of proceedings before the Society were bestowed on local 
charities. 

141 



Dublin ground overlooking the Liffey between Barrack Street 
and Arbour Hill. Soon after, Commissioners were 
appointed for widening the streets leading to Dublin 
Castle, and a new General Post Office was erected in 
Sycamore Alley, on the north side of Dame Street, 
replacing the inconvenient structure in Fishamble Street. 
Already before the close of the seventeentli century, the 
Dublin Society of Friends had erected a large meeting- 
house at the east end of Sycamore Alley, which was rebuilt 
later in the eighteenth century in Eustace Street, where 
the Society still continue to hold their meetings. The 
year 1685 had seen the appearance of the Dublin Nezcs 
Letter, the first local newspaper published, and this was 
followed in 1703 by Pue''s Occurrences. 

Meantime, the differences between the Irish Parliament 

and the British House of Commons were becoming more 

acute. The former indeed in no sense represented the 

great majority of the people, inasmuch as by an English 

Act it was constituted as an entirely Protestant body. 

It might therefore have been supposed to be a merely 

useful instrument for registering the decrees of the 

English Parliament. But the commercial jealousy of the 

latter had produced enactments eminently calculated to 

lead to an Irish protest. By English legislation of the 

end of the seventeenth century, Ireland was prohibited 

from exporting to England not only cattle, sheep, or 

swine, and beef, mutton, pork, or bacon, but even butter 

or cheese. The Navigation Act of 1()63 had deprived 

Ireland of all colonial trade, and when the Parliament 

in Dublin had been induced to impose heavy export 

duties on Irish woollen goods, an Act of the British 

Parliament of 1699 absolutely prohibited the export of 

manufactured wool to any other country whatever.^ The 

Dublin Parliament, however, showed little statesmanship, 

but was engaged from 1692 to 1782 in 'perpetually 

wrangling"" with the English Parliament 'about matters 

' lo and II Gul. in., cap. lo. 

142 



which it considered affected its dignity'; <iiid is aptiv Eight- 
descrihcd by the writer {|U()te(i as an exotic 'which l)()re eenth- 
to that of" iMigland tlie same reseinbhmce that a hothouse Century 
plant bears to the oak of* the forest/ IJut a great Irish Dublin 
intellect had, by the ingratitude of English politicians, 
been relegated to comparative obscurity in the Protestant 
Church of his native country; and his dislike of l^nglish 
ministries found a ready vent in opposition to their 
economic legislation for Ireland. In 1720, Dean Swift 
published his Proposdl for the Universal Use of' Irish 
Afatmfactures, and two years later saw his great oppor- 
tunity arrive. At this time in Ireland generally, and 
especially in Dublin, was felt an undoubted want of' small 
change. The Mint which had been ei-ected under (^ueen 
Elizabeth had long been abolished, and the country had 
again and again petitioned for its re-establishment. 
Under James ii. a patent had been secured, by a private 
individual, for the issuing of copper halfpence, and a 
similar patent had been granted under AVilliam iii. It 
was therefore not luinatural that the English Government 
of the day should follow these precedents. But one of 
the King''s greedy German mistresses, whom he had 
created Duchess of Kendal, and who was already in 
receij)t of a pension of ot^'iOOO j)er annum charged on the 
Irish establishment, asked for and obtained the patent. 
The issue was fixed at the extravagant (igure of i^'l 00,800, 
not i.'108,000, as stated by Swift and others, or about 
one-fourth of the whole current coin of the country. 
This patent the Duchess sold for i'l 0,000 to an honest 
hardware dealer of Huguenot extraction, who had Eng- 
lished his family name of Dubois as ' W^ood.' AVilliam 
Wood further agreed to pay X'lOOO a year for fourteen 
years to the Crown, The profit had been estimated at 
<i?40,000, which a])pears not to have been an exaggerated 
figure, if the whole amount could be put in circulation, 
as the copper (360 tons) could be coined at a profit of Is. 
per lb. That the coin was needed, and that it was of 

143 



Dublin good quality, cannot be questioned; indeed, the coins 
were intrinsically double the value of the bronze coinage 
of the present day ; but tliat the profit should be divided 
between the Duchess of Kendal and Mr. Wood was both 
an injury and an insult to a proud and self-respecting 
part of His Majesty's dominions. This was the founda- 
tion of the celebrated Drapier''s Letters^ written by Swift 
in the character of a Dublin tradesman. Many of his 
arguments were fallacious, nay puerile, in their want of 
logic and consistency, but they were accepted by his 
readers, and the spirit of the people was roused to frenzy. 
The Irish Houses of Parliament, the Privy Council, the 
Lord Mayor and Aldermen of Dublin, had alike protested 
in vain. The reply of one of the English ministers had 
been, ' We will cram the brass down their throats'; but 
the excitement caused by the Drapier\s Letters awed the 
English government. It was first proposed to reduce the 
amount of the coinage to dP40,000, and finally the whole 
issue was withdrawn ; Wood being compensated by a 
pension of i?3000 a year for eight years, that is to say, a 
sum sufficient to cover his bargain with the Duchess, 
together with his estimated profits of c£T 4,000. 

But though Dublin had showed so forcibly its resent- 
ment of an unjust and insulting proposal, its loyalty was 
at this period undoubted. In 1715 several Irish regi- 
ments had been sent to Scotland to assist in suppressing 
the Jacobite rising ; and in 1722 an equestrian statue of 
George i. was erected, facing up the river, on Essex 
Bridge, on the rebuilding of which, in 1753, it was 
removed to the garden of the Mansion House in Dawson 
Street, where it now stands (p. 243). In the same year 
six regiments were, by the advice of the Duke of Bolton, 
transferred from Ireland to England. 

As a port for seagoing vessels, Dublin had, prior to the 

eighteenth century, laboured under serious disadvantages. 

A bar across the mouth of the LifFey, between the great 

sandbanks known as the North and South Bull, a little 

144 



to the ciist of Sutton, ;iii(l due north of Diuilcui y, now Ki<;ht- 
Kiii^stown, was only covered l)V six feet of water at low centh- 
tide. This, duiint; the first half of the seventeenth Century 
eenturv, had necessitated for ships of any consideiahh- DubUn 
draught the unloading of pavt of their cargoes at Dalkey, 
where Sir John Talbot had landed as Viceroy on lOtii 
Novend)er 1414, and where, by an Ordinance of the 
Staple (1358), all shijis laden with wine, iron, and other 
commodities, were obliged to anchor. It was not till 
lG(i2 that the Irish Privy Council, by an order, dated 
19th Sej)teniber, appointed the Custom House Quay, now 
Wellington Quav, the sole place for landing and lading 
the imports and exports of l)id)lin, although landing- 
slips are mentioned in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
tui-ies. Quays had indeed been constructed early in the 
history of the city. King John had, in 1209, confirmed 
the citizens in possession of their buildings upon the 
river, and licensed them to erect edifices upon the side of 
the Lid'ev. In the thirteenth century we find notices of 
buildings 'super ripam ' in the parishes of St. Michael 
and St. Audoi-n. Sir Henry Sidney took boat at ^Vood 
Quay in 157S, and Sir John Ferrot at Merchants"' Quay, 
on his de})arture ten years later. In 164B Wood Quay 
extended from the Crane, a little to the west of Grattan 
liridge, to Huttevant Tower. 

Nevertheless at the end of the seventeenth century 
matters still wore a very different aspect from their 
present appearance. The river, flowing between low 
banks, spread widely beyond its present limits. The 
ground forming the site of the Custom House, and a 
considerable tract of land north of the cpiays, east of 
Grattan Bridge, and even for some distance west of it, 
between St. Mary's Abbey east and Church Street west, 
extending from IMIl Lane, so called from the ' pilT or 
little inlet where the Bradogue stream entered the Lifley, 
to the site of the present new gaol, wxm'C covered with 
oo/e, except a small part about the King's Inns, where 
K 145 



had stood a monastery of Dominican friars. About the 
close of the sixteenth century, we learn that tlie depth of 
the river channel ranged from 6h feet to 3i feet : at 
Isolde's Tovver,^ near Grattan Bridge, it was 4 feet. 
In 1607 the first effort to reclaim some portion of the 
south shore had been inaugurated by the grant to Sir 
James Carroll of a lease for two hundred years at £5 
per acre of 1000 acres of so much of the strand as is 
overflowed by the sea ' between the point of land that 
joineth the College and the Ring's End,' southward to 
the land of Bagot Rath. In 1656 his daughter was 
granted remission of arrears of rent, and probably the 
lease was soon after surrendered or withdrawn, as it is 
not mentioned in any future lettings. The tideway of 
the Liffey then covered all the lower end of Westmor- 
land Street and D'Olier Street, and it was not till 1663 
that they were shut out by the wall built by Mr. Hawkins, 
to whom Hawkins Street, part of the land thus reclaimed, 
in which the Theatre Royal is situated, owes its name. 
This wall was constructed to gain from the river the 
ground lying between Townsend Street and the present 
frontage of Burgh Quay and George's Quay, adjoining 
the site of the Danish ' Steyn ' or ' Long Stone,' plainly 
figured on the Down Survey of Sir William Petty, after- 
wards Earl of Shelburne (1655), and which occupied 
approximately the site of the Crampton Memorial at 
the junction of D'Olier Street, Townsend Street, and 
Great Brunswick Street. But the first serious attempt 
towards rendering Dublin a seaport worthy of its grow- 
ing commercial importance dates from the petition of 
Henry Howard in 1676 to Arthur Capel, Earl of Essex, 
then Lord - Lieutenant, for an order to pass Letters 
Patent for a Ballast Office in all the ports of Ireland, 
pursuant to Letters under the King's Privy Seal granted 

1 Isolde's or Izod's Tower, together with Chapel- Izod, reported by 
Stanihurst ' to have taken their names from La Beal Isoud, daughter of 
Anguish, King of Ireland.' 
146 



liiiii five years earlier. This, so far as Dublin was con- Eight- 
cerned, was opj)osc'(l by the Corporation as owners of" the eenth- 
strand of tiie river under the eharter of Kinj^ John. In Century 
eonse(|ueneeofthis opposition Thomas and Henry IlowanI Dublin 
oU'ered to lease the Port of Dublin from the city at an 
annual rent of X'50 ; their od'er was aeee[)ted, and a lease 
for thirty-one years ordered. The Howards nef^lected 
to perfect this lease, and the Corporation at Christmas 
lGiS5 |)etitioned the Lord-Lieutenant that His Majesty 
may direct Letters Patent to pass to the city for the 
establishment of a Ballast Office, offerinfr to devote the 
profits to the nuaintenance of the ' Kin<>;'s Hospital.'' 
Thirteen years later the Lord Mayor and Corporation, 
in a petition to the Irish House of Conniions, represented 
that ' the river is choked up by gravel and sand, brought 
by the freshwater floods, and ashes thrown in, and by 
taking ballast from the banks below llingsend,^ whereby 
the usual anchoring places .... are now become so 
shallow that no luunber of ships can with safelv bide 
there, . . . nuich merchandise being unloaded at Kings- 
end and thence carted up to Dublin.'' The IJill |)repared 
in conse(|uence was stopped in the English Parliament 
owing to the rights of Admiralty jurisdiction, confirmed 
to the Lords Mayor of Dublin by successive charters, 
being, hotly contestetl on behalf of the Lord High 
Admiral of iMigland ; and it was not till 170S that, 
by the 6th of Queen Anne, the Dublin Ballast Board 
was created, the city having privately promised to her 
consort Prince George of Denmark, Loril High Admiral 
of England, an annual donation of ' 100 vards of the 
best Holland duck sail-cloth which shall be made in 
the realm of Ireland.'' To this Board, remodelled in 
1 787 as ' The Corporation for Preserving and Improv- 
ing the Port of Dublin,'' we owe its present satisfactory 
condition as a resort of merchant shipping. The soil 

' Ringsend, thai is, the end of the Kin^ (Diuiish Keen, a spii ur lnn"uc 
of land), Irish |ini. 

147 



Dublin raised by dredging the river was utilised to form 
gradually the site of Beresford Place, Sheriff Street, 
Mayor Street, Guild Street, Newfoundland Street, etc., 
on the north, whose names still suggest their origin, 
and Great Brunswick Street, Denzille Street, Grand 
Canal Street, etc, on the south of the present river 
channel. The land thus reclaimed being apportioned 
by the civic authorities by ' lot,' the practice is still 
commemorated in the name of the North Lotts, adjoin- 
ing Great Strand Street. The newly formed Board 
lost no time in commencing active operations. By driv- 
ing piles and sinking kishes and large wooden frames 
filled with stones in the river bed below llingsend, so 
as to raise the south bank of the river, the foundation 
was gradually laid on which the present south wall, three 
miles in length, was afterwards built, and the Pool- 
beg Lighthouse was commenced in 1761, and finished 
seven years later. The corrosive effect of salt water on 
the wooden piles rendered the breakwater, connecting 
the lighthouse with the Pigeon House,^ insecure and 
expensive to maintain, and it was accordingly gradually 
replaced by massive granite blocks dovetailed into each 
other, and clamped together by iron bolts ; the inter- 
mediate space was partly filled with gravel, on which 
srranite blocks were again laid on a bed of cement 
until the whole distance was so completed. The Pigeon 
House road, a solid causeway 32 feet wide at the 
base and 28 feet at the top, was thus finished before 
the end of the century. The work was subject to 
many vicissitudes, and as late as 26th January 1792, 
as we read in the Duhlhi Chronicle of that date, 
' A part of the south wall suddenly gave way and a 

^ The Pigeon House, at first an hotel, then a magazine fort, is believed 
to have obtained its name from a certain John Pigeon whose name occurs 
in the Journal of the Ballast Office as an employe. A portion of it was 
handed over by Government on 14 July 1897 to the Dublin Corporation, 
and the remainder successively in 1898 and 1899, and it is now the power 
station for the electric lighting of the city. 
148 




MOUTH OK THE I.IKFKY 



dread I'll! torrent broke into 
the lower <;r()unds, inund.it- 
in<; every (juarter on tlie 
same level as far as Arti- 
choke lload. The com- 
munication to llinosend and 
Irishtown is entirely cut 
oir, and the inhabitants are 
obliy:ed to y;o to and fro 
in boats'; and two days later 
we read in the same publica- 
tion, ' Yesterday his Grace 
the Duke of I.einster went 
on a sea party, and after 
shootiuf^ the breach in the 
south wall, sailed over the 
low (ground in the south lots and landed safely at Merrion 
S(iuare."' In January 1900 in an action at law between the 
contractors for the Dublin Main Drainafre operations and 
the Dublin Corporation, counsel for the former described 
the south wallas a 'Chinese Wall ^ haviny; ' no founda- 
tion below ordnance datum.' He accounted for its 
solidity by statin"; that it had settled into a solid block 
20 feet wide, and ' made a foundation for itself." 

Operations, similar to those carried out on the south 
shore, prepared for the buildin*^, on the opposite bank 
of the north wall, which was finished prior to 172S, as 
aj)j)ears from IJrookin's map of that date. This is now 
the landing-place of all the cross Channel lines of 
steamers, except the Royal Mail boats, which sail from 
Kinofstown. The tide still flowed both in front and rear 
of this wall, and it re(|uire(l the drediriuij; and filling in 
processes of wellnigh a ccnliu'v, to confine the river and 
tideway to their |)resent channel. Meantiine, in 171 JJ, 
John Itojijerson, afterwards Chief Justice of the Kin<^'s 
liench, had obtained from the Dublin Corporation a 
lease in fee farm of 153'3 acres of the south strand ' east- 

149 



Kight- 
eenth- 
Century 
Dublin 



ward of the arch on the higli road from Dublin to Rings- 
end,' and had constructed the quay still known by his 
name, whereby over 2 acres fronting on that quay were 
at his death, in 1741, already reclaimed and laid out for 
building. In 1791 the Irish Parliament granted l^-iSjOOO 
for the construction of docks on the north and south 
banks of the Liffey, and in 1796 floating and graving 
docks were opened near Ringsend. Thus Dublin had, 
as a port, before the close of the century, assumed some- 
what of its present completeness. 

The mountain stream of the Dodder, which once 
traversed a Avide waste of sand between Lazy Hill 
and Ringsend, was, early in the century, also restrained, 
though not fully confined between its present artificial 
banks till 1796. This stream was once known as the 
Rafernam (Rathfarnham) Water, and also sometimes 
termed the Donny Brook,^ through an erroneous identi- 
fication with the name of the village through which it 
flowed, styled by the annalists Domhnach Broc, i.e. the 
church of St. Broc, from which the residentiary suburb 
of Donnybrook derives it name. In 1629 ' Mr. John 
Usher, Alderman of Dubhn,'' was drowned in sight of 
many persons about the place where Ball's Bridge now 
stands, in attempting to cross the Dodder by a ford, 
then the only means of communication with Ringsend. 
This led to "the building of a stone bridge, completed 
before 1637, then known as the bridge of Symons-court, 
Symmons Court, or Smothescourt, possibly on the site of 
Balfs Bridge. The latter, built in 1791 and rebuilt in 
1835, has been widened and greatly improved in 1905 to 
meet the recpiirements of the traffic to the show yards 
established, on the east bank of the Dodder, by the 
Royal Dublin Society in 1881. 

in 1707 a jiew Custom House was erected, at some little 
distance from the river, adjoining the east side of Essex, 

^ It is called the Doney River in the map of Captain Greenail Collins 
of November i686. 
150 



now Grattan liridge, and oxtoiuliiif]^ to the intersection Kight- 
of Essex Street and Kssex (iate, Parliament Street not eentli- 
having been in existence for seventy years later. Its Century 
princi|)al entrances were in Temple liar and Essex Street, Dublin 
exactly opposite Crampton Court, and it was bounded on 
the east by the now subterranean I'oddie stream. Custom 
House Quay was limited to the fronta<;e of the Custom 
House, the two u])per storeys of which, built of brick, 
contained eadi in breadth fifteen windows. The lower 
storey, on a level with the quay, was an arcade of cut 
stone pierced with fifteen narrow arched entrances. A 
clock was placed in a trian<i;ular entablature, protected 
by projecting cornices, in the centre of the top of the 
north front. On a level with this, there stood on each 
side on the roof five elevated dormers, surmountin<>; the 
windows. It is interesting to note that in July 1S8(), 
when excavations were being made for the foundation 
of the premises of Messrs. Dollard and Company, on 
Wellington Quay, the first course of the old building 
was laid bare, at a de})th of 4 feet () inches from the 
present level of Essex Street, consisting of handsome 
chiselled black limestone. On the opening of the present 
Custom House in 1791 the old structure was converted 
into a barrack, which Kobert Ennnett proposed to have 
seized in his abortive insurrection. 

In 17^9 the Houses of Parliament had met in the IJlue 
Coat Hospital in Oxmantown, but in the same year was 
conunenced that magnificent edifice the Parliament House 
in College Green, justly regarded as 'infinitely superior 
in point of grandeur and magnificence to those of West- 
minster.^^ It was erected on the site of Chichester 
House, and at first consisted only of the portion facing 
College Green. The eastern j)ortion was added in 1785, 
and the west front two years later. The total cost was 
only i'95,00(). 

The continued growth and beautifying of the city, the 

' Hibcniia Cnriosa. ]. Bush, Dul)lin, 1769. 



employment afforded by extensive buildino; operations, 
and the multiplication about this time of charitable 
institutions, were not successful in abating the prevalence 
of widespread poverty and even destitution. In the year 
1728-29 an actual famine was experienced by the in- 
habitants of Dublin, during the continuance of which 
Primate Boulter relieved a number of the starving people 
by public meals in the dining-hall of the new workhouse, 
and hundreds were daily fed by the authorises of Trinity 
College. Ten years later an intense frost, in the months 
of January and February, was followed by a similar 
visitation accompanied by pestilence. One of the relief 
works then executed was the erection of the obelisk which 
still forms a landmark in Victoria Park, on the summit 
of Killiney Hill (p. 339). Yet in 1749 the Irish revenue 
showed a surplus of <i?200,000, which gave occasion for 
a further struggle for parliamentary rights. The Irish 
Parliament resolved to apply this surplus to the reduction 
of the national debt. The English authorities held what 
now seems the untenable position that the surplus was 
the property of the Crown. The Irish view was main- 
tained by Doctor Charles Lucas, who some years previously 
had championed the electoral rights of his fellow-towns- 
men in a pamphlet entitled A Remonstrance against 
certain Infringements on the Rights and LiheHies of the 
Commons and Citizens of Dublin; the Conmions having 
been deprived of the right of choosing the City Magis- 
trates, a power transferred to the Board of Alderman, 
subject to the approval of the Chief Governor and Privy 
Council. Indeed, as we shall see further on (chapter viii.), 
Dublin was then ruled by as narrow an oligarchy as ever 
swayed the destinies of Florence or Venice. The op})osi- 
tion of Doctor Lucas to the allocation of the Irish 
surplus subjected him to a prosecution by H.M. 
Attorney-General 'as an enemy to his country ,"" and 
he was commanded to appear at the bar of the Irish 
House of Commons, and subsequently to be imprisoned 
152 



in Newi^fitc jx'tuHnir his trial, licforo his arrest could be Ki^ht- 
i- If '(.'(ted he fled to tiu' Isle of Man, and tiience to London, eenth- 
In 17()() he was a candidate for tlie representation of his Century 
native city, for which he was elected tneniber along with Dublin 
the father of Henry Grattan, and continued to represent 
Dublin in Parliament until his death in 1771. His statue, 
by Edward Snnth, stands in the Citv Hall, formerly the 
Royal Exchange (p. 24^), for the y)urchase of the site 
of which he secured a grant from the Irish House of 
Conunons. The financial plethora in the Irish exchecjuer 
was of short continuance. In 1755, in consequence of the 
declaration of war with France, a serious decline was 
experienced in the Irish revenue, and a failure of the 
potato crop caused widespread distress. Three of the 
Dublin banks — Clement's, Dawson's, and MitchelPs — 
suspended payment, and the three remaining banks 
declined to discount traders' bills. Four years later 
rumours of a Legislative Union with Great Britain led to 
.serious rioting among the Protestant jiopulation of 
Dublin. A mob broke into the Parliament House, placeil 
an old woman in the Speaker's Chaii", and instituted an 
unsuccessful search for the journals of the House in order 
to burn them. They also stopped the carriages of 
menibers and killed some of the horses, insulted the 
Lord ("hancellor and some of the bishops, and erected a 
gallows, announcing their intention of hanging thereon 
an obnoxious politician. It nnist be remembered that, 
as has been alreadv said, Dublin was then controlled l)v 
a narrow and strictly Pi'otestant oligarcliv, and by what 
would be termed, in the language of the present ilav, an 
' Ascendancy ' Parliament. The position of the Itoman 
Catholic citi/ens may be inferred from the following 
incident. Nicholas, Lord Taaff'e, an Irish Uoinan Calholic 
peer, who liad been educated in (lermany with (leorge ii. 
and had been Austrian ambassadoi" at the English CouiU 
had returned to Ireland to prosecute his claim to the family 
title. On proceeding one Sunday morning early in the year 

153" 



1745 to the chapel of the Discalced Carmelites in Stephen 
Street, he found the building closed and the gates nailed^ up 
byorder of William, Dui<e of Devonshire, Lord-Lieutenant. 
He thereupon wrote the following letter to the King : — ^ 

Dear George, — It is a hard case, that in your Kingdom 
of Ireland, my own native country, I am not allowed to 
hear prayers, but the chapel gates are nailed up, which 
harsh treatment has been extended to all the chapels in 
Dublin. — Yours, Nicholas Taaffe. 

This produced an angry command of the King, that 
the obnoxious regulation should be cancelled. In the 
same year, the collapse of the floor of a room in which 
several Roman Catholics had met together secretly to 
perform their devotions, caused considerable loss of life 
and serious bodily injuries to many, which led to a 
relaxation of the restrictions on their worship, and in 
1751 the open celebration of the Mass was permitted by 
the authorities. 

The failure of three of the Dublin banks in 1755, had 
called attention to the risk to the public credit, consequent 
on banking being left entirely in the hands of private 
individuals. The bank established by David Digges La 
Touche, an officer of the regiment of French refugees, 
serving in the army of William iii.,had indeed weathered 
the storm, and in 1781 was established Newcomen's bank, 
in the premises on the left of the present City Hall, now 
occupied by the offices of the City Treasurer. But the 
year following saw the foundation, under Lord Carlisle's 
viceroyalty, of a national bank with a capital of one and 
a half millions, hereafter known as the Bank of Ireland, 
which was opened in ]3remises in Mary's Abbey, and of 
which David La Touche was the first Governor. 

In 1784 a much-needed Paving Act was introduced; 
and two years later a Police Bill was passed, whereby 

^ Carmcl in Irela7id. Reverend J. P. Rushe, O.D.C. 
- Taaffe's History of Ireland. 

154 




Ol'FICE OK THE CITY TKEASLKKK, 
I'ORMERLY NEWCOMEN'S BANK 



Dublin was dixidcd 
into four districts, 
the watchmen re- 
organised and placed 
under the control of 
three paid Commis- 
sioners of the Peace, 
and a now force of 
ref]fular police con- 
stituted, consisting 
of onlv 44 men ! 
The present Dublin 
metropolitan police 
force numbers 1177 
men. The provisions 
of this bill only re- 
mained in force for 

ten vears, when the Dublin Police Act was practically 
repealed and the powers of the Corporation with respect 
to the police restored. 

The year 1783 saw the cstaWishment of the Order of 
Knights of St. Patrick, consisting of a Sovereign, a Grand 
Master, and twenty-two Knights, the I.ord-Lieutenant 
for the time being filling the oflice of Grand IVIaster. 
The badge is of gold, surmounted by a wreath of sham- 
rock within a circle of blue enamel, with the motto 
Quis Separahit and the date MDCCIAXXIII, en- 
circling the cross of St. Patrick g-ules with a trefoil 
vert, each of the leaves charged with an imperial crown 
or Uj)on a field arf^cnf. 

The same year had seen considerable distress in Ireland. 
which produced a proclamation forbidding the exj)ort of 
oats, oatmeal, and barley. Dublin, however, continued 
prosperous. The (piarter known as 'The Liberties," /.c. 
the district lying between St. Patrick's Cathedral and 
St. Thomas's Court, about Jaujcs's Gate lirewery. was 
occupied largely by French Huguenot weavers, and was a 

155 



Eight- 
een th- 

Centurv 
Dublin' 



hive of industry, no less than 1400 silk looms being at 
work in 1784 employing 11,000 persons. Serious rioting 
was of frecjuent occurrence about this time between the 
' Ormonde Boys,' or butchers of Ormonde Market, and the 
' Lil:)erty Boys,' or tailors and weavers of the Coombe, in 
which on some occasions more than a thousand combat- 
ants were engaged. The combat often raged along the 
Quays from Essex (now Grattan) Bridge to Sarah (now 
Island) Bridge ; all business in the district was suspended ; 
the shops were closed, and peaceable citizens were con- 
fined to their houses. On one occasion the weavers 
seized Ormonde Market, and, removing the carcasses from 
the hooks on which they were hung, suspended the 
butchers therefrom by the jaws, and left them thus 
hanging in their own stalls. These riots led to the 
quartering of troops in the disturbed neighbourhood, and 
some of the soldiers so quartered were disabled by being 
' houghed ' (i.e. having the tendons at the back of the leg 
severed) by the knives of the butchers. This led to an 
enactment that all soldiers so mutilated should be charge- 
able for life on the district; and it is said that many 
instances occurred of soldiers being guilty of self-mutila- 
tion, in order to obtain the benefit of this regulation. 

The energies of some of the riotous weavers were 
diverted by the formation of the volunteers. This body 
had its origin in the landing of Thurot and a small 
number of French troops at Carrickfergus in 1760. The 
neig-hbouring farmers armed themselves for defence, and 
were soon organised in military fashion. In the words of 
Lord Charlemont, with whose name the volunteer move- 
ment is so closely connected, ' they were drawn up in 
regular boilies, each with its own chosen officers, . . . 
some few armed with old firelocks, but the greater 
number with what is called in Scotland 'the Lochaber 
axe, a scythe fixed longitudinally to the end of a long 
pole — a desperate weapon, and one of which they would 
have made a desperate use.' The French expedition, 
156 



finding such serious preparations made for their reccj)ti<)n, Eight- 
soon re-embarked, leaving behind General Flobert and eenth- 
some few wounded ollieers and men. The exain|)le thus Century 
set by the peasantry of Ulster was soon followed in other Dublin 
parts of the eountry. Territorial magnates vied with 
each other in raising and equipping companies of volun- 
teers, and this body had considerable influence in ob- 
taining in 1782 the measure of legislative independence, 
known as Grattan's Parliament. The Liberty Cor|)s of 
volunteers, raised among the woollen operatives in the 
Earl of Meath's I^iberties, advertised for recruits, and 
enlisted two hundred of the lowest class of citiy.ens, 
chiefly Roman Catholics.^ The volunteer movement had 
become a national one, and with its growth had spread 
the agitation for legislative independence. The war with 
France and the revolt of the American colonies, gave to 
the discontented Protestants of the north of Ireland 
their opportunity. By the end of 1781, the demand for 
the rej)eal of Povniiig's law, and for the creation of an 
Irish Parliament free from the control of that of England 
was backed by an armed force of 1)(),{)()() men. On the 
15th February 1782 delegates from the Ulster volunteer 
regiments assembled in convention at Dungamion, and 
resolved : 'That a claim of any body of men, other than 
the King, Lords, and Commons of Ireland, to make laws 
to bind this kingdom, is unconstitutional, illegal, and a 
grievance.'' Leinstcr, Munster, and Connaught followed 
the lead of Ulster, and when Parliament assembled in 
Dublin on Kith x\pril 1782, the streets were lined by the 
volunteer regiments, and College Green was packed by a 
concourse of many thousands.- When Henry Grattan 
moved his declaration of rights, Mr. Ilely Hutchinson, 
Secretary of State in Ireland, intimatid his orders to 
deliver a gracious message from the King, and, by an 
unanimous vote of the Irish House of Commons, Ireland 

^ Lccky, History of /relaiid ill the Eighteenth Century, vol. ii. j). 394. 
• Barringlon, Rise and Fall of the Irish Nation. 



declared herself an independent nation. It was on this 
occasion that Grattan delivered that speech, ranking 
amongst the iiighest efforts of senatorial eloquence, in 
vvhicli occurs the well-known passage: 'I found Ireland 
on her knees ; I watched over lier with an eternal solici- 
tude ; I have traced her progress from injuries to arms, 
and from arms to liberty. Spirit of Swift ! spirit of 
Molyneux ! your genius has prevailed ! Ireland is now 
a nation ! In that new character I hail her ! and, bowing 
in her august presence, I say, " Esto perpetua ! " ' The 
Declaration of Independence of the revolted American 
colonies and their military successes had taught English 
ministers a bitter lesson ; and, on the motion of Charles 
James Fox, the British Parliament the same year passed 
an Act abolishing that of George i. which bound Ireland 
to obey laws made in Great Britain, and the first inde- 
pendent Irish Parliament, known from its most prominent 
and popular member as Grattan"s Parliament, met in 
Dublin. Its ministers were, however, responsible, not to 
Parliament, but to the Lord-Lieutenant. The fact that 
Roman Catholics, three-fourths of the population, were 
incapable of sitting in the House, and had no voice in the 
election of its members, and that two-thirds of these 
members were practically nominated by one hundred 
persons, who controlled .the so-called 'rotten' boroughs, 
prevented this body from being in any real sense popular 
or representative. Discontent therefore continued to 
spread, especially amongst the Presbyterians of Ulster, 
these being, alike with the Roman Catholics, excluded 
from Parliament; and, in 1791, the Society of United 
Irishmen was founded in Belfast by Theobald Wolfe 
Tone, himself a Presbyterian. The abortive mission of 
Lord Fitz- William as Viceroy, who disgusted the ascend- 
ency clicjue by his favourable attitude towards the 
popular party, led, on his recall, to increased dissatis- 
faction, which found vent in a dangerous riot, in which 
Lord Clare was wounded, and his house, 5 Ely Place, 
158 



atbickcil 1)V a violent niol) (IctcrmiiK'd to liaii^ him I'.ii^lit- 
outside his own door. The niiiioiir, clcvcrlv spreatl by reiith- 
his sister, tliat troops were on the march from the (-astle, Centiirv 
(lisj)erse(l the rioters, wlio jjroceedi'd to the Custom House l)ul;lin 
in search of Mr. IJeresfoid, whom tliey failed to capt;ure. 
A demand fi)r Catholic emancipation was now formulated 
by the United Irishmen, which a<;ain was met bv the forma- 
tion of the Oranij^e Society, introduced into Dublin in 1797. 
Thus the seeds of an internecine religious struggle were 
sown throughout the length and breadth of Ireland, a 
struggle in which Du})lin largely j)articipated. The 
V^olunteers were much in evidence in the city. In October 
1779 the first regiment of Dublin Volunteers, commanded 
by the Duke of Leinster, appeared under arms and lined 
Dame Street, and in 178!J delegates from all the various 
corps assembled in convention at the Uotunda, from 
10th November to 1st December, to concert measures for 
obtaining Parliamentary Reform. The General Executive 
Directory of the United Irish Society, consisting of five 
members, sat openly in Dublin. Of these, two only were 
lioman Catholics, the others l)eing Thomas Enunett, 
Arthur O'Connor, nephew of Lord Loiigueville, and 
Oliver Bond, a woollen draper and son of a dissenting 
minister. Lord Etlward Fitz-Gerald, brother of the Duke 
of Leinster, was a member of the Provincial Directory of 
his own province. In 179-1 the Reverend A\'illiam 
riackson, an Irish Jacobin, arrived in l)id)lin from Paris 
to concert with ^Volfe Tone and the United Irishmen 
plans for an insurrection. The French emissary was 
arrested, tried, and convicted of high treason, but com- 
mitted suicide in prison. After the departure of Lord 
Fitz-Williain, several of the Irish revolutionary leaders 
Hed to the United States; where they joined James 
Nai){)er Tandy, Dr. Thomas Reynolds, brother-in-law of 
Wolfe Tone, and other revolutionists, and steps were 
taken to solicit from Carnot and the French Directory 
the despatch of a military expedition to Ireland to 

159 



Dublin proclaim a republic. Lord Edward Fitz-Gerald and 
Arthur O'Connor soon afterwards arrived in Paris to 
arrange details of the invasion ; and throuo;h their 
unguarded talkativeness tiie English Government were 
made aware of all their plans. In consequence, General 
Lake was sent to disarm the Ulster malcontents, martial 
law was proclaimed in five northern counties, and great 
numbers of pikes, muskets, and even cannon were seized. 
On the last day of February 1798, O'Connor, together 
with an Irish priest named O'Coigley or Quigley, was 
arrested at Margate when about to embark for France ; 
and papers were found on the latter inviting the French 
Directory to land an army in England. On these he was 
found guilty of high treason and suffered execution. 
The usual result ensued. Thomas Reynolds, a Colonel 
in the Irish revolutionary army, and treasurer for his 
county of the organisation, betrayed his associates, and 
the conspirators were arrested at their place of meeting. 
Lord Edward Fitz-Gerald was, however, with Emmett 
and other leaders, still at large. On the 19th May Lord 
Edward was surprised at 153 Thomas Street, the house 
of a man named Murphy, by Alajor Sirr, who had 
surrounded the house with soldiers, and after a desperate 
resistance, in which he mortally wounded one of his 
captors with a dagger with which he was armed, he was 
secured. He died in prison, a fortnight later, of a fever, 
the result of the wounds inflicted in his capture. A 
search for concealed arms was at once instituted in 
Dublin, and two days before the outbreak of the rebellion, 
23rd May, 2000 pikes had been already seized, and it 
was believed that 10,000 still remained concealed in the 
city. On the 21st May Lord Castlereagh wrote, by 
direction of the Lord-Lieutenant, to the Lord Mayor of 
Dublin to inform him that a plot had been discovered 
for placing Dublin in the hands of a rebel force. The 
rebels proposed to seize the Castle, sack Beresford's Bank, 
and burn the Custom House. The most striking feature 
i6o 



of the time, says Mr. Lecky, in his ll'tstorij of the Kii^ht- 
F/ifrhtirnf/i Cciifiayj, was ' the energy aiiil |)romj)titii(le eenth- 
witli which the eiti/eiis armed and organised themselves Century 
for the protection of the city.' Once more Dublin proved Dublin 
itself the mainstay of English rule in Ireland. The city 
was placed under martial law, and though thousands had 
secretly joined the ranks of the United Irishmen, and 
large stores of firearms and pikes had, as we have seen, 
been collected, the loval citizens formed a great and well- 
armed police force which effectually kept the cowed rebels 
down. On the 4th June the rebels had appeared at 
Santry and Kathfarnham, respectively north and south of 
the city. Cannon were mounted opposite Kilmainham 
and the new prison, and the bridges over the canals were 
removed or strongly guarded. On the collapse of the 
rebellion many persons were hanged in the Dublin 
barracks or over the battlements of Carlisle Bridge. For 
instance, Doctor Esmonde, brother of Sir Thomas Esmonde, 
holding a connnission in a Militia regiment stationed at 
("lane, County Kiidare, had led the rebels in an attack on 
the little town of Pros|)erous, the seat of a cotton industry, 
in the same county, and garrisoned by fifty men of the 
North Cork Militia and twenty Antient Britons, a Welsh 
regiment of Fencible Cavalry. Esmonde had dined with 
Captain Swavne, in command of this detachment, on the 
evening before his treachery ; and had the audacity, on 
the repulse of the attack, to rejoin his own regiment as 
second in connnand on the march to Naas. He was 
recognised by one of the defenders of Prosjjerous, and 
Captain Richard Griffith, the officer in connnand, had 
him arrested, tried, and condemned. An old woman, 
still living in 1886, informed a Dublin clergyman ^ that 
she remembered seeing, when a girl, a man hanged on 
Carlisle Brid<>:e, rcith his- coat turned inside out ; which 
identified the man so executed with Doctor Esmonde. 

• Reverend T. R. S. Collins, B.D., Secretary to His Grace the Arch- 
bishop of Dublin (Dr. Peacocke). 

L l6l 



The political turmoil of the last years of the century 
does not seem to have checked the rapid growth and 
beautifying of the city. In 1781 the handsome structure 
of the present Custom House had been commenced on 
part of the ground reclaimed on the north bank of the 
Liffey, and was completed in ten years ; and five years 
later the erection of the equally beautiful pile of buildings 
known as the Four Courts was begun on the site of the 
old King's Inns, which had been removed to their present 
position in Henrietta Street in 1765. The same year 
saw the commencement of the Royal Military Infirmary, 
a well-built fabric of Portland stone, erected on high 
ground in the south-east angle of the Phoenix Park 
opposite the Royal Hospital, and completed within two 
years at a cost of i?9000 : it also witnessed the founda- 
tion of the Royal Irish Academy. The College of 
Surgeons had been incorporated two years previously 
under a charter which severed their ancient connection 
with the Gild of Barbers. In 1789 the Royal Canal 
Company was incorporated with a capital of ^200,000, 
having been preceded by thirty years by the Grand 
Canal, much of whose system dates, however, from the 
nineteenth century. In 1791 the foundation stone of 
Sarah Bridge over the Liffey, connecting Kilmainham 
with the north bank, was laid by Sarah, Countess of 
AVestmoreland, but the structure is now generally known 
as Island Bridge ; and three years later Carlisle Bridge, 
forming the main avenue of connection between north 
and south Dublin, was commenced, giving nnportance as 
a thoroughfare to Grafton Street, first mentioned in 1708 
and named after the Duke of Grafton, son of Charles ii. 
This street in the middle of the eighteenth century was 
entirely residentiary, and contained the town houses of 
Lord Kinsale, Viscount Grandison, the Earl of Dunsany, 
and other noblemen, standing among gardens and open 
fields. The new bridge, ten feet wider than Westminster 
Bridge, soon led to the opening of shops in Grafton 
162 



street, a change which the growth of the southern Eight- 
suburbs has since accentuated. In 1793 the important eenth- 
ilistillery in John's Lane was opened adjacent to Century 
Mullinaliac, i.e. il'irtfj mill, a mill near the bridge bestowed Dublin 
upon the Convent of the Holy Trinity, and from which 
Dirty Lane, now the upper part of Bridgefoot Street, 
obtained its earlier unenviable sobricjuet. The same year 
was built on Hoggen Green at the head of the present 
Church Lane the new church of St. Andrew, in the form 
of an ellipse, familiarly known as the Round Church 
until its destruction by fire in 1860, at which date it 
was replaced by the present building. In 1T96 was laid 
the foundation of the solid granite structure of the 
Commercial Buildings in Dame Street, ' where merchants 
most do congregate,' though of late years the library and 
reading-room have lost much of their importance as a 
mercantile resort. The following year the Sessions House 
in Green Street was opened, and the present Sheriffs 
Prison attached to it re))laced the old structure of Newgate. 
During the very year of the rebellion tiie Bedford Asylum 
for industrious children was opened at the suggestion of 
the Earl of C-hichester. 

The main effect of the rebellion politically had been 
to strengthen the hands of Pitt, with respect to his long- 
conceived project of the legislative union of Great Britain 
and Ireland, In a letter to Lord Mornington, afterwards 
Earl of AVellesley, dated -'31st May 1798, the great 
minister says : ' In Ireland the Jacobins (after many of 
their leaders being apprehended) have risen in open war. 
The contest has at present existed about a week. . . . 
The rebellion will be crushed . . . and we must I think 
follow up such an event by innnediate steps for an union. "■ 
In the session opened January 1799 the Irish Parliament 
rejected his propositions, the Government being beaten 
bv a majority of five on the Report of the Address; but 
bribery and bullying on the largest scale were resorted 
to ; the patrons of the rotten boioughs were bought over 

163 



by cash or titles. In 1800 the measure was passed by 
both the Irish and British Houses of Parliament, and in 
July received the Royal Assent, Nowhere in Ireland was 
the opposition to the measure more strenuous than in 
Dublin. The city foresaw with the removal of its Parlia- 
ment tlie loss of its prestige ; the absenteeism of landlords 
in the country districts pointed to the probable loss to 
Dublin of that resident nobility and gentry whose man- 
sions had arisen during the eighteenth century, and are, 
as residences, untenanted save by office-keepers in the 
nineteenth ; and the metropolis of Ireland viewed with 
gloomy forebodings the exchange of that position for 
the status of a mere provincial town. But the fiat had 
gone forth, and on the 1st January 1801 the Imperial 
standard was hoisted on Dublin Castle, and Ireland's 
brief career of parliamentary independence was brought 
to an ignominious close. 

As has been already indicated, modern Dublin is 
mainly the creation of the eighteenth century, and most 
of her far-famed public buildings were erected during 
that period. The most noteworthy of these are the 
Parliament House — now the Bank of Ireland — the 
Custom House, the Four Courts, and the Royal Ex- 
change — now the City Hall. Some of the city churches 
date their erection from the same period. These, 
together with the historic eighteenth - century houses, 
will be referred to at the close of the next chapter. 

The erection of the Houses of Parliament was com- 
menced in 1729 from the designs, as some suppose, of 
Cassels, and was carried out under the inspection of 
Captain, afterwards Sir, Edward Lovet Pearce, Engineer- 
General, until his death, when it was finished by Arthur 
Dobbs. The site chosen was that of Chichester House, 
erected in 1613 by Sir Arthur Chichester on a plot of 
ground in Hoggen Green, formerly occupied by Cary^s 
Hospital for ' poor, sick, and maimed soldiers.' At this 
time the rear of the hospital was only separated from the 
164 



river bv a l;inc alontr the strand, tlu' present Fleet Street. Ei«jht- 
Chielie.ster House huiI l)een coinmonlv used tor the sessions eenth- 
of Parliament from l()()l,au(l was leased for that purpose Century 
from its owners hv the Kin<r, The new buildings were Dublin 
eompleted aljout 1 794, but the passin«>; of the Act of Union 
in ISOO left them untenanted, and two years later they were 
sold to the Bank of Ireland for 1^40^000, less than half 
their ori<;inal cost, subject to a ground rent of =t^240 per 
annum. The portion first erected was the magnificent 
Ionic front and colonnade extending 147 feet facing- 
College Green, and occupying three sides of a receding 
stjuare. It is ' destitute of the usual architectural decora- 
tions, and deriving all its beauty from a single impulse 
of fine art, is one of the few instances of form only ex- 
pressing true synnnetrv.'' In the centre of the colomiade 
or fac^-ade is a beautiful Ionic tetrastyle portico supporting 
a pediment, the tympanum of which bears the Royal arms, 
and is surmounted by a statue of Hibernia flanked right 
anil left by figures representing Fidelity and Connnerce. 
These were 'carved, from models by Flaxman, by Edward 
Smyth, a Dublin sculptor. At the extremities of the 
colonnade circular-headed doorways provide the entrances 
from College Green, leading up short flights of steps 
under lofty archways. Screen walls, forming segments of 
a circle, with rusticated basements, now eonneet the 
central portion with the east and west fronts. These 
walls were added after the purchase of the building by 
the IJank of Ireland, and are enriched with dressed niches 
alternating with projecting columns. The east front, in 
Westmoreland Street, was built in 1785 from the designs 
of James Gandon, of London, grandson of a Huguenot 
refugee, and consists of a handsome portico of six 
Corinthian columns and a large gateway. The some- 
what bizarre change of order of architectiu'c has afforded 
a subject for much criticism, but by its adoption the 
necessity for pedestals is avoided, anil the design, though 
inconsistent with that of the main front, is in harmony 

165 



with tlic opposite angle of Trinity College towards College 
Street, and the coup (Twil, especially by moonlight or 
beneath the electric light, is vvonderfullv impressive. 
Under the portico was the entrance to the House of 
Lords, now walled up, but over the keystone is still to 
be seen part of the lamp-hook. The apex of the pedi- 
ment bears a statue of P'ortitude flanked by those of 
Justice and Liberty, by the same sculptor as the figures 
on the main front. The west front, completed in 1794 
from designs of Robert Parke, faces Foster Place, and 
consists of an Ionic portico of four columns, at right 
angles to which is a gatewav, within which are quarters 
for the military who daily mount guard in front of the 
building. As at present constituted, the two entrances 
are at the east and west angles of the main portico and 
lead into lobbies, off which the offices open ; but formerly 
a middle door under the portico led directly to the House 
of Commons, through a great hall called the Court of 
Requests, the site of the present cash office. The latter, 
designed by F. Johnston, is a handsome room, 70 feet by 
53 feet, the walls panelled with Bath stone, and orna- 
mented with a rich entablature supported by Ionic 
columns. Rehind the Court of Requests was, as we have 
said, the House of Commons, forming a circle, 55 feet in 
diameter, inscribed in a square. It replaced the beautiful 
octagonal chamber, wainscotted with Irish oak, completely 
destroyed by an accidental fire in 1792. The seats were 
disposed round the room in concentric circles rising tier 
above tier, and the whole was surmounted by a rich 
hemispherical dome supported by sixteen Corinthian 
columns. Between the pillars a narrow gallery seated a 
limited number of the general public. This portion of 
the building was entirely removed in the structural 
changes of 1801-2. On the right of the House of 
Commons was the House of Lords, a handsome apart- 
ment, 73 feet by 30 feet, panelled and ornamented 
with columns of Riga oak, and decorated at each 
i66 



end with Corinthian columns. This has l)ecn littk' l''if;ht- 
altered, and is now known as the Court of Proprietors, or eenth- 
Board Room. It still contains the ori<]final tabic and Century 
chairs, hut the benches have been removed. The posi- Duljiin 
tion once occupied by the throne is now (ilk-d by a 
handsome statue in white marble of Gcoroe in. in his 
parliamentary robes, executed, at a cost of I'^OOO, by 
J. Bacon, Junior, of London. The pedestal is orna- 
mented with (ijrures of Religion and Justice. The walls 
are hung with two fine tapestries by Robert Baillie 
(17'J'J), representing the Battle of the Boyne and the 
Siege of Derry. The fireplace is of Kilkenny marble. 
There is a iine bust of the Duke of \Vellington by 
Turnerelli. The whole building covers an acre and a half, 
and the roof, which is for the most part Hat, would afford 
acconunodation to a regiment of soldiers. 

I'he removal of the Custom House from the site close 
to Ksst'x Hridge was due to the energy and enter})rise of 
the Right Hon. John Beresford, second son of the first 
Earl of Tyrone, and brother of the first Marquess of 
Waterford. INLr. Beresford belonged to a family which 
fills a large place in the modern history, civil and ecclesi- 
astical, of Ireland. He represented the County Water- 
ford in the Irish Parliament for forty-four years, and for 
thirty held the post of Connnissioner of the Revenues in 
Ireland. He was the chief of those officials of whom 
Karl Fitzwilliam had determined to get rid, and the 
hasty recall of that Viceroy was largely owing to the 
inffuence of the Beresford family. The Commissicmer 
had princely ideas as to the improvement of l)ul)lin, and 
to him the city owes much of its architectural pre- 
eminence. He conceived the design of widening and 
extending the (piays, connecting Sackville Street with 
the new Houses of Parliament by the building of Carlisle 
Bridge, and removing the Custom House to the then 
unsavoury swamp east of the ni'W bridge, and half a mile 
nearer the sea than the then existing edifice. He pro- 

167 



cured from James Gandon the beautiful design, afterwards 
so ably carried out by that architect ; and obtained, in 
face of corporate and mercantile opposition, an order 
from the English Treasury to build a new Custom House. 
When at length, in 1781, the foundations had been laid, 
a violent rabble, provided with shovels and saws, and 
led by the High Sheriff", proceeded to level the fence and 
fill in the trenches. But the persistence of Mr. Beresford 
overcame all obstacles, and the present beautiful structure, 
disfigured unfortunately on its western side by the swivel 
bridge, and still more by the unsightly railway viaduct of 
the 'Loop Line,' opened for traffic in May 1891, was 
completed in ten years at a cost of d£'250,000, exclusive of 
the adjoining quay and docks, on which an additional 
sum of o£^l 40,000 was expended. The building possesses 
the unusual advantage of isolation, and has thus four 
fronts, answering almost directly to the four points of 
the compass. It is in form an oblong quadrangle 375 
feet long by 205 feet deep, the southern front facing the 
river. In the centre of this is a handsome Doric portico 
flanked by open arcades, which are carried round the 
building. Within are two courts east and west, divided 
from each other by the central pile 131 feet broad, and 
extending the whole depth from north to south. The 
portico is surmounted by a projecting cornice, and bears 
in the tympanum a sculptured shell drawn by sea-horses, 
and containinii; allegorical figures of England and Ireland 
embracing, in allusion to the union of the countries. They 
are attended by a fleet of ships in full sail and by Tritons 
sounding their shells, while Neptune drives away Famine 
and Despair. The frieze above the portico is enriched with 
ox-heads festooned with hides. From the entre of the 
building rises a graceful octagonal cupola, on the same 
plan as those at Greenwich Hospital but of somewhat 
less dimensions, attaining a height of 113 feet above the 
ground level ; the dome, 26 feet in diameter, is covered 
with copper and crowned by a circular pedestal (4 feet) 
i68 



supporting :i figure of Hope, 12 feet in height, resting on Kight- 
her anchor. In front of the central tower on the attic eenth- 
storev, over the four pillars of the portico facing south, Century 
are figures of Neptune, Mercury, Plenty, and Industry. Dublin 
At each extremity of the south front are pavilions having 
entrances between tall recessed pillars. The north front 
ha.s also a central portico of four columns but no pedi- 
ment ; above these are statues, by Joseph Banks, U.A., 
re})resenting the four quarters of the globe. This front 
has neither arcades nor recessed cohnnns, but at each end 
are pavilions similar to those on the south front. The 
Royal arms, carved above the recesses at either extremity 
of the south facade, were executed by a young sculptor 
named Edward Smyth, then employed in mantelpiece 
work by Henry Darley, a master stonecutter. His 
genius was recognised by Gandon, and he was after- 
wards entrusted with the figure of ll()))e above the dome, 
and, as we have seen, with those of Justice, Fortitude, 
and Liberty above the east front of the Parliament 
House, and also with those surmounting the portico of 
the Four Courts. The same sculptor supplied the sixteen 
allegorical heads on the keystones of the entrance and 
other corresponding arches, rej)resenting the principal 
rivers of Ireland, the only female head figuring the Anna 
Lift'ey, through a curious misconception of the Irish 
nanie.^ 

'i'he interior of the Custom House is now mainly 
occupied by the offices of the Focal Government Board 
and of the Departments of Customs and Inland Revenue. 
An Assay Ofllice is still maintained by the goldsmiths in 
the north-west angle. In the open space to the north, 
connnemorating the name of its originator in its title of 
Beresford Place, Father Mathew, the Irish apostle of total 

' Tlic Anna Liffoy, the Auenelith of King John's charter, ' aquani de 
Amliffy versus boream ' of that of Richard il., is the rendering of the 
Irisli '2ir»<^inn lipre^ (Abhainn Liphte) = r«Wr Liphte or Liffey, of. 

^^'''"- I Annah of the Four Masters. 

169 



Dublin abstinence, pronounced some of his stirring appeals, and 
administered the pledge to thousands of his hearers. The 
space is still sometimes availed of for temperance and 
other public meetings. 

Proceeding east up the river for about a mile from the 
Custom House, we reach the Four Courts, a magnificent 
and extensive pile of buildings, forming an oblong rect- 
angle, 440 feet in front and 170 feet deep, facing the 
river between Richmond and Whitworth Bridgfes. The 
King's Courts, as we have seen (p. 30), occupied during the 
early part of the seventeenth century a site west of Christ- 
church, and were rebuilt towards the close of that century 
at a cost of df'SSOO. About the middle of the eighteenth 
century these buildings were repaired, but the accommo- 
dation afforded by tiiem proved insufficient, and in 1786 
their condition had become ruinous. The architect Cooley 
was directed to prepare designs for a new building on the 
site of the King's Inns {q.v.), which had been removed to 
their present position in Henrietta Street in 1765. The 
foundation stone of the Four Courts was laid on the 13th 
March 1786 by Charles, Duke of Rutland, then Lord- 
Lieutenant, but they were not completed for fourteen 
years at a total cost of =£^200,000. The original design 
by Cooley had to undergo modification, as it required a 
greater depth from front to rear than the site afforded, 
and on his death, after the completion of the western 
wing, the work was finished by James Gandon on its 
present plan. This building, resembling the Custom 
House in some important featin^es, consists of a central 
pile, 140 feet square, surmounted by a lofty dome, 
having on either side recessed courts faced towards the 
river by rusticated screens, with entrances under orna- 
mental archways. Between these the main building is 
entered under a portico of six Corinthian columns, having 
on the pediment a statue of Moses on the apex, with 
Justice and Mercy on either side, and on the corners 
of the building, over coupled pilasters, seated figures 
170 



oniblomaticiil of Wisdom and Autlioritv. Above tlic Ki<^ht- 
entraiu'O airhwavs to the courtyards, rij^lit and left of the eeiith- 
iiiuin building, are respectively the Uoyal shield and the Century 
Irish harp. Entering by the central portico, we find Dublin 
ourselves in the great hall surmounted bv the interior 
dome, and forming an inscribed circle (yl feet in diameter 
in a great scpiarc of 140 feet, at each corner of which was 
one of the four original Courts — of Exchecpier, Connnon 
Pleas, King's Bench, and Chancery. Round this hall are 
statues of Sir Michael O'Loghlen, William Convngham, 
first liaron Plunket, Sir James Whiteside, Lord (i'Hagan, 
Richard Lalor Shiel,^ and Henry Joy, Chief Raron of the 
Kxche(juer. 'J'he hall has eight openings, each having 
four cohnnns, two in depth on either side, 25 feet high, 
standing upon sub-plinths, and fluted for the u})per two- 
thii'ds of the shaft. Retween the coupled pairs of these 
are ste})s of ascent into each of the Courts. In the piers 
between the openings are niches and small j)anels. The 
entablature is continued unbroken round the hall, and 
above it is an attic pedestal having in dado eight small 
panels over the eight openings between the colunms. 
Jvach of these is adorned with a bas-relief bv Edward 
Smyth, representing respectively William i. instituting 
courts of justice. King John signing Magna Charta, 
Ilein-y ii. granting a charter to the citizens of Dublin, 
and James i. abolishing the Rrehon laws. From the 
attic sj^rings a nearly hemispherical dome, having in the 
centre a large circular opening, around which is a gallery. 
Through the oj)ening is seen the space between the in- 
terior and exterior domes, similar to that of St. PauTs 
(-athedral, London. .Vhove the interior dome rises the 
beautiful lantern, 64 feet in diameter, ornamented by 
twenty-four Corinthian ])illars, and lighted by twelve 

^ One of the first Roman Catholics admitted to the Inner Bar. lie was 
Master of the IMint in 1S50, and was resjioiisible for what is known as the 
' Godless Florin,' having omitted the letters F.I). D.O. from tlie obverse 
of that coin. 

171 



Dublin large windows, between each pair of which, resting on 
consoles, are colossal statues in alto-relievo representing 
Justice, Wisdom, Law, Prudence, Mercy, Eloquence, 
Punishment, and Liberty. A rich frieze of foliage runs 
above the heads of these statues, and is enriched with 
medallions of the world's great lawgivers — Moses, Lycur- 
gus, Solon, Numa, Alfred, Confucius, Manco Capac, and 
Ollamh Fodhla. The Four Courts possess an extensive 
library, much frequented by practising barristers ; and 
have likewise accommodation for judges"' chambers, jury 
rooms, and robing rooms, and the circular room under the 
exterior dome is used as a Record Chamber. 

The buildings which formerly stood on this site were, 
as we have said, the King''s Inns, which now occupy an 
imposing position between Plenrietta Street and Con- 
stitution Hill, near the terminus of the Midland Great 
Western Railway. The first of the Inns of Court 
established in Dublin was Collet's Inn, founded in St. 
George's Lane (now Exchequer Street), outside the eastern 
gate, during the reign of Edward i. The Exchequer of 
the English settlers had stood in this lane, from which 
it received the name of Chequer Lane. ' Among other 
monuments,' says Richard Stanihurst, ' there is a place in 
that lane called now Collet's Inns, which in old time was 
the Escacar or Excheker, which should implie that the 
prince's court would not have kept there unlesse the 
place had been taken to be cocksure.' ^ In spite of this 
fancied security ' in fine it fell out contrarie,' for the 
district was raided circa 1280 by the O'Tooles, who 
plundered the Exchequer and burned the records, which 
led to the removal of the Inns to a place of safety within 
the city walls ; the site of the old Exchequer being 
granted, on 28th July 1362 (36 Edward in.), in ctifstod'mm 
to the Prior and friars of the Augustinian order in 
Dublin. In 1334 the house of Sir Robert Preston, Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer, was surrendered by him for use 

' W. Harris, Histo7y a7id Antiqtiilies of Dublin, 1766. 
172 



of the Inns of Court, thence known as Preston's Inns, Eifjht- 
situated about the place where the City Hall now stands, eenth- 
Here it was that 'Silken Thomas' planted his battery Century 
when besieging the Castle (p. 47), but the site was then Dublin 
no longer occupied by the Inns of Court, as the Preston 
family had reclaimed their ancestors property in 154^, 
and the Society had received a grant of the confiscated 
Dominican Monastery of St. Saviour, situated on the 
north bank of the Liffey, and surrendered in 1506 by 
Patrick Hay, the last Prior, to Henry viii. On the 
assumption by this monarch in 1541 of the title of King 
of Ireland, the Society had taken the name- of the King's 
Inn. The last Parliament of James ii. (1689) was held 
there, but in 1765, the buildings being ruinous and in- 
commodious, the Society secured from Primate Robinson 
the present site, their former position being now occupied 
by the Four Courts. The building was designed by 
James Gandon, and the stone carving was entrusted to 
Edward Smyth. Though the entrance is in Henrietta 
Street, the building really faces Constitution Hill, and 
consists of two wings, each of two storeys in height, 
surmounted by a pediment, and connected by a central 
building al)()ve which is a graceful octangular cupola. 
The central building is entered by a lofty arched gate- 
way, communicating with a similar gateway giving access 
to Henrietta Street. Over the latter are the Royal arms 
carved in Portland stone by Edward Smyth. The 
doorways in the wings are flanked by fine allegorical 
Caryatides. Over the windows of the second storey of 
the north wing is an alto-relievo representing Bacchus 
and Ceres, attended by the Seasons, sacrificing on an 
antique tripod; and over the front of the north wing are 
Wisdom, Justice, and Prudence similarly employed, and 
attended by Truth, Time, and History. The finest 
apartment is the dining-hall, measui-iug 81 feet by 42 
feet, ornamented with fluted Ionic- ct)lunuis, and having a 
handsome ceiling with figures in alto-relievo, representing 

173 



Dublin the four Cardinal Virtues. The hall is adorned with 
portraits of legal celebrities. The Library occupies the 
site of Primate Robinson\s dwelling-house, and was built 
in 1827, at a cost of ^^'20,000, from the designs of 
Frederick Darley. 



174 



CHAPTER VI 



SOCIAI, 1,1 1'K IN KIGHTKKNTn-CENTUKV DUBLIN 



MANY as have been 
the alterations in 
the physical features of 
Dublin since the close of 
the eio'hteenth centui-y, 
the changes in its social 
conditions have been far 
more striking and im- 
portant. In dealing with 
that century we are, for 
the first time in the city's 
iiistory, able to form an 
accurate idea of the cir- 
cumstances of the ordi- 
nary lives of the people 
of Dublin, and to picture to ourselves a vivid present- 
ment of the city as it then appeared to contemporary 
onlookers, A numerous and wealthy resident aristocracy 
who lived much of their lives in public, who fostered 
arts and letters, and set a high standard of ])ublic 
taste ; a local legislature in which oratory reached an 
unusually lofty level ; a viceregal court setting the 
example of profuse and magnificent hospitality : all 
these combined to render the metropolis of Ireland a 

M 177 




l'.If;iITl':K.NTH-CKNTURV IKJUSI'.S 



place to be desired to dwell in; and laid up a store 
of traditions which are still fondly recalled, and which 
have done much to keep alive the desire for legisla- 
tive independence so characteristic of the Ireland of 
our own times. 'There never,' writes the first parlia- 
mentary reporter, Mr. Woodfall, in a letter dated from 
Dublin 16th August 1785, 'there never was so splendid 
a metropolis in so poor a country.' A general mingling 
of classes in their amusements, rendered possible by well 
marked caste distinctions, permitted the Dublin shop- 
keeper to view with admiration, not unmixed with awe, 
the splendour of the nobleman at a public assembly, 
while the fashionable heau did not disdain to bandy hons 
mots with Travair the witty cobbler behind his 'bulk' in 
Chequer Lane. The residentiary suburbs, now extending 
six miles in one direction alone, had then no existence ; 
and the shores of Dublin Bay and the slopes of the 
Dublin mountains were studded with the handsome 
residences of gentry and public officials, many of whom 
had previously lived generally in England, but whose 
brilliant equipages now gave life and movement to the 
somewhat dingy streets; while the stately town houses 
of the nobility still bear witness, though fallen from their 
high estate, of the social splendour of Ireland's capital, 
Leinster House, the Dublin residence of the chief of the 
Geraldines, is now the headquarters of the Royal Dublin 
Society, and its lawns are occupied by the buildings 
which accommodate on the one side the National Museum 
and the Museum of Natural History, and on the other 
the National Gallery and Library ; Tyrone House, built 
by Cassels for Sir Marcus Beresford, Viscount and after- 
wards Earl of Tyrone, shelters the Government Depart- 
ment of National Education; Charlemont House is the 
abode of H.M. Registrar-General, and Moira House is 
a Mendicity Institution and Public Washhouse ; but 
these and many other mansions are standing memorials 
of the altered conditions of modern life. We have seen 
178 



the <i^ro\vth of Dul)liii in population, in area, and in Social 
wealth (lurin<; the ei<;hteenth century, and a desire for Life in 
better housing was one of its first results. The old cage- Eight- 
work or half-timbered houses constructed in Holland eenth- 
during the seventeenth century, so as to be taken down Centinv 
and })ut up at pleasure, and of \v liich the last example Dublin 
stood in Castle Street at the corner of Werljurgh Street, 
and was taken down as late as 1813, would no longer 
satisfy the requirements of a growing luxury. St. 
Stephen's Green, a rectangular space 1220 feet by 970 
feet, containing 27 English acres, and then considered 
the largest public scpiare in Europe, was laid out and 
enclosed : Merrion Square, 1030 feet by 530 feet, contain- 
ing about half the acreage of its larger neighbour, was 
also laid out, and its northern side was already being 
built in 1792. It was soon surrounded by handsome 
dwelling-houses which are still the residences of leading 
professional men. Kerry House, on the west side of 
Molesworth Street, which had come into possession of 
John Foster, Chief Baron of the Exchecjuer, in 1768, 
became the residence of his son, the Speaker of the 
House of Commons in 1773; and on the north side of 
the Liff'ey, Drogheda Street, now Upper Sackville Street, 
with its central mall 48 feet in width, j)lanted with forest 
trees and enclosed by a dwarf wall surmounted by a lowl 
iron railing, formed a great oblong of buiklings generally 
occupied by the nobility and gentry. Amongst its 
residents were the Marquis of Drogheda, part of whose 
mansion now forms the premises of the Gresham Hotel ; 
Sir Thomas Veates, whose town house is occupied by the 
Hibernian Bible Society ; the Earls of Westmeath and 
Altamont, amongst whose guests was Thomas de Quincev; 
Viscounts Belmore, Gosford, and Netterville, and many 
other members of both Houses. After the building of 
the Rotunda, Rutland Scpiare became a still more 
fashionable (|uarter, while the neighbouring tht)rough- 
fares of Marlborough Street, Great Denmark Street, and 

179 




EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY 
DWELLING-HOUSE 



Dublin Gardiners' Row each contained the dwellings of nianv 

notable peers. But the abodes of 
fashion were not confined to these 
localities. A house and garden in 
Townsend Street, now a squalid slum, 
are advertised towards the end of the 
century as in a pleasing situation for 
a boarding school, the garden especi- 
ally being described as stocked with 
choice fruit-trees. About the same 
time we read of the destruction by fire of the 
Countess of Brandon's large mansion on Lazars Hill 
within a hundred yards of Hawkins' Street Theatre. 
The erection of so many handsome residences accounts 
for a notable improvement in the various handicrafts 
connected with the building trade, and for the appearance 
of a number of highly skilled artisans, of whom Edward 
Smyth, the sculptor of most of the figures enriching the 
outsides of the public buildings of the city, is only a 
specially favourable instance. The beautiful stucco 
tracery still to be seen in many of these residences 
exhibits the high degree of perfection to which this art 
was carried, and is still a subject of admiration ; notably 
that preserved in the ceiling of an ante-room in Charle- 
mont House, in the decorations of Belvedere House, 
Great Denmark Street, now a Jesuit college, in Tyrone 
House, occupied, as has been said, by the Commissioners 
of National Education, in Leinster House and the 
Rotunda Chapel, and in the frieze and cornice of the 
Examination Theatre of Trinity College, commenced in 
1777. Indeed, even prior to the eighteenth century, 
Dublin was not without examples of beautiful workman- 
ship in stucco. The chapel of the Royal Hospital, 
Kilmainham, a buildincp executed in 1680 from the design 
of Sir Christopher Wren, contains a ceiling attributed to 
Cipriani, and carefully reproduced in lighter material by 
Messrs. Jackson of London in 1903, which is a truly 
l8o 



maf^iiificont spcciinen of tlie plasterer's art of the seven- 
teenth ceiitiirv. A beautiful reproduction of a photo- 
«ijra|)h taken of this ceiling api)eared as an illustration 
in the Journal of the Royal Society of Anticpiaries for 
190; J. 

A fine exani})le of the beautiful frescoes which adorned 
many of these houses is still to be seen in Kenniare 
House, 41 North Great George's Street. The same house 
contains a good specimen of an almost lost art, known, 
from the name of its inventor, as ' IJossi work.' This was 
a method of inlaying marble, used especially in the 
construction of mantle-pieces. Carved mantle-pieces of 
beautiful workmanship were also of common occurrence; 
a good specimen, the cost of which in 1787 was i?140, 
still adorns the board-room of Simpson's Hospital in 
Jervis Street. The carved mahogany work of doorways 
and staircases reached a similar perfection, and specimens 
were, in (piite recent times, to be found in many of the 
older city houses set in tenements. These have been of 
late years ruthlessly plundered alike of their mantle- 
pieces and beautiful woodwork 
by dealers in these articles, and 
they now embellish the dwel- 
lings of some of the nouveaiu 
riches of Kngland and the United 
States. The exteriors of many 
of these residences were orna- 
mented with beautiful speci- 
mens of wrought-iron in lamp 
supports and extinguishers for 
the Hambeaux then connnonly 
carried to light the way of the 
sedan-chairs or coaches of the fashionable world when 
seeking their evening amusements. Some fine examples 
still exist in Ely Place and Merrion Square, for 
instance at Nos. '23 North, .'58 and 4() East, and 
53 South. A kindred craft is exemplified in the 

i8l 



Social 
Life in 
Eight- 
eenth- 
Century 
Dublin' 




WKUUGHT-IRON L.-VMP- 
SUPPOKTS 



locks in Swift''s Hospital, which exhibit the high level 
reached by Dublin workmen in the locksmith's craft. 
Nor was the city less prominent in the arts which minister 
to personal adornment. The woollen manufacturers of 
Dublin employed between five and six thousand persons. 
The weaving of poplin, a material composed of a mixture 
of silk and wool, introduced by Huguenot refugees in the 
seventeenth century, gave employment to hundreds of 
skilled artisans, and the products of their looms com- 
manded a ready sale all over the kingdom, and even on 
the continent of Europe. The beautiful needlework 
also with which this material was often enriched called 
out the highest efforts of national taste and artistic 
industry. 

The superiority of Dublin poplin was said, like the 
excellence of her stout and whisky, to be due to peculiar 
qualities of the water, which may have accounted for a 
disinclination on the part of many of her inhabitants to 
the common use of so excellent a fluid internally or 
externally in its natural state. The neighbouring northern 
coast town of Balbriggan produced, after the erection 
there in 1780 of cotton mills, a hosiery which is still 
widely in demand, while to the south Leixlip linens, 
distinguished by the admired copperplate printing, which 
delineated flowers in all their natural beauty, vied in 
excellence with those of Donnybrook and BalFs Bridge. 
Household furniture, jewellery, gold and silver lace, 
buttons, cutlery, gloves ('they make mighty good gloves 
here"' says Mrs. Pendarves in 1731), were of first-rate 
home manufacture ; while tanning, watch-making, iron 
founding, bell-casting, glass-making, printing and publish- 
ing, etching and engraving, were all thriving industries 
in the Dublin of the eighteenth century, most of them 
now, alas ! things of the past. 

Much of the life of the leaders of fashion was, as we 
have said, then lived in public, and public gardens, 
somewhat on the lines of those in modern German cities, 
182 



became a necessity. Cricket and Ibotball were unknown Social 
to fashionable society, bat the game of Mall hail been Life in 
played in the enclosed central space, known as Gardiner's Eight- 
iMall, of Drogheda Street (Upper Sackville Street), and eenth- 
bowling-grcens were constructed in the New Gardens, Century 
College Park, Oxmantown Green and The DukeV Lawn, Dublin 
in front of Leinster House. But the public amusements 
of the fashionable world became curiously linked with an 
active philanthropy seldom rivalled in the annals of any 
citv, which demands more than a cursory notice. In ITi^O 
hail been conunenced the h'rst of Dublin's great modern 
hospitals; in which she is perhaps better provided than 
any city in Europe. Dr. Richard Steevens had, ten 
years previously, bequeathed, for the founding of an 
hospital, his entire personal estate, producing an annual 
rental of i?6()-i, 4s., subject to a life interest to his sister 
Madam Grissel Steevens. He died on the day following 
the execution of his will, whereupon his sister, with a 
generosity still recognised in the popular designation of 
' Madanr Steevens' hospital, reserving to her own use 
£^50 a year and apartments in the hospital, handed over 
the whole estate to trustees for the purpose of immediately 
carrying into effect her late brother's wishes. The 
hospital adjoins St. Patrick's hospital for lunatics, founded 
by Dean Swift in 1745, the year of his death, and opened 
in 175(), and is close to the terminus of the Great Southern 
and Western Railway at King's Hriilge. It was conipleted 
and opened for ]iatients in 17'J55, at a cost of o£'lfj,000, 
collected by public subscription, the entire bequest of 
Dr. Steevens being reserved as an endowment. Five 
years previously the Charitable Infirmary had been opened 
in a small house in Cook Street, but soon after removed 
to King's Inn Quay. The site being required for the 
building of the Four Courts, the hospital was transferred 
about 1730 to Jcrvis Street. A charter was granted in 
1792 to the (iiiardians and Governors of the Charitable 
Infirmary, Dublin. The building was taken down in 

183 



1803, and the present 
hospital erected. In 
1734 Mercer's hospital 
was founded by Mrs, 
Mary Mercer, on the 
site of the ancient 
leper hospital of St. 
Stephen. This lady 
surrendered for the 
purpose the large 
stone house owned 
by her at the end of 
Stephen Street.^ The 
ground on which it 
stood being glebe was 
given to the charity 
by the Archdeacon of 
Dublin. The Hos- 
pital for Incurables, 
established in Fleet Street in 1744, the funds being pro- 
vided by the Charitable Musical Society, founded in 1743 
by Lord Mornington, fatlier of the Duke of Wellington, 
was removed in 1753 to Townsend Street, and in 1792 
transferred to its present spacious premises in Donny- 
brook, the Governors having exchanged their former 
quarters for those of the Westmorland Lock hospital, 
which latter still occupies the building in Townsend 
Street. 




ROTUNDA HOSPITAL 



1 O'Keeffe notices the curious fashion in which the Dublin citizens 
omit the prefix ' Saint,' doubtless owing to the Puritan leanings already 
referred to (p. 95), still often in evidence in the proceedings of the 
Diocesan Synod of the Church of Ireland. It is not unusual to hear the 
National Cathedral referred to as ' Patrick's ' and the Parish Churches as 
Catherine's, Mary's, Werburgh's, etc., while Kevin Street, Bride Street, 
Thomas Street, George's Street, etc., have long lost their original prefix. 
The Roman Catholic churches are commonly designated by the name of 
the locality in which they are built, as Clarendon Street, Whitefriars 
Street, Westland Row, etc. 
184 



Ill 1745 tlu' lyiii;r-iii liospital in Gcor-rc's Lniie, the Social 
first institution of the kind in the IJritisli doniinions, was Life in 
opened by Dr. liartholoniew Mosse, who furnished it at FA^ht- 
his own cost with twenty-four beds. Tln-ee years later centh- 
he ac(|uired, at a yearly rent of £10, a })iece of wa.ste Century 
ground, consistin<r'of ai)()ut five acres, in Great Britain Dublin 
Street, f;icin<; the end of l)ro<^heda Street, as the upper 
end of Sackville Street was then called. On this he 
expended I'2t)00 in laying out the grounds as a public 
garden and promenade, reserving a site for an hospital, 
larger than the house in George's Lane. For it he ob- 
tained a design from the great German architect, Richard 
Cassels, then resident in Dublin. The new building was 
estimated to cost <^20,0()(), and the foundation stone was 
laid on the 4th June 1751 by the Lord Mayor of Dul)lin, 
who ' rode to the New Gardens with his attendants, went 
through the prescribed forms, and subsecjuently partook, 
in the parlance of the period, of a "genteel and liberal 
entertainment " provided by the founder.'' ^ During the 
next four years, by means of plays, oratorios, and lotteries, 
a sum of "i^l 1,694 was collected; but Dr. Mosse's means 
were then exhausted, and the Irish Parliament came to 
the aid of the undertaking with a grant of ^^6000, 
followed within twelve months by another donation of 
the same amount. The hospital, now equii)ped with 
fifty beds, was opened by the Viceroy, the Duke of 
Bedford, on the 8th December 1757. 

The New Gardens had from the first constituted a 
material source of income for the charity. Dr. IVIosse 
had spared no expense in laying them out as a fashion- 
able resort; they possessed an artificial waterfall lit with 
'artificial moonlight,' and were provided with a coffee 
room and pavilions. The artist Van Nost, a Dubliner 
of foreign parentage, was employed to execute figures in 
marble and metal, as well for the gardens as for the 
interior of the buildings. The circular hall, connected 
^ Around and About the Rotunda. Sarah Alkinson. 

185 



Dublin with them, had subsequently been erected for the per- 
formance of concerts, and the holding of balls, prome- 
nades, and public assemblies. This structure, since 
known from its shape as the Rotunda, is still used for 
similar pui'poses. The exterior is chiefly remarkable for 
the Wedgewood frieze, the design of which, resembling 
that over the portico of the Custom House, represents the 
skulls of oxen with festoons of drapery. The interior 
was eminently suited for the purposes for which it was 
built. The principal or Round room, 80 feet in diameter, 
having no central supports, possessing excellent acoustic 
properties, and affording accommodation for 2000 per- 
sons, was, as a concert or ball room then unsurpassed 
in the kingdom. Its decoration too left nothing to be 
desired. Adorned with fluted Corinthian })ilasters, with 
a handsomely decorated ceiling, bright with gilding and 
brilliantly lighted, when filled with a motley throng 
including the elite of the nobility and gentry attired in 
the gorgeous and picturesque costumes of the period, it 
must have presented a striking spectacle. There was to 
be seen the portly figure of Lord Trimleston dressed in 
scarlet, with full powdered wig and black velvet hunting- 
cap ; the elderly, middle-sized Lord Gormanston in a 
full suit of light blue ; Lord Clanrickard in his regi- 
mentals ; while Lord Strangford wore under his coat 
his cassock and black silk apron to his knees, and the 
clerical hat peculiar to these times, and Lord Taaffe 
appeared in a whole suit of dove-coloured silk. A 
strange figure was Captain Debrisay when upwards of 
seventy years of age still wearing the dress of the reign 
of Charles ri., ' a large cocked-hat all on one side his 
face, nearly covering his left eye ; a great powdered wig, 
hanging at the side in curls, and in the centre at the 
back a large black cockade with a small drop curl from 
it ; his embroidered waistcoat down to his knees ; the 
top of his coat not within three inches of his neck, the 
hip buttons about a foot from it ; buttons all the way 
1 86 



down the coat but only oJic at the waist buttoned ; the Social 

hilt of the sword tlirou<:jh tiie openiiifij of the skirt ; a Life in 

loniif cravat, frinfjjed, the end pulled through the third Kif^ht- 

button-iiole; small buckles ; the coat sleeves very short, eenth- 

and the shirt sleeves pulled down, but hid by the top of Century 

the gloves, and the ruffles hanging out at the opening of Dublin 

the cuff; the waistcoat entirely open excej)t the lower 

button, displaying the finely i)laited frill.'' ^ Such, in 

his bodily ])resentnK'nt, was the old courtier who we 

learn ' walked the streets of Dublin unremarked."' Nor 

were these gatherings ungraced by the presence of ladies 

of etpial rank. Amongst the first subscribers were the 

Duchess of Leinster,the Countesses of Shannon and Charle- 

niont, and Viscountesses Delvin and Kingsborough. IJut 

the company was not limited to such notabilities. Dr. 

Baldwin, Provost of Trinity College, 'a meagre old man,' 

and George Faulkner, the printer, 'a fat little man with 

large well-powdered wig and brown clothes,'' might be 

seen with Hamilton, the miniature ])ainter, 'tall and 

thin, very fair and delicately florid, with blue eyes and 

light hair""; and Geminiani the musician flaunted it 

with the best in ' a costume of blue velvet heavy with 

gold embroidery.'' The actor, John O'Kecff'e, from whose 

recollections these portraits are drawn, was himself 

gorgeous in his attire, calling upon Macklin, his brother 

actor, 'in a sea-green tabinet coat lined with white silk,"* 

and sitting for his likeness in 'a claret-coloured coat, 

green waistcoat edged with gold, and hair full dressed."" 

The appearance of the ladies was no less remarkable, 

esjx'cially in the matter of hair-dressing. At this period 

' a lady in full dress could not go in a coach, a sedan- 

' Recollections of John 0' Keeffe. 

-' Amongst articles stolen from Rathfarnham Castle on 4th April 175 1, 
we read of ' a bloom colour, cross-barred and flowered with silver, suit 
of clothes ; a yellow suit Ijrocaded with silver and colours ; a stripped 
{sic) and brocaded lute string suit on a white ground ' and ' a cherry 
coloured velvet mantel!, linned {sic) with white satin and bordered with 
ermine.' 

187 



Dublin cliair was her carriage, and this had a cupola. The seat 
was on grooves to be raised or lowered according to the 
altitude of the head-dress''; and O'Keeffe mentions that 
on one occasion the seat liad to be lowered to within 
three inches of the floor ! on which the lady ungracefully 
squatted, while tiie structure on her head with feathers 
and capwings rose three feet perpendicular. At a per- 
formance in a Dublin theatre of Garrick's farce, 'Bon Ton,' 
the feathers of a lady's head-dress caught fire from the 
chandelier hanging over the box, and its wearer narrowly 
escaped with her life. This, however, was soon altered. 
The beautiful Anne Catley, the celebrated singer, having 
chosen to wear her hair plain over her forehead, in an 
even line almost to her eyebrows, succeeded in setting the 
fashion in this respect, so that the ladies had their hair 
' Catley- fied.' 

Such was the company which made the New Gardens 
and the Round Room centres of fashionable life. The 
Sunday promenades, first started in St. Stephen's Green, 
but soon transferred to the New Gardens, realised oClOOO 
per annum. Masquerade balls, the first of which was 
held in 1776, and open evenings on which music was 
provided, and to which the public were admitted on 
payment of five pence, did much to brighten the society 
of the period ; and incidentally supplied the main source 
of income of a most deserving charity. The surrounding 
district speedily became the favoured residentiary quarter, 
and the fine houses in the neighbouring thoroughfares, 
now in many instances deserted and decaying, and the 
unfinished lines of the Royal Circus, at the top of Eccles 
Street, bear witness to the once fashionable tone of 
Dublin's most neglected quarter. The change can 
scarcely be better emphasised than by two announce- 
ments from a contemporary newspaper.^ 

1 The Town and Country Weekly Magazine, Wednesday, ist Febiuaiy 
1786. 

188 



Births. Social 

In rill Lane, the lady of H. Aiichinleck, Escj., of .,. . 

a son. ^ ", 1 

111 (JloucesU'r Street, the Ri";ht Hon. Lady Louisa ,, , ' 
1)1 I *• 1 1 4- " Century 

Is ake, ol a clauj^liter. ,^ i r " 

But Mosse's Gardens, as the grounds of the Rotunda 
were then called, were not the only resort of the gaiety- 
loving classes. John O'Keeffe mentions Marlhorough 
Green in the same neighbourhood, ' a sort of tea-drinking 
place, with singers, bands of music, etc., greatly fre- 
quented."' An unfortunate fracas which occurred here 
between Lord Delvin, an officer of Dragoons, and George 
Keilly, a captain of Foot, in which the former was 
mortally wounded, led to the abandonment of the Green 
as a fashionable promenade. About 17()7 the Ranelagh 
Gardens, in the south-east suburbs, spoken of by O'Keeff'e 
as 'a favourite resort of our youthful pleasure ])arties,"' 
were opened as an hotel and place of public resort on the 
model of Vauxhall. The house had been the residence 
of a bishop, but was taken by Mr. HoUister, an organ 
builder from London, who laid out the grounds 'in 
alcoves, bowers, etc., for tea-drinking parties,' and also 
constructed a theatre for burlettas. They, too, were 
deserted before the end of the century, and were then 
purchased by Carmelite nuns, and by them converted 
into a nunnery, which purpose they still continue to 
serve. From these gardens on 19th January 1785 
Richard Crosbie, born in the county VVicklow, was 
the first native of these islands to adventure an ascent 
in an air balloon. 'The balloon and chariot,' says the 
Animal Rci>-f.s'ter, ' were beautifully painted, and the 
arms of Ireland emblazoned on them in superior elegance 
of taste.' The dress of the aeronaut ' consisted of a robe 
of oiled silk, lined with white fur, iiis waistcoat and 
breeches in one, of white satin (piilted, and morocco 
boots, and a montero cap of leopard skin,' which miglit 

189 



Dublin afford hints for a modern motor costume. The Duke 
of Leinster, Lord Charlemont, Right Hon. George Ogle, 
. . . attended with white staves, as regulators of the 
business of the day.' The ascent was a failure, an 
assistant of Mr. Crosbie's finally making the attempt, 
and falling into the sea 9 miles east-north-east of Howth, 
whence he was rescued. A later attempt on the 23rd 
July vvas more successful, but the aeronaut failed to cross 
the Channel to Holvhead, as he had intended, and was 
brought back to Dublin by the Diinleary barge, which 
the Board of Commissioners had sent out to attend 
him. 

The arrival of the Duke of Rutland as Viceroy in 1784 
gave a fresh impetus to the social festivities of Dublin. 
His Excellency sailed by the ordinary packet from Holy- 
head in the absence of the royal yacht, which had been 
blown out of her course. He landed at Poolbeg, and 
was conveyed by the Ringsend barge to Rogerson's Quay. 
Gifted alike with youth, good looks, and an ample 
fortune, and further happy in the possession of an 
amiable and very beautiful consort, it need scarcely be 
wondered at that he soon acquired considerable popu- 
larity ; damped to some extent, it is true, by the political 
dissatisfaction of the citizens. A munificent patron of 
the arts, dispenser of a princely hospitality, and setting 
himself the not uncongenial task of ' drinking the Irish 
into good humour,'' the new Viceroy inaugurated a round 
of magnificent public entertainments, and the gaiety of 
Dublin rose to fever heat. His advent was celebrated by 
a banquet to the newly-installed Knights of St. Patrick, 
followed by a ball, at which the company appeared in 
fancy dresses. The trustees of the Rotunda Hospital 
lost no time in launching their venture on the flood-tide 
of social dissipation. Arrangements were made by them 
for holding six assemblies each year, alternating with the 
Castle bails, from the 20th January to the 20th April. 
Free admission tickets were ' sent to some of the principal 
190 



instructors in tlancinir in tlio city,' and as wo learn from Social 
their prospectus: 'It remains with ladies and gentlemen Life in 
of the first rank to determine whether this entertainment Eight- 
shall be of real use to Society as well as to the Charity, ecnth- 
Their constant Presence in the narrow circle of a Dublin Century 
Assembly must awe into propriety and rej)ress every Dublin 
species of improper conduct that an indiscriminate 
Association might occasion."' 'JMie building was extended 
by the addition of the Pillar room and the Concert room 
above it, each 86 feet long by 40 feet broad, the former 
being used as a ballroom and the latter as a supper- 
room, kitchens and offices being at the same time added. 

The North Circular lload now became a fashionable 
driving resort, where the beautiful Duchess might be 
seen in the magnificent viceregal equipage. Here, Lord 
Cloncurry tells us in his Personal Recollections, ' it was 
the custom, on Sundays, for all the great folk to 
rendezvous in the afternoon, just as, in latter times, 
the fashionables of London did in Hyde Park; and 
upon that magnificent drive I have frequently seen three 
or four coaches-and-six, and eight or ten coaches-and- 
four passing slowly to and fro in a long procession of 
other carriages, and between a double colunui of well- 
mounted horsemen.' Here O'Keeff'e saw Lord Howth 
with ' a coachman's wig with a number of little curls, 
and a three-cocked hat with great spouts/ while the 
* horsey ' character of the St. Laurence family was further 
evidenced by the 'bit of straw about two inches long"" 
which his Lordship carried in his mouth. But a gloomy 
pageant was soon to replace these public festivities. 
Towards the close of 1787 an illness attacked the Duke 
on his return from Belfast, where he had been sump- 
tuously entertained by the already rising town. The 
illness developed into ])utrid fever, and at six o'clock on 
the morning of the 27th November the minute guns in 
the Phoenix Park announced the death of the Viceroy. 
He had a magnificent public funeral, and his memory is 

191 



Dublin still perpetuated by a monument in the centre of the 
west side of Merrion Square, formerly an ornamental 
fountain. It was executed in 1790 by Mr. Coade of 
London, and originally consisted of a shell - formed 
reservoir supported on rock work projecting 47 feet. 
The tablet in the centre represents the Marquis of 
Granby relieving the family of a distressed soldier, and 
the medallions on either side are portraits of the Duke 
and Duchess of Rutland. They are all much dilapidated, 
and were already decaying in 1807, a century ago ! 

It may readily be imagined that music formed a chief 
source of attraction to this pleasure - seeking public. 
Geminiani, the Italian already mentioned (p. 187), had 
a concert room in Dublin in a court at the College end 
of Dame Street. We find the post of Master and 
Composer of State Music in Ireland offered to but 
refused by him, as it could not be held by a professing 
Roman Catholic. In 1741 the Music Hall in Fishamble 
Street^ had been built. Ten years later Castruccio, 
another Italian composer, had been honoured by a 
splendid public funeral, the procession in which 'formed 
. a fine concert vocal and instrumental.' In 1760 the 
D'Amici family introduced the Italian 'burletta"' in the 
Smock Alley Theatre (p. 246), and, at the same house, 
Passerini, an eminent Italian composer of oratorios and 
serenatas, produced his own works, in which his wife 
assisted as a performer. The Beggars' Opera, soon after 
its appearance in London, was performed by children in a 
booth erected in George's Lane. 

But the great event in the musical history of Dublin 
is the first production of Handel's Messiah, which took 
place in that city at noon on Tuesday, 13th April 1742. 
It has been stated by Mainwaring in his Life of Handel 
that the Messiah was first performed in London and 
coldly received. This, however, is controverted in Victor 

' Fish-shamble Street, formerly le Fyschamlys, the Vicus Piscatorium 
of the early chroniclers. 
192 



Schoelsher's Handel,^ and it has been recently con- Social 
clusively proved by Dr. Robert M'Donnell- that Dublin Life in 
is fuUv entitled to the honour to which she has lontj laid Eijrht- 
clann ni this respect. Briefly, the composer's own note een th- 
at the end of the score dates the completion of the Century 
Messiah l^th Sej)tember 1741. In F(iulkiie?-''.s Journal Dublin 
and Pue\s' Occurrencr-s, two Dublin newspapers, we find 
the contemporary amiouncement of HandePs arrival in 
Dublin on 18th November, and the advertisement of a 
musical entertainment to be given by him in the New 
Music Hall on 23rd December at seven o"'clock. If we 
allow a fortnight for the journey, in view of a short 
stay made by him at Chester, we may infer that he left 
London about the 4th of the same month. Thus a 
period of little more than seven weeks elapsed between 
the completion of the score and his departure for Dublin ; 
and during this time no contemporary allusion has been 
discovered to any London performance. Finally, refer- 
ring to the first rehearsal of the work in Dublin, 
Faulkner's Journal, in its issue of 10th April 1742, 
speaks of the 'Noble and Grand Charity /or -ichich the 
Oratorio xvas composed.' The choirs of both Cathedrals 
assisted in this performance, which took place in the 
Music Hall, Fishamble Street, and the violinist Matthew 
Dubourg, a friend of the composer, assisted in forming 
an orchestra. The price of admission was half a guinea, 
and we find that books of the words could be had 'at a 
British sixpence each.' The principal soloists, who, as 
well as all concerned, gave their services gratuitously, 
were Mrs. Cibber and Signora Avolio ; and the Viceroy, 
the Archbishop of Dublin, and the Senior Fellows of 
Trinity College were amongst the audience, which 
numbered seven hundred, and the three charities^ which 

^ Life of Handel, London, 1857, p. 2^0 et set/. 
' New Ireland Review, March 1902. 

•' Mercer's Hospital, the Society for Relieving Prisoners, and the 
Charitable Infirmary. 

N 193 



Dublin shared in the profits received about ,^400. A second 
performance took place on 3rd June, and Handel re- 
mained in Dublin in all for about nine months, during 
which he produced Acls and Galatea — referred to in the 
diary of a lady of the period as '■Asses and Galatea,** — 
Alexander s Feast, Hymen, and other works. It was 
commonly believed that the organ on which he played 
the Messiah was that now in St. Michan's Church, but 
the instrument so used was a chamber organ, and was 
preserved at 64 Eccles Street in the collection of 
curiosities of Francis Johnston, the architect. The public 
taste for good music even overcame the religious pre- 
judices of the Protestants of those days, as we read of 
' a famous convent in Channel Row,^ Dublin, where the 
most celebrated Italian musicians help to make the 
voices of the holy Sisters more melodious, and many 
Protestant fine gentlemen have been invited to take 
their places in a convenient gallery to hear the per- 
formance.*"^ A further impetus was given to musical 
taste by the desire to assist the many benevolent objects 
for which funds were needed. The various hospitals 
and other charitable institutions, so generously founded, 
required equally generous support. Numerous charitable 
musical societies, similar to that founded by Lord Morn- 
ington (p. 184), existed, whose amateur members gave 
public performances in aid of their funds, one such 
society specially interesting itself in small charitable loans 
to industrious tradesmen. The history of the Rotunda 
and its gardens gives us one main source of the income of 
the hospital with which they were connected, and even 
the masquerade balls brought in a considerable revenue 
to the Dublin charities. The father of the present 
writer has often told him of similar entertainments of 

' The chapel built for Benedictine nuns in the reign" of James il., 
afterwards transferred to Dominicans brought from Galway in 1715. It 
is now the 'Chapel Ward' of the Richnnond Surgical Hospital (p. 96). 

'■^ Stephen Radclifle, A Serious Inquiry, etc. 
194 



a later date which he had attended in his youth, at one Social 
of which a gentleman of high social position, by his Life in 
amateur performance of the ' three-card trick,' realised a Eight- 
large sum for' the charity concerned as the proceeds of eenth- 
his somewhat (|uestionable skill. In a weekly newspaper Century 
of April 1785 wc find mention of 'a humane and con- Dublin 
siderate gentleman who carried the City Marshalsea box 
at the Mas(jnerade,' with the result that he collected 
for the poor debtors ' one guinea, 13s. 6Jd. in silver,^ two 
bad shillings, and 9d, in copper." The proceeds of 
theatrical performances were also often devoted to such 
purposes. For instance, the pupils of the school kept by 
Samuel Whyte in Johnston's Court, at the rear of his 
house now No. 79 Grafton Street, at which school were 
educated Richard Brinsley Sheridan and his sister Alice 
and tiie poet Thomas Moore, gave a performance of Cato 
in Crow Street Theatre, which was repeated for the 
benefit of Dublin charities. In 1770 we find in the 
diary of a lady an entry of the cost of dresses for two 
of her nephews who acted the parts of Marcia and Juba, 
possibly on this occasion. At other amateur theatricals, 
we are assured by O'Keeffe, 'gentlemen of the first rank 
acted as door-keepers.' Xor, as may readily be imagined, 
were the churches behindhand in such pious efforts. We 
read of a performance of the Messiah at the ' Round 
Church'- for the benefit of Mercer's Hospital; and that 
the celel)rated Dublin preacher Dr. Kirwan, by an appeal 
in St. Peter's Church on behalf of the Meath Hos[)ital,^ 
realised no less than -£^1500 — watches, jewels, and brace- 

' This is accounted for by the Irish shilling being equal to Is. id., and 
the coin corresponding to a ' Hritish sixpence' 6^d. The guinea was 
^i, 2s. 9d., and the half-guinea lis. 4jd, 

- Built in 1793 in form of an ellipse, 80 feet by 60 feet ; burned in 
i860, and re[^ced by the present church of St. Andrew (p. 163). 

■' Founded m 1753 in Meath Street, afterwards removed to Earl Street. 
Another hospital was erected in 1774, by private subscription of ;i^2000, 
on the Coombe, to serve as the County Dublin Infirmary, and the present 
hospital erected in Ileytesbury Street, 1S16-1S22. 



Dublin lets being, we are told, flung on the collecting plates by 
a fashionable aiulience. The Government and municipal 
authorities also were not unmindful of their duties in 
this respect. By an Act (25th George in.) of 1785 the 
Governors of the Rotunda were empowered ' to collect 
and levy the sum of thirty-five shillings and sixpence 
sterling for every sedan-chair which any person shall 
keep in his or her possession in the city of Dublin, or 
within one mile thereof.' As the private sedan-chair 
was the ordinary mode of conveyance within the city for 
■ persons in fashionable society, the amount realised must 
have been considerable. Of this tax 10s. was devoted 
to the cost of the city police, the halance coming into 
the funds of the hospital. A further contribution was 
allowed to be levied of Is. 9d. per foot of frontage for 
lighting, and 3d. per foot for painting the garden rails 
of the new houses forming Rutland Square; this tax 
realising, in the case of Charlemont House which had 
four lamps, sixteen guineas per annum. 

Meantime the streets and business premises benefited 
but slowly by the improvement of the city. Some of the 
main avenues had indeed been widened, but the business 
sti'eets of the time — Castle Street, Bride Street, Skinners'' 
Row, Essex Street, Francis Street, Thomas Street, and, 
on the north side, Capel Street — remained in general 
narrow, dingy, and ill-kept thoroughfares. Of parts of 
this district we read : ' Of these streets a few are the 
residence of shopkeepers or others engaged in trade, but 
a far greater proportion of them, with their numerous 
lanes and alleys, are occupied by working manufacturers, 
by petty shopkeepers, the labouring poor, and beggars 
crowded together to a degree distressing to humanity.*' ^ 
In a contemporary print pigs are to be seen wandering in 
College Green, and heaps of rubbish in the channels 
rendered the crossing of a street a disagreeable ex- 
perience. The paving of the city was not seriously 
^ Warburton. 
196 



taken in hand till 1773, when an Act was passed for Social 
a gentM-al pavement of the streets of Dublin. The Life in 
system adopted was that known as ' pitchinjr,'' or the Eight- 
use of small round boulder stones, remains of whieh are eenth- 
yet to be traced in baek thoroughfares. Though public Century 
lighting had preceded paving by more than half a century, Dublin 
the illumination afforded was of the most meagre descrip- 
tion. In a newspaper of Friday. 12th August 1785, we 
find the following })aragra])h : 'The entrance into Great 
George's Street from Dame Street is in a situation 
extremely dangerous, which is heightened by theie not 
being a single lamp to show the way to the unsusj)ecting 
passenger. A few nights ago a clergyman passing l)y 
that place fell down the precipice, and was dangerously 
hurt.' Indeed, at the commencement of the nineteenth 
centurv, the immense scjuare of St. Stephen's Green was 
lit only by twentv-six small oil ]am))s, placed nearly sixty 
yards apart. The lighting of Grafton Street may be 
judged by the complaint of Mr. William Withcrington 
to the Paving and Lighting Board of the Corporation, 
dated 2nd February 1785, desiring to state on oath that 
'the lamp at his house, and almost all in the street, are 
not lighted till after dark, and are frequently out at five 
in the morning ; that the lamplighters told him they 
were not allowed oil enough, and to the best of his 
opinion his globe was not cleaned once these three 
months past.' The ill-defined footways added much to 
the dangers of pedestrianism, which were still further 
increased by reckless driving. For instance, in 1764 a 
gentleman complains that ' he had like to have been 
killed bv a fellow breaking a pair of young horses in one 
of the most frecjuented streets of Dublin, viz. Dame 
Street'; and on the same narrow street, on another 
occasion, he 'had the mortification to see six horses 
before the^carriage of a coach driven in a most inhuman 
manner to the great danger and terror of the passers- 
by.' The houses were not numbered, and each place of 

197 



Dublin business was known by the name of its sign, many of 
them very quaint and amusing : such as the Dove and 
Pendants, where fans were sold ; the Goat and Monkey, 
a music-shop; the Eagle and Child, the house of a 
chimney-sweep; the Hen and Chickens, a stay-maker's ; 
while the Tea Tub in Stephen's Street was a milliner's, 
and the Royal Leg and Royal Stocking were rivals for 
the sale of hosiery. Provisions were commonly purchased 
in the public markets, of which there were several. These 
were attended by ' penny porters,' who carried home the 
buyer's purchases for a small fee. This custom was still 
in vogue in the Cork market about a quarter of a century 
ago. Prices were low : beef is quoted 3d. to 4d. per lb., 
mutton 3^d., veal 4d., and potatoes Is. 4d. per cwt. on 
the quays. The shops, indicated as above, were gener- 
ally raised by two or three steps above the footway, and 
were dark, dingy, and uncomfortable, lighted by narrow 
windows glazed with small panes of inferior glass. The 
standard of comfort did not as yet warrant the shop- 
keeper's ownership of a private dwelling-house; he 
accordingly inhabited the rear of his shop and the 
premises above it. Nor were visits to the seaside, much 
less continental tours, things which entered into the 
outlook of the Dublin shopkeeper of the eighteenth 
century. He contented himself with a walk to Rings- 
end, to eat cockles 'at a very good tavern, the sign of 
the Highlander,' and to 'play billiards at Mrs. Sher- 
lock's, the price 2d. a game to the table,' the marker 
being the proprietress herself, a sister of a celebrated 
broadsword player, who defeated Figg, the well-known 
English champion. The sands of Sandymount and 
Raheny were long celebrated for their cockles, which 
took with the Dubliner the place of the winkle or 
shrimp with his Cockney cousin ; while the oyster-beds 
of Clontarf and Malahide afforded the citizens a cheap 
and excellent supply of the superior bivalve. The well- 
known entertainer of a past generation, Valentine Vous- 
198 



den, allutlcs to the former in his once-popiilar song, Social 

' Larry Doolin's Jaunting Car" : — Life m 

^ Ei.rht- 

'I '11 take you to Kaheny to pick cockles on the strand.' • (.-.pf^j. 

Even Bubliners of a superior rank took short fli<;hts for Century 
their infreciuent holidays. In the diary of Mrs. Katherine Dublin 
Bayley, wife of the Deputy Clerk of the Pells (an official 
of the Court of Exchequer), a lady of independent means, 
residing in Peter Street, we find that Harold's Cross was 
then a favourite suburban resort for change of air. The 
lady in question took lodgings there in 1754 at the rate 
of 15s. a week, for which modest payment she had 'two 
middle rooms, the street closet, use of the parlour and 
kitchen, with a bed for my man-servant, the dairy, and 
leave to walk when we please in the garden.'^ In the 
same neighbourhood CrKeeffe speaks of 'Temple Oge 
(sic) the seat of Sir Compton Domville, a pretty ]>lace, 
the garden delicious,' and of a ' beautiful place belonging 
to Mr. Deane of Terrynure' (now Terenure). Yet large 
fortunes must have been realised, as Dublin contained a 
large and wealthy resident population, who did their 
shopping almost exclusively in the city, and the profits 
of the distributors must have been very considerable. 
Indeed, the dangers and inconveniences of the Channel 
passage would be quite enough to deter any but the 
most venturesome from frequent crossings to England. 
In 1619 Viscount Thurles, father of the great Duke of 
Ormonde, had been wrecked oft' Holyhead on the 
Skerries rock, and drowned in company with the son 
of Lord Dunboyne. Though the intercourse between 
the countries had considerably increased by the com- 
mencement of the eighteenth century, the Irish Sea still 
formed a much more serious obstacle than it does at 
present. The crossing from Holyhead to Kingstown, 
which is now punctually accomplished in ^2^ hours, then 
required, under the most favourable conditions, from 10 

1 /ouriial K.S.A.I., 189S, vol. .\xviii. p. 142. 

199 



to 12 hours/ while with contrary winds the would-be 
passengers might spend days or even weeks in vain 
attempts to reach the opposite shore. The usual start- 
ing-point on the Welsh coast was Holyhead, which had 
replaced Park Gate, on the Dee, as the regular port for 
Ireland, and Ringsend was the ordinary place of debarka- 
tion, whence a 'Ringsend car' transported the chilled 
and weary traveller to the city, unless he should indulge 
in the luxury of a coach, the usual cost of which was 
2s. lOd. Strangers were advised 'to stay at one of the 
coffee-houses in Essex Street, by the Custom House.'- 
The packets sometimes, however, entered the river, and 
sailed to and from George's Quay. We learn from the 
diary of a gentleman who visited Ireland in 17-S5 that 
on 2nd April he ' had notice of the Prince Frederick 
packet being to go over that evening,' and went on 
board at George's Quay at four o'clock in the evening. 
They did not weigh anchor till four o'clock on tiie morn- 
ing of the 3rd, and, with the wind from the east, they 
only got within four or five leagues of Holyhead before 
sunset on the 4th, when, a storm arising, they were 
driven back, and again reached Dublin at eight o'clock 
on the evening of the 5th. The traveller left Dublin 
again at ten o'clock on the morning of the 10th April, 
and landed in Holyhead Bay at twelve noon on the 
llth.^ In O'KeefFe's Memoirs we read that he once 
spent ' five nights at sea with tremendous storms,' in a 
vain attempt to cross St. George's Channel, and that on 
another occasion the vessel on which he sailed ' twice struck 
on a sandbank.' On the erection of the Pigeon House 
(p. 148) at the end of the south wall of the Liffey, an hotel 
was built in 1790 for the accommodation of 'persons 
having occasion to pass and re-pass between this city 

^ Hiberiiia Curiosa : account of a tour in Ireland in 1764. T. Bush, 
Dublin, 1769. 

'^ Journal K. S.A.I, for 1899, vol. xxix. p. 56. 
200 



and Enjjlaiul,"'^ which was managed by Mrs. Tunstal, Social 
wife of the Inspector of Works to the Ballast lioarcl. Life in 
In 1798 the Pigeon House, including tlie hotel, was Eight- 
leased to the Government bv the Ballast Board, and in eenth- 
1814 sold to the former for X^100,000 for the purposes Century 
of a phice of arms and military post. The hotel was Dublin 
continued till 1848, when Mrs'. Tunstal took up her 
residence in Sandy mount. In 1897-9 the Pigeon House 
Fort again changed hands, and was .sold to the Dublin 
Corporation for conversion into the power-station where 
is generated the electricity for the lighting of Dublin. 

The pre.sent magnificent system of internal communi- 
cation in Dublin presents a wonderful change on that 
of the eighteenth century. The state of the streets 
rendering walking difficult, if not dangerous, sedan-chairs 
were on hire in various localities. The last of these 
vehicles stood in Hume Street, adjoining St. Stephen's 
Green, within the memory of those still living. But 
the 'car-drivingest city in Europe,' as Dublin has been 
termed, was not even then without its Jehus. The coach, 
chariot, and 'noddie' could all be hired. The last- 
named, the ])redecessor of the ' Irish jaunting-car,' is 
described by a contemporary as being ' nothing more 
than an old cast-off one-horse chaise or chair, with a 
kind of stool fixed upon the shafts, just before the seat, 
on which the driver sits.' He suggests that the 'nod. 
nod, nodding of the driver' gave its popular name 
to this convevance." The coach cost Is. Id. for a set 
down, or Is. 7d. by the hour ; the chariot 7d. and Is. Id., 
and the 'noddie' 5d. and lOd. The strange-looking 
sum of Is. Id. represents the Irish shilling or 'thirteen.' 
previously referred to (p. 195), and mention of which 
occurs in a once-po])ular street ballad, in the lines : 

' 1 gave the Captain si.v thirteens 
To carry me over to Park Gate.'' 



^ Dubh'ti Chronicle, 3rd August 1790. 

- Hibernia Curiosa. ^ See p. 200. 

201 



Dublin To the inconvenience of the pedestrian, in addition to 

those already enumerated, must be added the nuisance 
of street beggars, and the perils of footpads. Dr. 
Woodward, Bishop of Cloyne, writing in 1773, speaks 
hopefully of the suppression of ' the nuisance of beggary, 
grievous beyond the experience of other great cities.' 
The absence of a poor-rate or any proper provision for the 
destitute, and the poverty of the country districts, filled 
the streets of Dublin with applicants for charity, who 
proved as great a pest to the visitor in the eighteenth 
century as were the Killarney beggars to the tourist of 
the latter half of the nineteenth. No sooner had the 
stranger landed at Howtli, the Pigeon House, or George's 
Quay, than he was assailed by the clamours of crowds of 
miserable objects, part of the standing army of 2000 city 
beggars, who accompanied him in his walks abroad, 
blocked the exits from the shops in which he made his 
purchases, and against whose persistence the closed doors 
of a private dwelling alone availed to protect him. 

But if the streets by day were rendered unpleasant by 
these mendicants, as soon as the shades of evening fell 
the dangers from footpads and highwaymen were in- 
finitely more serious. For instance, we read: 'A few 
nights since Mr. Hume was attacked by two footpads 
in Merrion Street, and robbed of two guineas and his 
watch. They warned him to behave quietly, and give 
up what he had about him ; for if he made any resist- 
ance, they would cut him without mercy.' ^ And in 
the same newspaper: 'Monday se'nnight, Mr. Egan, a 
reputable citizen, living opposite Bridge Street, in Cook 
Street, was attacked by a set of villains on the Inn's 
Quay, opposite that part where the Cloisters formerly 
were; they took what money he had about him, and two 
gold chains and seals ; nay, gave him a violent blow with 
a blunderbuss on his head, and abused him otherwise so 
severely that his life is since despaired of.' Indeed, even 
^ Town and Country Weekly Magazine, igtli January 1786. 
202 



in the day-time pedestrians were not always safe, as we Social 
read, still in the same newspaper: -The weather these Life in 
few days past being so remarkably fine, it has tempted Eight- 
the ladies to walk the Circular Road ; we therefore eenth- 
cautioii them not to walk on any part of it that is Century 
lonesome; for two ladies, last Tuesday at noon, walking Dublin 
on that part near Donnybrook Koad narrowly escaped 
being robbed by a single footpad, and only for the 
sudden and fortunate appearance of a gentleman, they 
certaiidy would.' That no lack of severity on the part 
of the authorities can be held accountable for this pre- 
valence of robberies with violence may be inferred from 
the following account of an execution at Kilmainham.^ 
' The execution of five footpads on Saturday last ' (25th 
June 1785) ' was, by an accident, rendered distressing 
to every person capable of feeling for the misfortunes 
of their fellow-creatures. In about a minute after the 
five unhappy ciiminals were turned off, the temporary 
gallows fell down, and on its re-erection, it was found 
necessary to suffer three of the unha})py wretches to 
remain half-stranoled on the <>;round until the other two 
underwent the sentence of the law, when they ni their 
turn were tied up and executed.'' This extract is a good 
example of the sentimentalism in such matters which 
characterised the period. Three more executions were 
carried out at the same place on 26th January 1786. 
The presence of so much wealth in Dublin, while so 
manv of its inhabitants were destitute, i^iust be held 
accountable for much of this crime, as we find it noted 
in Twiss's tour that ' footpads, robberies, and highway- 
men are seldom heard of exce])t in the vicinity of Dublin.' 
In the city, however, scarcely a week seems to have 
passed in which some burglary or robbery with violence 

' The ancient Danish place of execution was Gallows Hills, east of St. 
Stephen's Green and south of Lower Baggot Street. A gallowsstill stood 
near St. Stephen's Green in 17S6, .nnd here the four pirates mentioned, 
p. 204, were hanged. 

203 



Dublin is not chronicled. Such being the condition of the 
streets, we need scarcely wonder that the roads in the 
neighbourhood of the city were infested with highway- 
men. In a number of the same weekly paper we read : 
' The lads of the road were rather unfortunate on Sun- 
day last, and that too on a cruise in which they expected 
to levy considerable contributions (Donnybrook Road at 
fair-time), for between the hours of nine and ten, six of 
them having stopped a capriole (sic) near Coldblow Lane 
and called on the gentlemen therein to deliver their 
money, one of the gentlemen instantly presenting a 
musket at them they made a precipitate retreat. Their 
next attack was on a coach, in which unfortunately for 
them were four Independent Dublin Volunteers, full 
armed, two of whom, as soon as one of the robbers pre- 
sented a pistol at the window, jumped out at the other, 
and after knocking the villains down with the butts of 
their firelocks, seized them, notwithstanding a desperate 
resistance, and brought them to town, where after secur- 
ing five of them for the night, they had them next 
morning brought before the sitting magistrate, at the 
Tholsel, and committed to take their trial.' Indeed, 
gentlemen belonging to the volunteers often took upon 
themselves to patrol the streets at night, and thus men 
of rank might be found discharging the duties now com- 
mitted to the capable charge of the Metropolitan Police. 
That crime was not limited to robberies from houses or 
from the person is indicated by the frequent arrest of 
coiners; and in March 1766 four pirates, captured 
near Dungannon Fort, Waterford, were hanged in St. 
Stephen's Green, and their bodies suspended in chains 
on the south wall and afterwards removed to the 
MugHns, a cluster of small rocks near Dal key Island. 
The dangers of the streets were further added to by 
the conduct of the 'Bucks' and ' Bloods,' young men of 
fashion, who founded the notorious 'Hell Fire Club,' 
the remains of whose clubhouse still form a landmark 
204 



on the summit of one of the Dublin mountains. Thev Social 
are said to have set fire to tiie apartment in whicii they Life in 
met, and ' endured the flames with incredible obstinacy Eight- 
... in derision ... of the threatened torments of a eenth- 
fu t lire state." ^ The conchict of tiiese 'Bloods' may be Century 
gauged by the following extract from a contemporary Dublin 
newspaper: 'Three Bloods passing through High 
Street amused themselves by breaking windows, and 
on one of the inhabitants complaining of their ill- 
conduct, they pursued him into his shop, struck him 
violently, and had the brutality to give his wife a 
dreadful blow in the face. Two of them were soon 
obliged to retreat and leave their companion behind, 
who was lodged in the Black Dog Prison.'- Many of 
these 'Bloods' were known as 'sweaters' and ' pinkin- 
dindies'; the former practised 'sweating,' that is, forcing- 
persons to deliver up their arms; the latter cut off a 
small portion from the ends of their scabbards, suffering 
the naked point of the sword to project; with these they 
prodded or ' pinked ' those unoffending passers-by on 
whom they thought (it to bestow their attentions. The 
outrages of these ruffians led to an universal demand for 
the re-enactment of the 'Chalking Acts.' These Acts 
imposed extreme penalties on those offenders known as 
' chalkers,' who mangled and disfigured persons ' merely 
with the wanton and wicked intent to disable and dis- 
figure them.' That these provisions were especially 
directed against young men of the better class is evident 
from the j)rovision that the offence shall not corrupt the 
offender's blood, or entail the forfeiture of his property 
to the prejudice of his wife or relatives. The practice 
of wearing swords, then universal with men of rank and 
fashion, fostered the spirit of aggressive outrage on the 

' /rehind Six/y Years Ai^o, Dublin, 185 1, p. 18. 

- Formerly Browne's Castle (Mayor in 1614), converted into an inn, 
known, from its sign of a talbot or hound, as the Black Dog, and early 
in the eighteenth century used as the Marshalsea Prison. 

205 



Dublin peaceable citizens, and is also accountable for the pre- 
valence of duelling, in which the most eminent members 
of the Bar and Senate commonly engaged. Fitzgibbon, 
the Attorney-General, afterwards Lord Chancellor and 
Earl of Clare, fought with Curran, afterwards Master of 
the Rolls. Scott, afterwards Lord Chief-Justice of the 
King's Bench and Earl of Clonmell, had a duel with 
Lord Tyrawly on a quarrel about his wife, and after- 
wards met the Earl of Llandaff in an affair concerning 
his sister. Nor were the quiet shades of Trinity College 
free from the practice. The Hon. Hely Hutchinson, 
when Provost, fought a duel with a Master in Chancery, 
and his son, following the paternal tradition, fought 
Lord Mountnorris. In a duel fought on Sunday, 18th 
November 1787, in the Phoenix Park, the hat of one of 
the principals was twirled round by his opponent's ball, 
and the latter received a shot which grazed (nie of his 
breast-buttons. The notorious ' fighting Fitzgerald "■ 
made it a practice to stand in the middle of a narrow 
crossing of a dirty street, so that every chance passenger 
had either to step into the mud, or jostle him in passing. 
In the latter event a duel immediately followed. It has 
been calculated that during the last two decades of the 
eighteenth century no less than three hundred notable 
duels were fought. Both duelling and riotous conduct 
were greatly fostered bv the prevalence of drunkenness, 
especially amongst the upper classes. Dublin had long 
had an unenviable notoriety in that respect. An Irish 
priest, in a Gaelic address to his countrymen from Rome, 
towards the close of the seventeenth century, styles his 
native city 2lc Ch6,z n<^ ple<^'13 piouol — that is, ' Dublin 
of the Wine Bottles.' Winetavern Street is one of the 
oldest streets of the city ; and in the reign of Charles ii., 
with a population of 4000 families, there were 1180 ale- 
houses and 91 public brew-houses,^ In 1763 the im- 
portation of claret, the fashionable drink of the upper 

• Sir William Petty. 
206 



classes, had reached 8000 tuns, and the bottles alone So(;ial 
were estimated at the value of X^67,000. Fathers ex- Life in 
horted their sons to 'make their heads while they were Kit^ht- 
voung,' and bottles and <rlasses were alike constructed eenth- 
with rounded ends, so that the former must peiforce Century 
be passed from hand to hand, and the latter must be Dublin 
emptied before being set down. The Bar, the Church, 
the Senate, the Medical profession, even the Bench itself, 
were alike subject to this degrading excess; and drunken- 
ness was so connnon, especially a»nongst the higher grades 
of society, hs to entail no social censure whatsoever. 

Still Dublin contained many worthy and public-spirited 
citizens, to some of whom much of her present condition 
is largely due. In 1731 was founded a society under the 
modest title of 'The Dublin Society,'' to which the city 
has since owed an ever-increasing debt of gratitude, and 
of which Lord Chesterdeld said that 'it did more good 
to Ireland with regard to arts and industry than all the 
laws that could have been framed.'' Its inception was 
maiidy due to two private citizens, Mr. Thomas Prior 
and Dr. Sanuiel Madden. After having been in existence 
for fifteen years its operations had been so successfully 
extended as to obtain an ainuial bounty of dt^500 from 
the Civil List, and in 1750 it received a Itoyal Charter 
and was incorporated 'for l*romoting Husbandry and 
Other Useful Arts in Ireland,'' being henceforth assisted 
to this end by successive grants from the Iiish Parliament. 
In the last decade of the century this Society had com- 
menced the laying out of the present beautiful Botanic 
Gardens at Glasnevin, then a fashionable subuib on the 
right bank of the river Tolka, in grounds formerly the 
demesne of Tickell, the poet; the yew-tree walk in the 
gardens still bearing the name of ' Addison's Walk,"" from 
the poet's fiiend, who often stayed with him here. The 
last act of the Irish Parliament was a grant of c£^l 0,000 
to the Society, of which sum =f li300 was to be devoted to 
the completion of the Gardens. The Botanic Gardens 

207 



Dublin are now under the management of the Department of 
Agriculture and Technical Instruction. 

Of the churches built during the eighteenth century 
the chief survivals are St. Ann's, St. Catherine's, St. 
Mark's, St. Thomas's, St. Werburgh's, and St. Matthew's, 
Irishtown. The existing parish of St. Matthew, consti- 
tuted soon after the passing of the Irish Church Act of 
1870, originally formed part of the parish of Donny brook. 
In 1704 the church was erected under the style of 'The 
Royal Chapel of St. Matthew, Ringsend,' and was a royal 
donative chapelry without cure of souls but subject to 
episcopal jurisdiction. Originally founded to meet the 
spiritual needs of the revenue officers and other English 
dwellers in the little port, it was continued Hrst as a 
garrison chapel, and later for the use of an English 
eighteenth-century colony of fishers and other sea-going 
folk whose descendants still form an appreciable element 
of the population. The church was restored and enlarged 
in 1878-79. St. Ann's, Dawson Street, was built in 1707 
on a site presented to the parishioners of St. Bride's 
(p. 96) by Joshua Dawson, Esq., when St. Ann's was 
erected into a distinct parish. The present very striking 
front was built in 1868-69. The church of St. Catherine 
in Thomas Street, designed by John Smith, was erected, 
1760-69, on the site of the Abbey of St. Tliomas, after- 
wards Thomas Court, founded in honour of St. Thomas a 
Becket by Hugh de Lacy, a very flourishing twelfth- 
century foundation outside the city walls, It was granted 
to the Brabazon family (Earls of Meath) by Henry viii., 
and from them the old Liberty of St. Thomas acquired 
the title of the Meath Liberty. It has a classical granite 
facade ; in the centre four Doric semi-colunms support a 
pediment, and in the intervals of the central columns is 
the principal entrance between two Ionic pillars. The 
unfinished western tower contains the belfry, and was 
originally intended to have supported a steeple and spire. 
The stucco-work of the recess which contains the com- 
208 



munion table is worthy of notice. The church of St. Social 
Mark in Great Brunswick Street, 1729, has little architec- Life in 
tural merit. A wooden pulpit in the churchyard, divided Eight- 
froni a busy thoroughfare by a railing, is used in open- eenth- 
air services held on Sunday evenings in summer. The Century 
church of St. Thonias in jVIarlborough Street was co|)ied Duljlin 
by John Smith from a design of I'allaclio, and built 
1758-62. It has a low Corinthian fa^-ade, and the 
appearance of the church, as seen from Gloucester Street, 
is ugly in the extreme, the huge bulk of the body of the 
church with its enormous roof dwarfing the elegant 
Palladian front. A stee})le, to consist of two pilasters 
and two three-cjuarter columns of the composite order 
supporting an entablature and pediment, for which a 
design had been prepared by an architect named Baker, 
would have done much to remedv this unsightliness, but 
was never carried out. 

The church of St. Werburgh, in the street of the same 
name, possesses much more interest, historical and other- 
wise, than any of its contemporaries. A church was here 
dedicated in Danish times to St. Martin, the ruins of 
which were still traceable in 1632, and close to it was 
built, within seven vears of the Anglo-Norman settlement, 
the church of St. Werburgh, \so called of a Cheshire 
virgin.'' ^ This foundation is mentioned among Dublin 
churches in a bull of Pope Alexander m. of 1179. It 
included two chapels. Our Ladle's and St. Martin's, and 
was burned in 1311, The dedication is accounted for bv 
the Bristol settlement under Henrv iii. St. Werburga 
was daughter of \Vulfhere, Saxon king of Mercia (d. 683). 
and the Cathedral of Chester was formerly the Abbey of 
St. Werburgh. She was not only abbess of the Chester 
convent, but had the direction of manv other foundations, 
and one of the oldest churches in Bristol is also dedicated 
to this saint.- The neighbouring; church of St. Marv del 



' Stanihurst. 






- Ches/er, in ihe present series, 


p. 30. 


Bertram C. A. Windle. 


o 




209 



Dublin Dam (nearly on the site of the City Hall), was parochially 
united to St. Werburgh''s by Archbishop Browne, about 
1550, when the former became a secular building, and 
was leased to Sir George Carew, Earl of Totnes, and 
subsequently to Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork, who erected 
Cork House on its site, from which the sharp ascent to 
the Castle still bears the name of Cork Hill. In 1710, 
the church being so decayed and ruinous as to be unsafe 
for public worship, and insufficient for the wants of the 
increasing parish. Captain Thomas Burgh, INI. P. for Naas, 
Surveyor-General for Public Buildings, was entrusted 
with the erection of the present structure : this was com- 
pleted, so far as to admit of the celebration of divine 
service, in 1719, at a cost of o£'8000, a grant from the 
Crown of the site of the former Treasury providing the 
greater part of the necessary funds. A bequest of James 
Southwell, in 1728, of oC431, provided a clock and peal 
of six bells, set up in 1732. The tower, a lofty octagon, 
adorned with Ionic pilasters, was completed by a gift of 
dS'SOO from the Dublin Corporation, and in 1731 were 
added a wooden dome and cross. On November 9th, 
1754, an accidental fire, believed to have been caused by 
emptying the candle-snuffers on the straw matting cover- 
ing the floors of the pews, destroyed the roof, dome, 
organ, pews and galleries, and injured the tower. The 
parishioners though numerous and mainly Protestant — in 
1630 there had been 239 householders of whom only 28 
were Roman Catholics — were slow to re-edify their church, 
and in four years had only subscribed iJ^SOO. A grant 
was procured from George ii. of df 2000, and the Reverend 
Sir Philip Hoby, then incumbent, bequeathed at his 
death <£1000 to build a spire and procure a new organ. 
The restoration was completed by 1759, and nine years 
later the spi?-e, rising 160 feet above ground level and 
said to have been the lightest and most elegant in Ireland, 
was added. From a square structure rose a graceful and 
slender octagon supported on eight rusticated pillars 
2IO 



with intervals between, and teiMninating in a cross, after- Social 
wards replaced by a <>;ilt ball. Alter haviiitr stood for Life in 
forty years this spire was believed to be out of the Eight- 
perj)endicular, and a (rriind jury presentment in 1810 eenth- 
decreed its removal, 'riiough Francis Johnstone under- Centuiy 
took to secure it on arched vaidts, his plans were rejected ; Dublin 
and, on the proposal of Edward llobbins, Master of the 
Corporation of Jirick layers, it was taken down at a cost 
of X'-ioO. The tower was demolished in 18;3(), the bells 
uidiuno- and j)lace(i in thi' vestibule, and five of them sold 
in 1855. Notwithstanding the loss of the superstructure 
the exterior of the church is still of ccmsiderable beauty. 
The classical front consists of two storeys, the first or 
basement ornamented by six Ionic pilasters su])porting- 
handsome ))lain entablatures, antl having three entrances, 
a large Doric gateway, over which is a semi-circular 
pediment, and small doorways on each side, leading to 
the north and south galleries. The second storey is 
Corinthian, has a large window lighting the bell-loft, and 
is crowmd with a pediment. Above this formerly stood 
the belfry storey surmounted by a low parapet, from 
which the spire rose gradually. In 1829 the church is 
believed to have been singular among Dublin parish 
churches in the possession of a stained glass window in 
which figures were introduced ; a further f)ro()f of the 
puritan leanings of the city church-goers. The beautiful 
carved pulpit originally stood in the Chapel Koyal, and 
was thence removed to the church of St. John in 1864, 
being replaced by one of stone. On the union of this 
parish with St. Werburgh's in 1877 the former church 
was closed and the pulpit transferred to the latter. It is 
commonly believed to be the work of Grinling Gibbons, 
but this appears more than problematical. Beneath the 
church are twenty-seven vaults, two being under the 
chancel. To one of the latter the body of Lord Edward 
FitzGerald was removed on his death in New Gate in 
1798 (p. 100); and in another of the vaults is buried Sir 

211 



Dublin James Ware, the antiquary (1594-1666). Strangely 
enough, in the east corner of the graveyard was interred, 
in 1841, Major Henry Charles Sirr, the officer who 
effected the arrest of Lord Edward, Built into the 
exterior of the south wall are the remains of an Altar- 
tomb of the FitzGerald family, transferred successively 
from the l^riory of All Hallows (p. 114) to the cliurch of 
St, Mary del Dam and thence to a pew in the old church 
of St. Werburgh. The church plate dates from the 
seventeenth century, one of the patens being the gift of 
Thomas Doggett, churchwarden, 1693, father of the 
comedian (p. 317), On the south side of the church in 
the seventeenth century stood the ' main guard ' of the 
city, where military offenders were forced to ' ride the 
wooden horse,"" It was afterwards used as a watch house, 
A passage from St. Werburgh Street to St. Nicholas 
Street was known at the close of the twelfth century as 
Vicus Sutorum or Le Sutter Lane ; and at its entrance 
in St, Werburgh Street the Four Courts Marshalsea was 
built about 1580, but afterwards removed first to Bridge 
Street and later to Molesworth Court. 



212 



CHAPTER VII 



MUXICIPAI, nUBLIX 



THE municipal history of Dublin may be said to 
commence with the charters of Henry ii. (p. 34) 
and John (p. 37) ; but for centuries thereafter the citizens 
had Httle control of the affairs of their citv. The fact 




REVF.NTFENTU-CENTURY FORAY FROM DUFI.IN 

that Dublin was the capital of the Pale, and the head- 
tjuarters, as it continued to be for at least four centuries, 
of the English garrison in Ireland, brought it under the 
direct control of the resident Viceroy, under whatever 
title he might exercise that office. Nevertheless certain 
civic rights were from time to time conceded, rights stiffly 
upheld by the sturdy descendants of the Bristol colony 

215 



Dublin and their Welsh co-partners.^ It was not, however, till 
the close of the seventeenth century that the complete 
control of the city was placed in the hands of the civic 
authorities, and for wellnigh two centuries thereafter 
they continued to rule it with a rod of iron. But we 
must not hastily conclude that this implied what would 
now be meant by popular Control. It closely resembled 
the Government of Florence in the thirteenth century 
by the ' Arti ' or Gilds,^ and had nothing in common 
with modern municipal rule ; and it was not till the 
election of the New Corporation in 1841, under the 
provisions of the Irish Municipal Reform Bill, that, by 
the exertions of Daniel O'Connell, Dublin could rightly 
be termed an Irish city, or that her citizens, as a whole, 
had any voice in the ordering of her affairs. The present 
Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin, Dr. Walsh, 
emphasised these facts when, in an address delivered on 
12th March 1905, he referit?d to Dublin as ' at one time 
the capital of the Pale, later on . . . the chief home and 
centre of the English colony in Ireland, but to-day the 
chief centre of one of the greatest forces at present 
working for the restoration of our national life."' referring 
to the Irish language movement. 

The charter of Henry ii. gave, as we have seen (p. 34), 
to the burgesses of Dublin freedom from all imposts 
throughout the United Kingdom ; and that of King 
John ordered that ' the citizens shall have all their 
reasonable gilds as the burgesses of Bristol have or had.' 
In 1217 Henry iii. granted the city of Dublin to the 
citizens in fee farm at 200 marks per annum ; and gave 
permission to them and their heirs ' to elect from among 
themselves annually a loyal and discreet Mayor,' though 
the title does not seem to have come into general use 

^ We find in 1671 a special sermon preached to the Lord Mayor, Sir 
John Totty, a native of Chester, and to ' the rest of his worthy friends and 
countrymen of that ancient city.' 

^ History of the Commonwealth of Florence. T. A. Trollope, vol. i. 
p. 176. 

216 



for nearly two centuries. In 1308 John le Deter was Muni- 
appointed the first Provost and Richard de St. Olave and cipal 
John Stakebold the first sheriffs. By an ordinance of DubHn 
Edward iii., dated 22nd Noven)ber 1363, citizens should 
he impleaded nowhere but in their Gildhall within the 
city, — in Winetavern Street. In 1402, during the Lord- 
Lieutenancv of Thomas of Lancaster, the citizens, headed 
by John Drake, marched south along the coast, and 
defeated the O'Byrnes near Bray, killing 500 of them : 
and on the feast of Corpus Christi 1406 inflicted another 
defeat on the Wicklow Irish, and fixed the heads of the 
slain over the city gates. King Henry iv. granted to 
the Provost in recognition of these services the privilege 
of having a gilt sword, 'in like manner as the Mayor of 
London," borne before him. Three years later Thonlas 
Cusack was the first to assume the title of Mayor, 
Riciiard Bove and Thomas Shortall being his bailiffs, 
and in 1548 the title of these latter officers was altered 
to that of sheriff by Edward vi., John Ryan and Thomas 
Finiarv being appointed the first sheriffs of Dublin. In 
1485 Richard iii., probably in recognition of the notorious 
Yorkist sympathies of Dublin, had constituted the IVIayor 
and Recorder justices of oyer, terminer, and gaol-delivery. 
In 1660 the loyalty of the Dublin citizens to the restored 
Charles ii. was by him rewarded by conferring on the 
Mayor the right to have borne before him a cap of 
maintenance, presenting him at the same time with a 
golden collar of S.S., and giving him the command of a 
foot company in the standing army of Ireland. The 
latter questionable privilege was commuted five years 
later for a sum of ^^500 per annum, to be paid in 
perpetuity out of the revenue of Ireland, and the style 
of Lord "Mavor was authorised for the chief magistrate, 
the first to "bear that dignity being Sir Daniel Belling- 
ham. In 1672 new rules ' for the better government of 
the city of Dublin,' were introduced by Arthur, Earl of 
Essex, Lord Lieutenant, which placed matters on the 

217 



Dublin footing which they occupied till 1759. In the troubles 
attendinjDf the war between James ii. and William iii. in 
Ireland the gold chain of the mayoralty had disappeared,^ 
and in 1697 Bartholomew van Homrigh, then l^ord 
Mayor, obtained from the King a royal donative of a 
new collar of S.S., value =£'1000, having a miniature 
likeness of William in. attached thereto. In 1759 a 
furtiier Act for regulating the Corporation of Dublin 
became law, whereby the junior gilds acquired consider- 
able privileges. It must be remembered that no person 
was qualified to be elected to the common council of the 
city ' who for the time does not, or some time theretofore 
did not follow as his public and known occupation some 
trade, or did not serve an apprenticeship therein'; that 
is to say was not a member of one of the gilds. The Lord 
Mayor and Board of Aldermen had the power of reject- 
ing a number not exceeding ten out of the ninety-six who 
constituted the common council, who should be ineligible 
for election for three years, in order that ' no person 
who shall distinguish himself for raising factions and 
dissensions among the guilds shall have any chance 
to succeed by means so prejudicial to every other in- 
dividual."'^ At the beginning of the nineteenth century 
the constitution of the municipal Government of Dublin 
was as follows. The Corporation consisted of a Lord 
Mayor, twenty-three aldermen, and a common council. 
The Lord Mayor was annually elected from among the 
aldermen by a majority of that body with the approba- 
tion of tiie common council, and the consent of the Lord 
Lieutenant and Privy Council. He was ex officio a justice 
of the peace for the county of the city, admiral of the 
port of Dublin and chief judge of the Lord Mayor's and 

^ It was said to have been carried off by Sir Michael Creagh, Led 
Mayor, who, in the words of a later rhymester: — 

' stole the collar of gold 
And sold it away to a trader." 

- Petition, 25th January 1760. 

218 



Sheriffs' Courts. The aldermen, who were also justices Muiii-^ 
of the peace for the city, were elected for life from cipal 
among such common-councihnen as had served the office Dublin 
of sheriff, and were termed sheriffs' peers ; each on his 
election i)aid o(.'4()0, X'105 of which went towards the 
support of the King's Hospital (p. 110) and tlie remainder 
for the repair and embellishment of the Mansion-house. 
The sheriff's were annually elected at Easter by the Lord 
Mayor and aldermen from a list of eight freemen 
nominated by the common council, and must possess the 
(jualiHcation of real or personal property to the clear 
amount of i^2000. Their appointment was subject to 
the approval of the Lord Lieutenant and Privy Council. 
The members of the common council were chosen by 
ballot from the different gilds. Of these latter there 
were twenty-five, at the head of which, corresponding to 
the Arti Maggiori of Florence (p. 216), stood the gild of 
the Holy Trinity or gild of Merchants, mentioned as the 
'Trinitie Veld' "in the Assembly Roll of 1551, which re- 
turned thirtv-one representatives out of the total of ninety- 
six. The others known as minor gilds were the Tailors, 
Smiths, Barber-surgeons, Bakers, Butchers, Carpenters, 
Shoemakers, Saddlers, Cooks, Tanners, Tallow-chandlers, 
Glovers, Weavers, Dyers, Goldsmiths, Coopers, Felt- 
makers, Cutlers, Bricklayers, Hosiers, Curriers, Brewers, 
Joiners, and Apothecaries. In some of these certain 
early gilds had been absorbed as 'wings.' In 1840 the 
Irish Municipal Hefbrni Hill became law, and the follow- 
ing year the first town council under the New Corpora- 
tion Act was elected on the 26th of October, Daniel 
O'Connell, Esq., M.P., who had been mainly instrumental 
in procuring the change, being sworn in as Lord Mayor 
on the 18th November following. The subsequent 
history of the City fathers, though often stormy, has 
been in the main uneventful. The Home Rule move- 
ment of the last quarter of a century has done much to 
limit the choice of the citizens in respect of their 

219 



Dublin municipal representatives ; the populani gfassi, to use the 
cognate Florentine term, or wealthier merchants, being 
largely Unionist in politics, the populo minuto, or small 
folk, have been enabled to rule the roost. 

Having thus briefly sketched the main facts of the 
municipal history of Dublin, it may be of interest to go 
into some of the details of that history. At an early 
period struggles with the clergy were of common occur- 
rence. In 1262 a contention arose with the convent of 
Christchurch concerning the tithe fish of the Liff'ey, a 
moiety of the waters of which had been granted to the 
citizens by King John in 1200, with its appurtenances 
for fishing. In the Liher Albus, or 'White Book of 
Dublin,'^ containing transcripts of documents from the 
thirteenth to the seventeenth century, we find that the 
Abbey of the Blessed Virgin Mary claimed the right 'for 
a little bote to fish on the LifFe and the presmeysy ' (or 
right to take a ' mease,' about 500 herrings) ' claymed by 
the said Abbotte of Dublin.' But fishing rights, then 
doubtless much more valuable than now, including the 
right to place stake-nets in the tide-way, were not the 
only subject of dispute. In 1267, for an alleged violation 
of the privileges of the church, the Mayor and citizens 
were solemnly excommunicated, and the quarrel only 
composed by the intervention of the Lord Justice and 
Council. Fifty vears later the contending parties were 
for once in agreement, having united to burn one Adam 
Duffe O'Toole on ' Hogging Grene,' now College Green, 
'beside Divelin ' for blasphemously denying the Incarna- 
tion. But in 1434 the Mayor and citizens had again to 
do penance for violating the privileges and abusing the 
Abbot of St. Mary's. In 1512 the Mayor was obliged 
to walk barefoot through the city in public procession, 
in expiation of the offence of the citizens in profaning 
the sanctuary of St. Patrick's Cathedral, by engaging in 

' This book, consisting of one hundred and eleven leaves of vellum, 
came into possession of the municipal authorities in 1829. 
220 



a riot with the followers of the Earl of Ormonde, the Muni- 
Dubliiiers having constituted themselves a body-f^uard cipal 
for the Lord Deputy, the Earl of Kildare. On the other Dublin 
hand the cler<;v were of no small service to the city on 
manv occasions. The Old Bridge, hence known as the 
Friars' Bridge, was rebuilt by the Dominicans, and a 
toll levied by them of one penny for every carriage or 
beast of burden that crossed it. 

The citizens, as was natural from the proximity of 
their Irish neighbours, the turbulent septs of O'Byrne 
and O'Toole, early developed warlike proclivities. In 
the City Assembly Roll, 14'54, it is enacted that 'no 
prentise of merchande shidde be admitted unto the 
fraunches of the saide cittie till he have a jake-bowe, 
shefe, sallet,' and swerde of his owne, and all prentises of 
other craftes to have a bowe. arrouys, and a swerde.'' In 
1402, as we have seen (p. 44), John Drake defeated the 
O'Byrnes at Brav. In 1410 a force led by the Lord 
Deputy in person was less successful in an invasion of 
the teriitories of the same sept, but nine years later 
•taxed' Castlekevin in Wicklow, In 1423, and again 
three years later, the citizens were recouped for their 
expenses in fitting out an expedition against the Irish 
of Louth, a • concordatum ' of £19. 17s. 4d. being granted 
on the first occasion, and £^0 on the seccmd. In 1472 
the fraternity of arms or Gild of St. George was 
established by parliament for the defence of the Pale, 
of which the Mayor of Dublin for the time being was 
always to be a member, but it was abolished after having 
been in existence for only twenty-four years. At the 
beginning of the sixteenth century the mayor and armed 
citizens took part in the bloody and decisive battle of 
Knocktuogh, in Galway, besides engaging in many 
' hostings "■ nearer home in Wicklow. Leix, and Meath. 
In 1556, owing to the turbulence of the Kavanaghs, who 

' A light helmet, cf. Shakespeare's Heury iv. Part ll. Act iv. sc. 4, 
line 13. 

221 



Dublin were plundering the southern parts of the county Dublin, 
a strong body of the citizens marched against them, 
hemmed them in in their stronghold of Powerscourt, and 
forced them to surrender. No less than seventy-four of 
the prisoners were hanged in Dublin ; and the mayor, 
John Chaloner, was encouraged to import, at his own 
expense, cannon and muskets for the use of the city. The 
castle of the Kavanaghs became the property of Marshal 
Wingfield, ancestor of the Viscounts Powerscourt, in whose 
residence, Powerscourt House, Enniskerrv, on the site of 
the old stronghold, is an oil painting of the Marshal. 
Again, ten years later, William Sarsfield, then Mayor, 
marched to the relief of Dundalk, forced the great 
Shane O'Neill to raise the siege, and returned to Dublin 
with great booty. For this exploit he received the 
honour of knighthood. Nor were military operations 
the only outlet for the warlike spirit of the people of 
Dublin. In 1405 a fleet fitted out by them ravaged the 
coast of Scotland, and made a descent on Wales, whence 
they carried off the shrine of St. Cubic, which they 
deposited in Christchurch ; and in 1558 Rathlin Island, 
off the north coast of Antrim, was taken by the Lord 
Deputy Sussex with the assistance of the citizens. In 
the seventeenth century the gilds maintained their mili- 
tary organisation. In the records of the Gild of the 
Holy Trinity, or Dublin Gild of Merchants, we find in 
1623 William Bushopp,^ captain. Alderman Patrick 
Gough, lieutenant, and Thomas Taylor, ancient (or 
ensign). In 1664, the old colours being 'much torn 
and unfit to march with for the credit of the gild, new 
colours were ordered to replace them,"' and two years 
later 'every brother attending the display was ordered 
to wear a decent feather, according to the colours of the 
corporation."'' 

Dublin has been at all times jealously careful of its 

' In l6i2 Thomas Bishoppe liad been Mayor. 
- Journal R. S.A.I, for 1900, vol. xxx. pp. 60-61. 
222 



civic jurisdiction, the bounds of wliicli were minutely Muni- 
determined in the charter of John, then Lord of Ireland cipal 
and Earl of Mortain, dated 15th May 1192. 'J'his grant Dublin 
authorises 'his citizens of l)id)lin, both within and with- 
out the walls there, to have their boundaries as perand)u- 
lated on oath bv ^ood men of the city under precept of 
his fatiier, Kin<>" Henry — namely, from the eastern j)art of 
Dublin and the southern part of the pasture which extends 
so far as the <;ate of the church of St. Keivin, and thus along 
tlie way so far as Kihnerecaregan.^ and so by the mear of 
the land of Duvenolbroc (Donnybrook) as far as the 
Dother (Dodder), and from the Dother to the sea, 
namely at Clarade,^ near the sea, and from Clarade to 
Uenniuelan^; and on the western part of Dublin, from 
the church of St. Patrick, by the valley (Coombe), so far 
as Karnanclonegunethe, and thence so far as the mear of 
the land of Kylmcnan (Kilmaiidiam), beyond the water 
of Kilmeinan, "near the Aucnelith (Liffey), so far as the 
fords of Kilmehanoc ; and beyond the water of Aucne- 
lith, towards the north, through Ennocnaganhoe, and 
thence so far as the barns of the (Priory of the) Holy 
Trinity ; ami from these barns so far as the gallows, and 
so by the mear between Clunlith (Clonliffe) and Crinan, 
so far as Tolekan (the Tolka), and thence to the church 
of St. Mary of Houstemanebi (Ostmanby).'^ The per- 
ambulation of the boundaries referred to in this grant 
gave occasion to the triennial ' riding and perambulating 
of the franchises, libertys, meares, and bounds of the city," 
a picturescjue ceremony whose descri])ti()n was connnonly 
corrupted into 'riding the fringes.' In this procession 
all the twenty-five gilds took part, each preceded by a 
large platform on wheels drawn by teams of handsome 
horses, and showing the nature of the handicraft practised, 

* Or Kilniakergan (between Ranelagh and Leeson Park). 
2 Probahly a small stream entering the sea at Merrion. 
=* Probably Kill o' the Grange, near Monkstown. 

•• Dublin Assembly Roll. ^Calendar of Ancient Kecords of Dublin. 
Sir John T. Gilbert. 

223 



Dublin with the banner or other representation of their patron 
saint. In the White Book of Christchiirch occurs a 
description of the route taken in riding the franchises in 
1488, as follows :— 

' In primis : the said Mayr and his breethrne tooke 
ther way, in the name of God, first owte of the Damey's 
Gate, and soe forth by the long stone of the Stayn 
(p. 18), levyng All Hallous (now Trinity College) on ther 
right hand, and soe by the Ampnlyffy (Liffey) is side tyll 
they came to the Rynge's ende . . . and soe estward uppon 
the Strone (strand) on the south side, as far as a man 
might ride and keste a spere in to the see ; and then 
a yeman named William Walsh rode into the watyr and 
keste a spere into the see at lowe watyr as far as he 
moghte, and so fer extendeth the fraimches of the seid 
cittie estward in both the sides of the watyr. And then 
they ridde bakward till thei came to the blak stone be 
Este Myrrionge (Merrion), and left Mirryonge on the 
righte hand, and ridde over a meare westward till thei 
came to Our Lady well, and so straight over the said mer 
tyll they came by the gate of Smothescourt (Simmons- 
court) and so about the greene and over the ford of 
Donabrooke . . . and so forth the streygt wey till thei 
came to St. Kevynes gate, and from that northward unto 
the lane that the cros of stone ys in : and be cause the 
dyche of that lane was faste they brake a shard and put 
men over the dyche, and went throw the lane to the hy 
way be este Seynt Pulchris (St. Sepulchre's, p. 57), and 
so left Seynt Pulchris and all St. Patrikke's close over 
the lyfte hand till they came to an old lane ionnynge 
(joining) faste to the north side of the chauntor is (his) 
orchard or hagard place . . . and so threw the strete 
southward till they come to William Englysh is (his) 
hous, and so throw that hous and over the roffe of an 
other hous and throw the gardynes till they came to the 
Combe, and owte at the Combe gate till they came to 
the Cowe Lane, and so forth from that to Carnaclon- 
224 



gynethe, that is bei Dolfynesberne (Dolphin's Barn),' and Muni- 
so by Kihiiainham through tlie Liffey by the lands of the cipal 
Prior of Christchurch to Glasiievin, skirting the gallows Dublin 
of the Abbot of St. Mary's Abbey, to Balliboght and the 
river Tolka, and over the river southward to the sea, 
thence westward by the Liffey to St. Mary's Abbey, 
where they encountered the Abbot, who said ' that they 
did hvm wrong, for they shold have ridden be west the 
Abbey, and so forth to the see.'^ In 1603 a similar 
account has been preserved. In all these it is noticeable 
how minute are the particulars of the route when it 
borders on the liberties of St. Sepulchre, St. Thomas, 
and St. Mary's Abbey, and of the Prior of Christchurch, 
as the struggle for jurisdiction between the clergy and 
the citizens was a constant source of friction. How 
extensive were the powers of the spiritual authorities 
may be inferred from the constant mention of the gallows 
erected within the liberties of each of them. Even the 
maritime sway of the Mayors was subject to ecclesiastical 
encroachments. In a petition to King Edward in., dated 
5th July 1358, the citizens complain that, owing to want 
of deep water at the mouth of the Liffey, vessels laden 
with wine, iron, and other commodities have to anchor at 
the port of Dalkey, a town of the Archbishop of Dublin ; 
and ' upon an inquisition ud quod damnum, 21st March 
1372, the jury found that it would be of no damage to 
the King or others to grant to the Mayor and citizens of 
Dublin the customs of all merchandise biought for sale, 
either by land or sea, between Skerries and Alercornshed, 
otherwise Arclo. — 46 Edward iii.'^ 

Many references to the riding of the franchises occur 
in such records of the gilds as have been preserved. For 
instance, in 1731 the Barber-surgeons were directed ' to 
ride in the same dress with Tye perukes and long cravats 
as usual ' ; and from Faulkners' Jo^imal of 1st August 

^ Dublin Assembly Roll. Calendar of Atuient /Records of Dublin. 
Sir John T. Gilbert. - White Book of City of Dt4blin. 

P 225 



Dublin 1767 we find tliat the colours of the Barbers ' were 
purple, cherry, and red, while those of the Apothecaries 
were purple and orange/ ^ The Gild of Cutlers, Painter- 
stainers, and Stationers, or Gild of St. Luke the Evan- 
gelist, borrowed the 'long-tail horses' of the Earl of 
Kildare, whom they had presented with their freedom, in 
1755, and the brethren on this occasion all wore ' hatts 
edged with gould, cockade red, blew and yellow, with 
yellow gloves tipped with blew, shirt with red silk, and 
bound with red ribbond. All to be of Irish manu- 
facture.'' ^ In 164<9 a warrant signed by John Pue, 
Mayor, required tlie Goldsmiths' Company to attend on 
the 10th September at Christchurch meadow at four 
o'clock in the morning, decently furnished with horse 
and arms. Each brother was supplied by the gild with 
two yards of broad ribbon of their own distinctive colours, 
yellow and red, to which purple was added in 1692. In 
deference to a similar precept of the Lord Mayor in 
1701, 'two new trumpet-banners were ordered, two silver 
trumpets having been purchased a short time before, and 
the standard and staff were directed to be painted.'^ 

Another civic ceremony took place on May Day. On 
that day it was customary for the young men of the 
city to assemble for martial exercises on Oxmantown 
Green under the leadership of the Mayor of the Bull- 
ring* (p. 228), a custom revived in 1666 by William 
Smith, then Lord Mavor ; and at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century the Mavor and Corporation were 
wont to assemble on May Dav in St. Stephen's Green, 
accompanied bv the city gilds. Pageants were not of 
infrequent occurrence. As early as 1538 plays were 
acted at Hoggen Green before the Earl of Ossory, Lord 
Justice. The practice of performing plays or mysteries 

' Journal R. S.A.I, for 1903, vol. xxxiii. p. 232. 
2 Ibii. 1900, vol. XXX. p. 145. 

^ Journal R. S.A.I, for 1901, vol. xxxi. pp. 127-29. 
* ' The musters on Male dale and Saint Peter his eeve are assigned to 
the Maior and Sheriffs of the Bull-ring.' — Stanihurst. 
226 



had indeed l)een discontinued in the seventeenth century, Muni- 
hut they were replaced l)y less pretentious exhil)itions, to cipal 
which each gild contributed soniethiii<i; having reference Dublin 
to its own peculiar craft, from clas^ical niythologv or 
from Holy \Vrit. Thus the Smiths pre.>ented episodes 
from the myths of Vulcan and his consort Venus, the 
Vintners personated Bacchus, the Tailors Adam and Eve, 
the Carpenters SS. Joseph and Mary. The festival of 
Corpus Christi (first Thursday after Trinity Sunday) 
was commonly selected for these festivities; but St, 
George's Day (April 23) had a special representation 
of the old legend of the Dragon in honour of the Saint. 
For the latter pageant very special regulations are to be 
found in the 'Chain Book"" of Dublin,^ or rather in a 
transcript made in the seventeenth century headed 
' Out of the Chaine Book of Dublin, preserved in the 
British Museum.'' From this we find that ' the Mayor 
of the yeare before' was 'to find the Emperour and 
Empress with their followers well apparelled — that is to 
say the Emperour, with two Doctors, and the Empress, 
with two Knights, and two niaydens to beare the traine 
of their gownes, well apparelled,' and the Gild of St. 
George was directed to pay them their wages. 

' Item : Mr. Mayor for the time being to find St. 
George a horseback, and the wardens to pay three 
shillings and four pence for his wages that day. And 
the Bailives (Sheriffs) for the time being to h'nd four 
horses with men upon them, well a))parelled, to bear 
the pole axe, the standard, and the Emperour and St. 
George's sword. 

^ Item: the elder master of the zeald (gild) to find a 
mayd well apjiarelled to lead the dragon ; and the clerk 
of the market to find a <j[ood line for the drasTon. 

' Item : the elder warden to find St. George, with four 
trumpettors, and St. George's to pay their wages. 

1 Said to have been chained in the Gild-hall for reference by the 
citizens. 

227 



Dublin ' Item : the younger warden to find the King of Dele 

and the Queen of Dele, with two maydens to beare the 
trayne of her goune, all wholy in black apparell, and to 
have St. George's chappell well hanged and apparelled 
to every purpis with cushins, russhes, and other necessaries 
belonging for said St. George's day."* From the last item 
it would seem that the action took place in the chapel 
of St. George. 

For the Corpus Christi celebration the glovers en- 
acted Adam and Eve ' with an angill followyng berrying 
a swerde,' the corvisers or shoemakers Cain and Abel, 
the ' maryners, vyaters, ship-carpynderis and samoun 
takers (salmon fishers), Noe, with his shipp,'' the weavers 
the sacrifice of Isaac. The goldsmiths appeared as ' the 
Tliree Kyngs of Collyn (Cologne) ridyng worshupfuUy 
with the otFerance, with a sterr afore them.' The barbers 
presented Annas and Caiaphas ' well araied accordyng,' 
the 'bouchers' enacted ' tormentours, with their gar- 
mentis well and clenly peynted,' and the ' smythis, 
shermen (cloth-shearers), bakers, sclateris, cokis, and 
masonys, Fharo with his hoste.' The ' skynners, house- 
carpynders, tanners and browders' (embroiderers), were 
cast to represent the flight into Egypt, and were to 
provide the 'body of the camell and Oure Lady and 
hir Childe well aperelid, with Joseph to lede the camell, 
and Moyses with the children of Israeli, and the portors 
to berr the camell,' — a crowded programme ; and finally 
'the steyners and peyntors' were to ' peynte the hede of 
the camell.' An important official in all these ceremonials 
was the Mayor of the Bull-ring, 'an offi-cer elected by 
the citizens to be, as it were, capteine or gardian of the 
batchelers and the unwedded youth of the civitie. He is 
termed the Maior of the Bull-ring, of an iron ring that 
sticketh in the Corne-raarket, to which the bulles that 
are yearlie bated be usuallie tied.' ^ The office fell into 

^ Description of Dublin in 1577 by Richard Stanihurst (Holinshgd's 
Chronicles). 
228 



desuetude during the reign of James i., and is last Muni- 
mentioned in 1632. cipal 

Nor were banquets, as befits municipal tlignitaries, Dublin 
of infrequent occurrence. In 1561 Thomas Fitzsymon, 
Mayor of Dublin, had entertained the Earl of Sussex 
and the Privy Council at a dinner whicii was followed 
by a performance of the ' Nine ^^'orthies,'^ and 'a rich 
banquet,' after which ' the Mayor and his brethren with 
the city music attended the Lord-IJeutenant and Council 
to Thomas Court by torchligiit."' Indeed, eating and 
drinking occupy no small space in the accounts of the 
city gilds. In November 1691 the Goldsmiths' Company 
voted £6 for carrying on a treat for General Ginckel, 
General - in - chief of the forces in Ireland of their 
Majesties King William and Queen Mary. The feast 
was given in a very large apartment on the eastern side of 
the Tholsel (p. 239) in Skinners' Row, in which the city 
bancjuets were usually held, and concluded with a ball 
and most excellent fireworks. In 1703 a warrant from 
the Lord Mayor was received bv the Corporation of 
Barber-surgeons, announcing a dinner to the Duke and 
Duchess of Ormonde for the 12th August at St. Stephen's 
Green. ' Each brother was ordered to pay a sum of three 
shillings towards the dinner, for which sum, in addition 
to dinner, he would leceive a bottle of wine.' ^ On this 
occasion the Corporation of Dublin marched through the 
city with their pageants on their way to the entertainment. 
The music for these pageants and banquets must have 
been for the city fathers a subject of anxious thought. 
We have seen the purchase of two silver trumpets by 
the Goldsmiths' Company. But the trumjieters were at 
least equally necessary. And in the records of the Gild 
of St. Luke the Evangelist we read that : 

* Whereas Charles Linvel, trumpeter, was hyred to 
sound before our Corporation on last Fringe day, but he 

' Cf. Shakespeare's Love's La f>oitr's Losf. 

'^ Journal R.S. A. L. for 1903, vol. xxxiii. p. 232. 

229 



not performing as he should, the House have thought fitt 
not to give him full demand, being four guineas, but 
offered him two lowedores (Louis d'or), which he refused, 
and the House then ordered that if the Master pleased to 
offer him two guineas, which, if he do not take, the House 
will stand by the Master in refusal of payment thereof.' ^ 
In addition to the civic trumpeters and drummers a 
company of musicians was employed by the municipality, 
and furnished annually with light-blue livery cloaks 
bearing the city cognizance. 

Each gild had its own hall or place of meeting, most 
of which have now disappeared. The Gild of Glovers 
and Corporation of Brewers had their halls in Hoey's 
Court, off' Ship Street. The Joiners and Coopers were 
lodged in Castle Street, hard by. At St. Audoen's arch 
(p. 52) at the close of the eighteenth century were the 
halls of the Smiths, or Gild of St. Loy, the Bakers 2 or 
Gild of St. Anne, the Butchers, or Gild of the Virgin 
Mary, the Feltmakers, and the Bricklayers, or Gild of St. 
Bartholomew ; while the Corporation of Tanners kept their 
hall in the tower over the arch. The site of the Car- 
penters' hall is now occupied by the Widows' Aims- 
House of St. Audoen's Parish. Taylor's Hall in Back 
Lane, built by John Shudell, Master of the Gild, in 1710, 
is still in existence (p. 238). Here, in the beginning of 
the nineteenth century, the following gilds held their 
meetings, being without local habitations of their own, 
viz. the Butchers, Smiths, Barbers, Saddlers, Glovers, 
Skinners, Curriers, and Joiners. The Merchants' Gild, or 
Fraternity of the Blessed V^irgin Mary, were established in 
1478-9 in the building called the Chapel del Marie du 
Grace on the Brygge End. Their modern hall, a sub- 
stantial stone building on Merchants' Quay, now shelters 
the Merchant Taylors' Endowed School, removed in 1873 

"^ Journal R. S.A.I, for 1900, vol. xxx. p. 146. 

2 Previous to 1701 the Bakers had their hall in Casey's Tower, de- 
molished 1753. 
230 



from the hall in Back Lane. The Weavers' Hall in the Muni- 
Coombe, a venerable red-brick building, still exi.^ts, but in cipal 
a very dilapidated condition. Its front is still decoiatcd Dublin 
with a statue, once «ijilt, of George ii., placed in a niche 
over the entrance door, with the date mdccl. ; but the 
portrait of the same monarch in tapestrv which once 
adorned the interior of the hall has been removed. The 
frame bore the doggerel inscription : 

' The workmanship of John Vanheaver 
\e famous tapestry weaver.' 

A portrait of one of the La Touche family, which once 
hung in the hall, has also disappeared. 1 he hall of 
the Brick la vers and Stonemasons in C'nfl'e Street has a 
Substantial granite front. 

The influence of the gilds did much to ensure high-class 
workmanship in the various handicrafts ; and any defec- 
tion from their standard was visited with heavy penalties. 
Ill the })ve-la\vs of the Gild of St. Luke the Lvangelist 
we find the following : 

' If any person of this guild being a painter-stainer, 
shall at any time hereafter paint or color any oyle work 
whatsoever that is to stand without doors in the weather, 
and shall instead of an oyle priming use size therewith, or 
shall not stop the cracks or sliffts in tindier with oyle 
puttv . . . upon complaint being made to the Master of 
such ill-work made and done, . . . the offending party 
for the first offence shall pay 6s. 8d. sterling, and for the 
second and more offences of this nature, the full value of 
the work ill done.'^ Accordingly, we find records of 
one-third the value of the work levied on the offenders. 
The Goldsmiths' Company were, as we might suppose, 
especially watchful of fraud on the part of the members 
of their gild. In 1717 a certain Mr. Hore complained 
concerning George Farrington, a goldsmith, that he 
had sold him a silver teapot not touched- at the hall, 

^ Jotirnal R. S.A.I . for 1900, vol. xxx. p. 138. 
^ Absayed by pierre de touche (touchstone). 

231 




THE PILLORY 



Dublin K but which had a piece of silver, touched 

with the harp crowned, soldered in the 
bottom ; this last had the mark of 
Richard Archbold, a goldsmith, thrice 
struck on it. Archbold having been 
summoned, and owning his marks and 
soldering, was fined £5.^ The bakers 
also were closelv scrutinised. In the 
' Chain Book ' we find regulations for 
fines for faulty bread : for the first 
offence, fifteen pence ; for the second, 
thirty pence ; for the third oflTence they 
shall stand in the pillory, and swear to 
leave the city for a year and a day. 
The latter instrument of correction 
stood in the Cornmarket in front of 
St. Audoen's Church. The public also 
seem to have treated this craft with suspicion. In ISIO, 
during a great scarcity, they had the bakers drawn through 
the city on hurdles attached to horses' tails for the use of 
false weights. Nor did the barbers escape the vigilance of 
the Gild of St. Luke. In 1701 a retainer fee of i^l, 3s. 
was paid to the Recorder, and i?2, 8s. 6d. to the Solicitor- 
General, for the prosecution of certain persons who 'worked 
up horse hair and other unlawful hair' in the wigs manu- 
factured by them. A committee was soon after appointed 
' to enquire into abuses committed by barbers and periwig- 
makers in the city, who made a practice of shaving, and 
dressing wigs on the Lord's Day. ' - 

The regulations of the various gilds with regard to 
apprentices were at all times stringent. In the charter 
of the Gild of Taylors (artis scissomm), of 1417, it is 
stipulated that no member of their fraternity should take 
any but those of English birth {Anglicce nac'wnis) as 



1 Journal R. S.A.I, for 1901, vol. xxxi. p. 130. 
'^ Ibid., 1903, vol. xxxiii. pp. 232-233. 



232 



apprentices. Similarly of the Carpenters, Millers, Masons Muni- 
ancl Ht'liers (or slaters), known as the Fraternity of the cipal 
Blessed Virgin Mary of tiie House of St. Thomas the Dublin 
Martyr near Dublin, in a charter granted to them by 
Henry vir., of which a memorandum is enrolled in the 
Patent Roll of tlie Chancery of Ireland, twenty-sixth 
Elizabeth, it is enacted that "apprentices should be free, 
of the English nation, and of good conversation, and 
should be bound for seven years.^ In the Goldsmiths' 
Company none were admitted to the fraternity unless he 
were of English name and blood, and were a free citizen 
of the city. Under a municipal ordinance of 1652-3 
Protestants only were admissible to gilds and to 
apprenticeship in the city. Accordingly we find that in 
the Gild of St. Luke the Evangelist, in the terms of a 
Royal Charter of King Charles ii., dated 4th October 
1670, all members must swear allegiance to the King and 
be of the Protestant religion. The first Roman Catholic 
was admitted 2nd July 1793, and the first Quaker 13th 
May 1712, with a special form of affirmation. The 
apjirentices to the Dublin Gild of Merchants, while liable 
to the same seven years' term of apprenticeship, had some 
special privileges, as thev were entitled to wages not less 
than o^8 after their first year of service. Sumptuary 
regulations were minute and strictly enforced. We find, 
in the case of the last-named gild, that ' no brother might 
suffer his apprentice to wear any apparel (unless indeed 
it were old apparel of his master) but such as became his 
j)osition, namely, a cloth coat, decently made, without 
truardin":,^ cutting, or silk to be put thereon; a doublet 
of something, so it be not silk, meet for a prentice; also 
a shirt of the country's cloth, and the ruff thereof to be 

> Journal K. S.A.I, for 1905, vol. xxxv. p. 324. IbiiL, 1900, vol. xxx. 

P- 137- 

~ Ornamenting with braid, etc. ; cf. .'Shakespeare, MucJi Ado About 
Nothing, Act I. Sc. i. 11. 288-2S9 : 'The body of your discourse is 
sometime ,^Mar</^a? with fragments, and ihe i,'uara's zxg but slighily hasted 
on neither.' 



Dublin but one yard long, not wrought with silk or other thing; 
also a pair of hose, made with not more than two yards 
of cloth, being yard-broad, and the breech of the hose 
was not to be bolstered out with wool, hair, or any other 
thing, but should be made with one lining, close to the 
thigh, not cut or stitched with silk, but plain in all 
respects.'^ The apparel of the brethren of the gilds, 
though more sumptuous, was none the less carefully defined 
for its wearers. By an enactment of 1573 they wei-e to 
appear 'in seemly gowns.*" A regulation of 1608 pre- 
scribed for the senior aldermen scarlet gowns, violet for 
the junior, and 'Turkey' gowns were to be worn by the 
other members. Discipline was strict and exemplary. 
The apprentices' punishment for haunting taverns, playing 
at unlawful games, or wasting their master's goods by 
pilfering and stealing, was that the offender, on con- 
viction, be stripped naked and ' whipped with " groine " ^ 
birchen rods, as much as his fault shall be thought to 
have deserved.' Nor was the conduct of the brethren 
themselves less strictly regulated. One Thomas Lawler, 
of the Corporation of Barber-surgeons, was, during a 
sitting in August 1715, suspended ' for uttering scandalous 
words and casting reflections on His Grace the Duke of 
Marlborough.' In 1700 a member of the Gild of St. 
Luke was fined 10s. for reviling the Master, and in 1726 
another member was, for a similar oifence, fined in a 
like amount. The penaltv for reviling a warden seems, 
strangely enough, to have been fixed at half the above 
amount — namely, 5s. In a case of the use of slanderous 
words in 1514 by Philip Bruen, a helier (slater), he, 
having contumaciously lefused to appear when cited, was 
in absence fined a noble. Non-attendance at meetings 
was punishable by fine, and even a late attendance exposed 
the delinquent to a penaltv of 6d. to the poor-box.^ The 

^ loiiijial R. S.A.I, for 1900, vol. xxx. p. 57. 
- The old past participle of 'grow.' 
'^Journal R.S.A.T. for 1900, vol. xxx. p. 138. 



hour fixed for the periodical meetinors of the civic assembly Muni- 
was nine o'clock in the forenoon, and tlie members were cipal 
summoned by the tolling; of the Tholsel i)ell. Nor Dublin 
were more serious punishments unknown. One Thomas 
Newman, of the Corporation of Barber-suroeons, of which 
he had been warden in 157-5, was. foi- an unrecited offence, 
in 1577 forcibly and an^ainst his will carried to New Gate, 
where he lav, with two pairs of bolts on his legs, until he 
' reconciled himself,' by acknowledging on his knees his 
folly and ' lewiiness,"' craving pardon for the offence he 
had committed against the Master and wardens of his 
Company. Already in 1624 we find the Dublin Corpora- 
tion taking cognisance of the regulation of hackney cars, 
carmen being ordered to have licences from the Mayor 
and to bear badges with the arms of the city on the fore- 
part of their cars. The scavenging of the city, too — 
though, as we have seen, it was imperfect and indeed 
rudimentary — was the subject of nuuiicipal regulations. 
In 1617 we find considerable trouble with a certain 
Katherine Strong.^ a widow, who inherited from her 
deceased husband the post of city scavenger, and a grant 
of tolls for performing the duties of that office.- The 
lady in question seems to have been nuich more active in 
collecting her dues than in removing the abundant filth 
of the city, notwithstanding the oath which the city 
scavengers were bound to take, as follows : ' You shall 
cause the streets within your warde to be kept cleane 
from time to time. And also you shall cause each 
inhabitant within your warde to have the streets well and 
sufficiently paved where there is any defect or want, so 
far as each of their bowses rxtendeth, uppon the chardge 
of the said inhabitants. Theise and all other thinges 
belonging to the office of a Scavenger, you shall well and 
truelv perform and doe to your power. Soe helpe you 

^ ViJe Memorial of Sir James Carroll to Thomas Wentwortb, Viscount 
Strafforri, Viceroy. Ilarleian MS. 2138, British Museum. 

■^ Caieiidar of Ancient Ktiords of Dublhi. Sir John T. (iilbert. 



Dublin God.' ^ Amongst the tolls or customs in the Fishmarket 
of Dublin we find exacted ' of every woman retailer 
sitting in the street with a basket, for the week, one 
farthing, to be applied to cleansing the street at the 
stalls." The women retailers still sit in many of the back 
thoroughfares with their baskets, but the fee is no longer 
demanded. 

The rate of wages was the subject of more than one 
municipal ordinance. In 1J349 the newly enacted ' Statute 
of Servants and Labourers' (22nd Edward iii.), was 
transmitted by writ to the Mayor and bailiffs (sheriffs) 
of Dublin, and provided that all such labourers should 
' serve another for the same wages as were the custom in 
the 20th year of our reign.' In 1555 by an entry on the 
Assembly Roll, ' It is ordeyned by auctoritie aforsaid 
that a maister mason, maister carpender, and so the 
maister of everv occupacion shall have by the dale when 
he haith no meate nor drinke, fyftene pens, the jorneyman 
xii d., the prentice x d. ; and when he haith meate and 
drinke, the maister shall have by the dale vi d., the 
journeyman iiii d., the prentice iii d.; every laborer 
shall have by the daye, without meate and drinke, vii d. 
ob. (seven-pence halfpenny), and with meate and drinke, 
iii d. ; and if any within the franches of the cittie do take 
more than is here ordred, he shall forfait [halfe of] the 
some he taketh and the g-yver shall forfait as mouche, 
halfe to the accusor or informer, and halfe to the treasure 
of this cittie.' 2 

The freedom of particular gilds or of the city was 
sometimes conferred upon distinguished strangers, but 
this privilege was sparingly bestowed. Henry Crom- 
well was presented in 1656 with the freedom of the 
city and entertained at a banquet. In March 1688 

' In 1635, during an unusually severe winter, an effigy in snow was 
erected of Katherine Strong bearing in her hand a representation of the 
unpopular ' toll ' measure. 

2 Calendar of Ancioit Records of Diibliti. Sir John T. Gilbert. 

236 



a like distinction was conferred on Richard Talbot, Muni- 
Earl of Tyrconnell, enclosed in a golden casket, for cipal 
which i^46 was paid to the Goldsmiths' Company. In Dublin 
1761 James Grattan, Recorder of Dublin, father of the 
illustrious Henry Grattan, was elected a freeman of 
the Barber-surgeons, Three years later a similar 
honour was granted to James Caldwell Bart, Count 
of the Holv Roman Empire, for his services to the 
King in raising a troop of horse, at his own cost, 
during the war with France and Spain. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Howe was similarly distinguished for his services 
in Canada under General Wolfe, and in 1768 the 
freedom of the gild accompanied by 'one of the emblems 
of the Corporation, namely, the Free Razor of Liberty," 
was conferred on James, twentieth Earl of Kildare and 
Hrst Duke of Leinster. The last named had thirteen 
years previously, while as yet only Earl of Kildare, 
"received the freedom of the Gild of St. Luke the Evan- 
gelist, enclosed in a gold box. The same gild presented 
also their freedom to John Philpot Curran, the Marquess 
of Ely, the Earl of Winchilsea, and the Duke of Welling- 
ton. Perhaps a more suitable recipient than any of 
these was found in the person of one of Dublin's 
munificent benefactors — Mr. Thomas Pleasants, founder 
of Pleasants' School, Camden Street, and of the Stove 
Tenter House,^ a brick building, 275 feet long, three 
storevs high, and having a central cupola, erected by 
him in the Earl of Meath's Liberty, at a cost of 
i:'13,000, for the use of the poor handloom weavers; 
where clothes were tentered, warps sized and dried, 
and wool dyed for these artisans at a small cost to 
defray the expense of fuel, etc. Amongst those on 
whom in modern times the freedom of the City of 
Dublin has been conferred are Isaac Butt, M.P., Right 
Honourable W. E. Gladstone, Charles Stuart Parnell, 
Sir Henry Irving, Doctor George Salmon, Provost T. 
* Now St. Joseph's Night Refuge. 

237 



C. D., Captain Potter,^ Thomas Sexton, M.P., and the 
Right Honourable Stuart Knill, Lord Mayor of London 
in 1893. 

The Gild-halls, as we have seen, have mostly dis- 
appeared. Perhaps the most interesting survival is 
Taylors' Hall in Back Lane. Tlie Gild of Taylors 
claimed precedence of all other gilds on the ground 
of antiquity, but waived their claim, as a matter of 
courtesy, in favour of the Gild of Merchants who met 
in the Tholsel. The Taylors' Gild had had their 
hall for centuries in Back Lane, at one time known 
as Rochelle Lane, doubtless so named by the Huguenot 
refugees, but the present building was erected by John 
Shudell, Master of the Corporation, in 1710, Prior 
to the opening of the Music Hall in Fishamble Street, 
in October 1741, it was one of the largest public rooms 
in Dublin ; and was used, as we have seen, by many 
other gilds for holding their meetings. It was also 
largely patronised for balls, musical assemblies, auctions, 
and lotteries, and was even used as a dancing-saloon. 
In 1731 a magnificent entertainment was given here 
by Lord Mountjoy to the Viceroy and the nobility 
resident in the metropolis. In 1792 the Koman 
Catholic delegates assembled within its walls and re- 
ceived the nickname of the 'Back Lane Parliament.' 
About the same time it was the meeting-place of the 
Grand Lodge of Dublin Freemasons, and was used for 
gatherings of the United Irishmen by Wolfe Tone 
and others. On the discontinuance of the gild under 
the provisions of the Municipal Reform Bill, the hall 
passed in 1841 into the hands of the Trustees of 
Merchant Tavlors' School, an endowment maintained 
by property of the gild secured at its extinction. In 
1873, however, the school was removed to its present 
quarters on Merchants' Quay, and the premises were 

1 He commanded a large grain-ship sent by the United States of America 
to relieve the famine of 1879-80. 
238 



leased to a committee for the j)urpose of holtliiif]j prayer- Muni- 
meetings and a Sunday-school for the humbler dwellers cipal 
in its nei<;hl)ourhood. On one of the outer walls is a Dublin 
slab beariufif a half-defaced coat of arms, and the 
inscription, 'This hall bc'l()n<>,vth to the Corporation 
of Taylors, and was rebuilt by them in the year of 
our Lord an. dom. 1700. — John Holmes, Master; Albert 
Hannon, John Wilson, Wardens,'' The principal apart- 
ment measures 45 feet by 21 feet, with a gallery at one 
end approached from an up))er storey. It was formerly 
adorned with j)()rtraits of King Charles ii. and Dean 
Swift, and a curious painting of St. Homoboiuis, a tailor 
or merchant of Cremona canonised in 131(j. Its walls were 
also ornamented with the Royal arms and those of the 
Taylors' Gild, the latter bearing the appropriate motto, 
• Nudus fui et cooperuisti me."' ^ The mantelpiece of 
old Italian marble, valued bv the late Mi'. Law at iJ'lOO, 
has the inscription : 

The Gift of Ale..v\ Hi'll 

Chri/l' . Nearii 6; Hugh ( 'r(ii(/f/ 

Ma/V. ' 1 Wnrd". 17»4. 

The (H-iginal Gildhall of the Dublin Corporation 
was in Winetavern Street. In 1311 the Mayor and 
commonalty of Dublin granted to ' Robert de Bristol, 
their fellow-citi/en, all their tenement where their old 
Guildhall stood in the Taverners"' Street in the city 
... in exchange for fifteen shillings of yearly rent 
from a tenement in thi- street and parish of St. 
Nicholas, and for a sum of money given by Robert 
to the city." 

At the commencement of the seventeenth century the 
place of meeting of the Common Council of Dublin was 
the Tholsel, a building standing at the junction of 

^ St. Matthew xxv. 36. 



Dublin Nicholas Street and Skinners' Row, where it is marked 
on Speed's map of 1610. It was said to have been 
designed by Iiiigo Jones, and was afterwards adorned 
with statues of Charles ii. and James ii., removed on its 
demolition about the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
and still preserved in the crypt of Christchurch (p. 28). 
In 1718 some persons broke into the Tliolsel, and cut to 
pieces the portrait of George i. which hung there. A 
reward of oPlOOO was ineffectually offered for the discovery 
of the offenders. In 1752 the Tholsel was superseded by 
the present City Hall on Cork Hill, adjoining Dublin 
Castle and facing Parliament Street. This handsome struc- 
ture, formerly the Royal Exchange, was built in 1769 
from the plans of Thomas Cooley, whose design gained 
the first prize of one hundred guineas in a competition in 
which Thomas Sandby was second, and James Gandon 
third. The funds for its erection were provided by the 
Dublin merchants, assisted by the Earl of Northumber- 
land, then Viceroy, and by a parliamentary grant of 
i£'13,000, supplemented by the proceeds of lotteries. The 
site chosen is a striking one, and was formerly occupied 
by Cork House, then Lucas's coffee-house, removed by the 
Wide Street Commissioners in 1768, the old Exchange 
and private houses. The building, of Portland stone, is 
a square of 100 feet, having three fronts and a central 
dome. The north or principal front faces the imposing 
vista extending from Parliament Street across Grattan's 
Bridge, in a straight line the whole length of Capel 
Street, a distance of nearly half a mile. It has a portico 
of six Corinthian columns, the last two at each end being 
coupled, with an entablature which is continued round 
all three fronts. On the main front this is surmounted 
by a pediment, the other sides being crowned by a balus- 
trade. The height of the building and the absence of a 
tambour to the dome renders the latter inconspicuous 
from any point of view. The sharp descent of the ground 
from west to east necessitated the construction in front 
240 



of tlu' main fa(,ade, of a terrace level with the ground at Mnni- 
its western end, and accessible from the eastern end by a cipal 
long and wide flight of steps. The terrace was protected Dublin 
by a metal balustrade resting on a rusticated basement. 
On the 24th April 1814 the pressure of a large crowd, 
collected on the terrace to witness the whipping of a 
criminal, caused this balustrade to give way, when many 
of the concourse were killed and others severely injured. 
In consequence of this accident the eastern end of the 
terrace is now blocked by an unsightly wall support- 
ing a heavy iron railing. The present approach to the 
building is by two openings in the boundary wall facing 
north, raised respectively by three and four steps from 
the Hagwav of Dame Street, leading on tiie western side 
bv a Might of four steps, on the eastern by one of ten 
steps, to the level of the terrace. Facing the terrace are 
three entrances, each raised ten steps above it, and closed 
by iron gates sus})cnde(l on Ionic pilasters. The western 
front, facing the offices of the City Treasurer, once New- 
comeifs Bank,^ has four colunnis only, with windows 
alternating; and the eastern, in Exchange Court, has 
pilasters only, and owing to the narrowness of the Court 
is comparatively gloomy and dingy. 

On entering the building the visitor finds himself in 
a (juaintly flagged central hall, the original plan of 
which, similar to that of the Four Courts designed 
by the same ai'chitect, was an inscribed circle in a 
scjuare. The effect has been greatly injured by the 
blocking of the once open ambulatories enclosing 
the circular area, to provide office accommodation and 
stairways. It ix-mains, nevertheless, a verv beautiful 
interior, surrounded by twelve fluted cohunns, 32 feet 
high, forming a rotunda, and supporting an entablature 

' Founded by Thomas Gleadowe wlio married Charlotte, dauijliter and 
heiress of Charles Newcomen of Carrickglas, in County of Longford, and 
who was created a baronet in 17S1, when he assumed the arms and sur- 
name of Newcomen (p. 154). 

a 241 



Dublin above which rises an attic storey of 10 feet lighted 
by twelve circular windows and crowned by a well- 
proportioned dome with a central skyli<jht. The dome 
is richly ornamented with hexagonal caissons in stucco- 
w^ork, which, with the corresponding laurel festoons of 
the attic storey, are the work of Alderman Thorpe. 
Opposite to the entrance is a fine bronze statue, by 
Van Nost, of George iii. in a Roman military habit, 
standing on a pedestal of white marble. This statue 
was presented to the merchants by Hugh Percy, Earl 
of Northumberland, Viceroy 1763-65, at a cost to the 
donor of two thousand guineas.^ A very remarkable 
statue of Doctor Charles Lucas (p. 152), by Edward 
Smyth, then a pupil of Van Nost, and statues of Daniel 
O'Connell and of Thomas Drummond, Under-Secretary 
1835-1840, both by Hogan, and one of Henry Grattan, 
by Chantrey, also ornament the central hall. Intro- 
duced into the black-and-white pattern of the pavement 
are brass standards of lineal measure. At each side of 
the entrance are staircases, ornamented with handsome 
stucco-work, leading to the upper hall, extending along 
the northern front, in which the meetings of the Corpora- 
tion are now held. A gallery opposite the seat of the 
chairman gives admission, during their deliberations, to 
an audience — at times rather noisy — of citizens. The 
Lord Mayor's throne is of Irish oak, having the con- 
ventional Irish wolf-hound in its carved design. The 
room is adorned with portraits of H. Sankey (1791-2), 
Daniel O'Connell the ' Liberator,' Edward Dwyer Gray, 
and Thomas Sexton, all former occupants of the civic 
chair. In the muniment-room are preserved the City 
Regalia, the Liber Albus, and 'Chain Book,' or Liber 
Niger, and a valuable collection of Royal charters and 

1 In 1906 a majority of the Dublin Corporation vottd its removal, the 
grounds alleged being, first, that it was a statue of an English king ; secondly, 
he was represented as ' a Roman Highlander ' ; and thirdly, that it was tlie 
work of a Dutchman. 
242 



Corporation recorils, the former incluciing the grant 
of Henry n. to 'his men of Bristowa.'' These have 
been edited by the late Sir John 'V. (iilbi-rt. 

Since 1715 tlie Lord Mayor resides, during his term of 
office, in tlie Mansion House in Dawson Street. The 
building, originally of red brick, is faced with stucco, and 
a porch has been added. The principal rooms are the 
Oak-room (so called from its panelling), and the liound- 
room, 90 feet in diameter, built by the Corporation in 
1821 for the purpose of entertaining George iv. It is 
surrounded by a corridor and lighted by a lantern 50 feet 
from the floor. In the garden on a pedestal overlooking 
Dawson Street, from which it is separated by a railing 
surmounting an opening in the boundary wall, is the 
equestrian statue of George i., transferred from Essex 
Bridge (ji. 144). The pedestal bears the inscription : — 
' Be it remembered that, at the time w hen rebellion and 
disloyalty were the characteristics of the day, the loyal 
Corporation of the City of Dublin re-elevated this statue 
of the illustrious House of Hanover . . . a.d. 1798.' 



Muni- 
cipal 
Dublin 




THE LIFFEY, SOUTH \V.\LL 



243 



CHAPTER VIII 



DUBLIN THEATRKS 



THE history 
of the 
Dublin stage is 
a long and in- 
teresting one, 
and presents the 
usual gradations 
from Mystery 
and Miracle 
Plays and City 
Pageants to the 
tragic and comic 
Drama, Opera, 
and Spectacle. 
In the four- 
teenth century 
at Eastertide a Miracle Play, on the subject of the Re- 
surrection, was performed in the church of St. John the 
Evangelist in Fishamble Street.^ We have seen (p. 226) 
that plays were exhibited nl fresco on Hoggen Green 
before the Earl of Ossory in 1538, and that the City 
Gilds presented elaborate pageants both in the streets 
and in churches. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth 

^ Historical View of the Irish Stage. Robert Hitchcock, Dublin, 1788. 
244 




THE ALBERT CHAPEL ON SITE OF ASTLEY S CIRCUS 



plays were acted in the ballroom of Dublin Castle by 
meiTibers of the nobility and gentry. Joseph Ashbury, 
afterwards patentee of Smock Alley Theatre, saw a bill, 
dated Tth September 1601 (Queen Elizabeth's birthday), 
' for wax tapers for the play of Gorhodia; done at the 
Castle, one and twenty shillings and two groats.'^ In 
the seventeenth century a well-established school of 
playing had been already developed in Dublin, and the 
stock company of Smock Alley Theatre, traiiied in elocu- 
tion by Joseph Ashbury and Thomas Elrington, gave 
many famous actors to the London stage. The former 
of these, considered the best actor and teacher in the 
three kingdoms, instructed the Princess Anne, afterwards 
Queen, for a performance in the Bancpieting-house, 
Whitehall ; and the latter, who had married the daughter 
of Ashbury and obtained his ap})ointment as Deputy- 
Master of the Revels, replaced IJooth at Drury Lane 
where he played 'Othello,' 'Cato,' 'Anton v,' and '(Orestes,' 
and was consiilered unsurpassed in ' Oroonoko.' These 
traditions were well maintained up to the last quarter of 
the nineteenth century, when Dublin, in common with 
the English provincial centres,- ceased to maintain stock 
companies, to the great detriment of the histrionic art ; 
and the Dublin audience has now largely forfeited its 
claims to that critical discernment for which it was once 
justly famous. 

Tiie first Dublin theatre was in Werburgh Street, 
between Hoey's Court and Ship Street, and was erected 
in 1635 by a Scotsman named John Ogilby, Deputy- 
Master of the Revels under the Earl of Strafford. Tiie 
year after its opening it passed under the management of 
James Shirlev, who produced there many of his own plays, 
including St. Patrick Jb?' Ireland. In 1661 John Ogilby, 
who had become a London publisher, returned to Dublin, 

' Historical Vie7v of the Irish Stage. 

- The Dublin stock company was the last in the United Kingdom to 
disband. 

245 



and started in Orange Street the celebrated Smock Alley 
Theatre at the rear of the Blind Quay between Essex 
Street and Fishamble Street, on a site 63 feet wide and 
139 feet deep, obtained from Sir Francis Brewster, where 
formerly had stood Preston's Inns. This theatre, opened 
in 1662 and rebuilt in 1735, was finally closed in 1788. 
As originally constructed Smock Alley Theatre had two 
galleries, a pit, upper boxes, and a music loft. The stage 
was lighted by tallow candles stuck in tin circles : on 
special occasions wax candles were used. Here, in the 
early part of the eighteenth century, were trained under 
Elrington's management such actors as Wilkes, Norris, 
Doggett (p. 317), Booth, and Quin, who were afterwards 
ornaments of the London stage. The first of these was 
born at Rathfarnham, near Dublin, in 1670, and made his 
first appearance as 'Othello' in an amateur performance 
given gratis in Smock Alley Theatre in December 1691, 
in which Joseph Ashbury was the only professional actor. 
During a performance of Bartholomexc Fair, 26th De- 
cember 1671, the upper gallery fell into the pit, by which 
accident three persons were killed and numbers severely 
injured. On the death of Ogilby in 1672 his patent was 
conferred on Ashbury. He was the first to introduce 
George Farquhar, the dramatist, to public notice. The 
latter, born in Derry in 1678, entered Trinity College, 
Dublin, in 1694, and the following year acted Othello in 
Smock Alley ; but being unsuccessful as an actor he 
turned playwright, in which capacity he attained much 
higher reputation. In 1729 a rival to Smock Alley 
Theatre appeared in the booth started in Fownes's Street, 
between Dame Street and Temple Bar, by Madame 
Violante. With three or four other foreigners she gave 
entertainments of rope-dancing, tumbling, and short 
musical pieces. She soon added to these performances 
the legitimate drama, training for the purpose a number 
of children whom she termed her 'Lilliputian Company.' 
Amongst these were the celebrated ' Peg ' Woffington, 
246 



who appeared as 'Polly' in The Begguri Opera, and 
Isaac Sparkes, who playtd ' Peachuni,' and wlio afterwards 
became the greatest favourite that ever trod the Irish 
boards. His daughter-in-law, formerly Miss Ashmore, 
was also a recognised Dublin favourite, the original 
' Widow lirady," the original ' Clarissa,' and a most 
successful ' Priscilla Tomboy ' in The Romp. Encouraged 
bv her success, Madame Violante moved to No. 53 South 
Great George's Street, then George's Lane. As in our 
own time, the established theatre opposed the unauthorised 
intrusion and appealed to the authorities. The George's 
Lane theatre was closed by order of the Corporation, but 
the public resented the prohibition, and a regular theatre 
was opened in Rainsford Street in the Liberty of Donore, 
that district being outside municipal jurisdiction. Ama- 
teur efforts were not unknown on the Dublin stage of the 
eighteenth century, as we find The D'l.strest Mothei- of 
Ambrose Pliillips acted in the Council Chamber of 
Dublin Castle in January 1732, Viscounts Montjoy and 
Kingsland sustaining the principal parts. 

The dilapidated condition of the Smock Alley house 
induced its patrons to erect a new edifice in Aungier 
Street, on the corner of Longford Street, under the 
superintendence of Sir Edward Lovet Pearce, Surveyor- 
General. This theatre was opened on Saturday, lOth 
March 1733, with Fanpihar's Recruiting Officer, with the 
three Elringtons and ^Irs. Bellamy in the cast. In June 
1741 Quin visited the Aungier Street house with Mrs. (.'live. 
He performed successively Catu, Othello, with Ryan as 
' lago,' and King Lear, with Mrs. Clive as ' Cordelia.' 
In December of the same year he again appeared with 
Mrs. Cibber in The Conscious Lovers. 'V\\c Rainsford 
Street company took advantage of the derelict condition 
of Smock Alley to obtain from the Right Hon. Edward 
Hopkins, Master of the Revels, a patent for its restora- 
tion, and the theatre was reopened in 1735 with Part i. 
of Shakespeare's Henry IV. In 1737 the Smock Alley 

247 



players were designated the Right Hon. the Lord Mayor''s 
Company of Comedians, and an intimate connection was 
thereafter maintained between the municipality and the 
Smock Alley house. To this theatre David Garrick paid 
his first Dublin visit in 1742, and it is interesting to note 
that he played the part of 'Hamlet ' in Dublin before 
attempting it in London. 'Peg' Woffington, who had 
joined Madame Violante as a child in 1730, made her 
first appearance on the regular stage in the part of 
' Ophelia ' at the Aungier Street house ; but deserted it in 
1742 for Smock Alley, where she appeared on 15th June 
as ' Sir Harry Wildair,' her favourite part, varying her 
performance however by playing * Ophelia ' to Garrick's 
'Hamlet.' So crowded were the houses during this en- 
a;ao;ement, occurrins; as it did during the extreme heat of 
summer, that a pestilential epidemic ensued, playfully 
known in Dublin as the 'Garrick Fever.' ^ The most 
successful Dublin dramatic period may, however, be said 
to date from the union in 1744 of the two theatres, 
Aungier Street and Smock Alley, under the management 
of Thomas Sheridan, who made his first appearance as 
' Richard in.' on 9th January of that year. He was the 
son of Dean Swift's friend. Rev. Thomas Sheridan, D.D., 
who had forfeited all chance of Church promotion by 
preaching inadvertently in Cork on 1st August, the 
anniversary of the accession of George i., from the text 
' Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.'- He started 
a private school at the old Mint-house in Capel Street, 
where young Thomas Sheridan was born, and he after- 
wards purchased a school in Cavan which he sold for 
.£'400. Thomas Sheridan, junior, had been educated at 

^ Mrs. Woffington's charity is evidenced by her having built and 
endowed a number of abushouses at Teddington, Middlesex. A tablet 
in the disused church of St. Mary, Teddington, marks her last resting- 
place. 

* In \}cit Dictionary of National Biography, article, ' Thomas Sheridan,' 
this is erroneously stated to have been the birthday of Queen Anne, but 
subsequently corrected in a list of errata. 
248 



Westminster School .md Trinity College, Dublin, and Dublin 

resided, after his marriage to the accomplished authoress Theatres 

Frances Chamberlaine, at 12 Dorset Street, where his 

famous son Richard IJrinsley IJutler Sheridan was born 

on 30th October 1T51. Thomas Sheridan had for his 

first comedian Tom King, who was the original ' Sir Peter 

Teazle' in The School for Scandal; and during his 

management of the joint theatres Garrick again visited 

Dublin, as did AVoodward, Macklin, Theo. Gibber, Barry, 

and Mossop. Amongst the actresses who graced the 

boards were Mrs. Woffington and George Ann Bellamy 

(p. 317), the latter of whom remained in Dublin from 

1742 to 1745, besides occasional later visits. Sheridan 

has been described as 'an ineffectual genius, whose great 

talents were spoiled by diff'useness and pedantry.' As an 

actor he was a recognised Dublin favourite, by many 

considered a rival of Garrick in such parts as 'Biutus,' 

' Cato,' and ' King John.' A tragic occurrence marked 

one of his performances of Othello. The part of ' lago ' 

was taken by an actor named Layfield. When he came 

to the lines : — 

'Oh, my Lord ! beware of jealousy; 
It is a green-eyed monster,' 

he gave the latter as 

' It is a green-eyed lobster.' 

• He was at that moment struck with incurable mad- 
ness, and died somewhat in the manner of Nat Lee the 
tragic poet.' ^ As a manager, Sheridan can scarcely be 
considered a success. In 1747, having very properly 
ejected from the green-room a gentleman named Kelly 
who had, in a state of intoxication, climbed from the pit 
to the stage and insulted one of the ladies of the com- 
pany, he incurred the odium of the 'young bloods' of the 
city, who on the following Thursday, to the number of 

' O' Keeffe's RecolUctious. 

249 



fifty, stormed the stage and green-rooms, and proceeded 
to thrust their swords into clothes-presses and other 
places by way of ' feeling'' for the obnoxious manager, 
who, being warned, had prudently stayed at home under 
protection. Charles Lucas, who was amongst the audi- 
ence, appealed to them on behalf of the actors. A 
prosecution was instituted against Kelly who, to his 
amazement and that of his companions, was sentenced to 
three months' imprisonment and a fine of i^500. But 
fresh troubles were in store. Seven years later, during 
the production of the Reverend James Millar's Mahomet, 
Sheridan refused, in the interests of the performance, to 
sanction the ' encore ' of a speech by ' Alcanor ' contain- 
ing the lines : 

' If, ye powers divine ! 
Ye mark the movements of this nether world, 
And brines them to account ! Crush, crush those vipers. 
Who singled out by the community 
To g-uard their rights, shall, for a grasp of ore. 
Or paltry office, sell them to the foe.' 

This refusal so enraged the Whig frequenters of the 
theatre that they wrecked and almost demolished the 
building, compelling the manager to leave Dublin and 
sublet the theatre for two years. On Sheridan's return 
he was obliged to apologise, and owing to the opening 
of the Crow Street Theatre he finally retired in 1758 to 
Bath, where he exercised a sensible influence on English 
acting by his teaching of elocution, lecturing not only in 
Bath but in London, Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, and 
Edinburgh. The new theatre, on the site of a previously 
existing music-hall, was built by Barry and Woodward, 
with the aid of public subscriptions, at a cost of i^22.000, 
the front having great gates fticing the end of Crow 
Street. It was opened on 23rd October 1758 with 
Cibber's comedy, She Would and She Would Not, and so 
great was the crush on the opening night that a man was 
pressed to death on the staircase. It continued in public 
250 



favour for sixty-five years. Slieridan's place in Smock Dublin 
Alley Theatre was taken by Henry IJrovvn, a IJath Theatres 
comedian, wlio introduced the celebrated Mrs. Frances 
Abington, originally a Ho\ver-<;irl known as 'Nosegay 
Fan,' who had cjuarrelled with the Drury Lane manage- 
ment through jealousy of their preference of Mrs. Clive 
and Mrs. Pritchard. She made her first appearance in 
Dublin as ' Beatrice'' in MuiJi Ado about Xothing on 13th 
February 1760, and at once took the audience by storm. 
Her dress was carefully scanned and noted, and the 
' Abington cap,' in particular, was the only wear for 
women of fashion. 

The coalition of the theatres under Thomas Sheridan 
had led to the establishment, by the discarded members 
of the stock companies, of a theatre in Marv's Abbey, 
which opened on 17th January 1745 with I'hc Mcrclmnt 
of Venice. It only survived, however, for three years. 
In 1759 the Crow Street Theatre wrested fiom Smock 
Alley the official title of Theatre Royal ; and on the 
expiry of the patent in 18!20 Mr. Harris of Covent 
Garden purchased its renewal and built the Theatre 
Royal in Hawkins Street, destroyed by fire in 1880. It 
is curious to note that the latter theatre was built within 
one hundred yards of the house of the C'oujutess of Bran- 
don, which had perished by fire towards the end of the 
eighteenth century (j). 180). The Countess was a great 
patroness of the drama, especially of INIossop's acting in 
Shakespeare's plays. The founders of the Crow Street 
Theatre were Heiuy Woodward, and Spranger Barry, 
born in 1719 in Skinners' Row, son of a Dublin gold- 
smith, and himself a member of the gild (p. 317). 
Between these some rivalry existed : Barry preferred the 
drama; \\'oodwaril. who was an accomplished harlequin, 
delighted in pantomime. The former had first appeared 
in Smock Alley on 15th F'ebruary 1745 as 'Othello,' and 
had spent three seasons in Dublin and two in London 
before the opening of Crow Street Theatre. He was 

251 



Dublin considered one of the finest actors on the London boards, 
with a figure and voice pronounced by contemporaries to 
have been perfect. His second wife, Ann Barry, trained 
by him in Crow Street was, as an actress, probably the 
greatest public favourite ever seen on the Dublin stage. 
She was the daughter of an apothecary in Bath, and was 
three times married : first to an actor named Dancer, 
then to Barry, and lastly to a very poor player named 
Crawford, and had the unique experience of playing at 
Crow Street with all three husbands. At her first 
appearance in Dublin, 8th November 1758, she played 
' Cordelia ' to Barry's ' King Lear.' Barry, after nine years' 
management of Crow Street, returned to London in 
1767, where he appeared with Mrs. Barry in the Hay- 
market, then under the management of Foote. He 
revisited Dublin in 1771, 1773, and 1774, and died on 
10th January 1777. He was buried in the cloisters, 
Westminster, where his wife was laid to rest beside him 
in 1801. The rivalry between the theatres was so keen 
as to be mutually injurious, and was fanned by their 
respective patrons. For instance. Lord Mornington in- 
duced Kane O'Hara to write Midas, ' made up of Dublin 
jokes and by-sayings,' ^ in opposition to the Italian bur- 
letta at Smock Alley. In tlie former Spranger Barry 
was to have performed 'Sileno,' but not proving equal to 
the musical part, relinquished it to Robert Corrv. Wood- 
ward, having lost the greater part of his savings, had 
returned to Covent Garden in 1762. 

Sheridan was succeeded in the management of Smock 
Alley by the popular comedian Tate Wilkinson, but the 
most formidable rival of Barry's theatre was Henry 
Mossop, son of a prebendary of Tuam, and educated 
at Dublin University, where he obtained a scholarship 
in 1747. He had been in receipt of thirty-seven guineas 
a week at Crow Street from Barry and Woodward, but 
left them in 1760 to undertake the management of Smock 
^ O'Keeffe's Recollections. 
252 



Alley, where he secured the patronage of the Countess of Dublin 
Brandon, Miss C'aulfield, sister to Lord Charleniont, and Theatres 
Lady Racliel Macdonald, sister to Lord Antrim. But 
his victory was niainlv due to the sudden vogue of 
English opera, of which he took early advantage, engag- 
ing at great expense such artistes as Ann Catley (p. 188), 
who h)dged with her mother in Drunicondra Lane, and 
who had been introduced to him in 1764 by Mackhn, 
who lodged in the same by-way when in Dublin. Nor 
did he disdain to court humbler means of pleasing the 
Dublin public, as one of his play-bills displayed in large 
characters the engagement of a favourite performing 
monkey. On the other hand, he always lit the house 
with wax for the production of Shakespeare's plays. 
The craze for opera is probably hinted at by Goldsmith 
in She Stoops to Conquer, w^hen the bear-leader sa}s his 
bear ' will onlv dance to the very genteelest of tunes, the 
minuet in Ariadne, or '' Water Parted." ' The latter was 
the great aria of an Italian named Tenducci in Dr. 
Arne\s oj^era of Artaxerxes, and was ridiculed by the 
Did)lin gamins in the street song — 

' roiulucci was a Piper's son, 
And he was in love when he was young-. 
And all the tunes that he could play 
Whs " \\'ater parted from the sin/ ! ' 

The departure of Barry, who surrendered the manager- 
ship of Crow Street to Mossop in 1770, did not leave the 
latter without a rival, as, on ^6th February of that year, 
William Dawson, in conjunction with Robert Mabon, 
hired the premises in Capel Street previously occuj)ied by 
a pu])pet-show known as ' Stretch's Show." Here they 
opened a theatre, hiring the back-parlour of a grocer's 
shop as a green-room. The stage was deep, and the 
auditorium hail pit, boxes, lattices, and two galleries. 
For four years this house, known as the City Theatre, had 
considerable success, producing such plays as Richard III., 

253 



Dublin The West Indian, She Stoops to Conqiier, and Lio7ieI and 
Clarissa, with actors such as William Thomas Lewis, 
stepson of the manager, Isaac Sparks, John O'Keeffe, 
and Charles Macklin, with Thomas Holcroft, afterwards 
well known as a dramatic author, as prompter and actor. 
The first-named of the above was a great favourite with 
the Dublin public, who particularly relished his delivery 
of an epilogue, originally written by Mozeen for King in 
the character of ' Ranger,' beginning — 

' Bucks, have at ye all.' 

This was demanded nightly by the College students, 
whether Lewis was in the cast or not ; and on his finally 
refusing to comply, another riot ensued in which the 
students shouted for the epilogue, while his friends vainly 
vociferated 'No Bucks!"' During the engagement of 
Macklin all tlie boxes were taken for the twelve nights 
of his performance, so true was it then as now that really 
first-class acting is almost sure to obtain patronage in 
Dublin. Dawson's co-manager, Robert Mabon, is the 
hero of a theatrical story. On the occasion of Garrick's 
Stratford Jubilee he was to sing a song commencing 

' Behold, this fair goblet was carved from the tree 
Which, oh ! my sweet Shakespeare, was planted for thee.' 

He was hantled a wooden cup as he went on, which he 
indignantly declined, and insisted on a cut rummer glass 
being supplied, which he flourished, to the great amuse- 
ment of the audience. 

From an interesting diary of a Dublin lady, unearthed 
in the Record Office by Mr, Henry F. Berry, Deputy- 
Keeper, considerable information may be gathered con- 
cerning the Dublin theatres between 1744 and 1774. 
Tlie prices, for instance, were — for a box ticket 5s. 5d., 
lattices 4s, 4tl., pit 3s. 3d., and gallery 2s. 2d.; and the 
performance began ' half an hour after six o'clock.' This 
hour was sometimes altered, as we find in an announce- 
254 



ment of the rc()})eiiinfr of Smock Alley Tlieatre, on 5th Dublin 
November 1738, the following : — Theatres 

' Whereas complaints liave been made of the Plays 
bein<:j done too late, this is to oive Notice tiiat they 
intend to remedy this Inconvenience, to begin precisely 
at G o'clock, therefore "tis hop'tl all Gentlemen, Ladies 
& others who intend to favour them with their company 
will not exceed that hour.' 

There was no half-price in the Dublin theatres; no 
females sat in the pit; and none, male or female, came to 
the boxes except in full dress. The upper boxes, in a 
line with the two-shilling gallery, were called lattices, 
and over them, even with the shilling gallery, were the 
slips, also termed 'pigeon-holes.'' The auditorium was 
in the form of a horse-shoe, and oranges and apples were 
hawked in the cheaper parts of the house. ^ In connec- 
tion with the Dublin theatres were certain well-known 
supper-rooms. Sam's Coffee House was kept by Sam 
Ia^c, leader of the band at the Crow Street Theatre. 
Isaac Sparks, the actor, founded a jovial meeting in form 
of a Court of Justice, wherein he presided in robes as 
Lord Chief-Justice Joker. One of the contributory 
causes of the riot which drove Thomas Sheridan from 
Dublin was Whig jealousy of the influence of the Beef- 
steak Club, a notoriously Tory gathering, at whose 
dinners Mrs. Woffington presided. The family of the 
lady whose diary we have referred to witnessed the plays 
of The Bu.sj/ Body^ Ttnnerlanc, Mtichcfli, The Cnhappij 
Marr'ui^r. The D'l.strest Mother, in which ]Mrs. Woflington 
appeared as ' Hermione."' He)iry r///.,and Beggar s Bush. 
They were also present at Tate Wilkinson's beneflt on 
25th February 1758, when Jane Shore and the farce of 
To)n Thuvih were produced, and the ' whole leceipt of 
the house (not then so large as it was made by INIossop 
afterwards) was ^^154.' On this occasion 'seven rows of 
the pit were added' to the boxes, and 'railed in at box 
' O'Keeffe's Recollections. 

255 



Dublin prices."' Mr. Wilkinson informs us that ' with the 
manager's consent and Mr. Dexter''s approbation I wore 
Mr. Dexters grand suit, which was blue satin, richly 
trimmed with silver, looked very elegant, and, what was 
better, fitted me exactly.' It must be remembered that 
the idea of dressing according to the country and period 
of the action of the drama is comparatively modern, 
though O'Keeffe tells us that Mrs. Keif, when she played 
' Lady Elizabeth Grey ' in The Earl of Warwick^ by Rev. 
Thomas Franklin, dressed the part from a painting by 
Vandyck. But he adds : ' I saw Barry play "Othello" in a 
complete suit of English regimentals, with a three-cocked 
gold-laced hat, and Thomas Sheridan in "jMacbeth" dressed 
in scarlet and gold uniform. . , . All the characters in the 
play of Richard III. a])peared in the same modern clothes 
as the gentlemen in the boxes wore, except "Richard" him- 
self, and thus looked an angry Merry Andrew among the 
rest of the performers.' In a performance of Lionel and 
Clarissa a contemporary 'squib' thus describes the way 
in which the hair of the principal male character was 
dressed : — 

' His foretop so high, in crown he may vie 
With the crested cockatoo. ' ' 

In the farce of Tom Thumb, Wilkinson appeared as 
Queen Dolalolla and mimicked ' Peg' Woffington. In the 
new Crow Street Theatre the family of the lady referred to 
(p. 254) witnessed A Bold Stroke for a Wife and Fortun- 
atus, Hamlet, The Tempest, Henry IV., and The Man of 
Mode, with the farce of the French Lady Never at Paris.- 
We have notice of a benefit performance at Mossop's 
(Smock Alley) in 1764 for the orphans of a butcher who 
with his wife was crushed to death on an alarm of fire in 
Crow Street Theatre. It will be remembered that the 
two theatres were not then under the same management. 
The versatility of the Dublin stock companies may be 

1 O'Keeffe's Recollections. 

~ Journal R. S.A.I, for 1898, vol. xxviii. p. 149. 

256 



gauged by tlie following anecdotes. At Crow Street Dublin 
Digges was j)laying 'Hamlet"' and ruj)turcd a blood- Theatres 
vessel in the first scene. The play was innnediately 
stopped and She Stoops to Coiufiicr substituted for it. 
The manager's apology having been accepted by the 
audience, the performers, who were all in the house, 
hastily dressed and went on. A gentleman in the pit 
had left the building innnediately before the accident 
to Digges, for the purpose of buying oranges. He was 
delayed for some little time, and having left 'Hamlet' 
in conversation with the ' Ghost,' found on his return the 
stage occupied by 'Tonv Lumpkin' and his companions 
at the Three Jollv Pigeons. He at first thought he had 
mistaken the theatre, but an explanation showed him 
the real state of affairs. Again in the Theatre Royal 
Romeo and Juliet was acted by the stock company on 
19th January 1821, followed by the opera of Guy 
Miinnenn^ on the 23rd, and on the 27th by INIozart's 
Marr'iufre of Figaro. 

In 1770 Dawson obtained possession of Crow Street, 
and after continuing the struggle for two years, Mossop, 
totally ruined, retired from the management of Smock 
Alley also, in which he was succeeded by Thomas Ryder, 
an excellent comedian, who had gained much experience 
in the Irish provinces. He opened Smock Allev in 
September with She Would and She Would Not. In 1776 
the rent of Crow Street having fallen into arrear, 
Dawson surrendered the lease to Ryder. After a vain 
attempt to manage both theatres and the engagement at 
high terms of such actors as the Barrys, Sheridan, Foote, 
and Mrs. Abington, he handed over Smock Allev in 
1781 to Richard Daly, one of his stock company, and 
the following year he became insolvent and joined Daly's 
company as a player. Daly had reopened Smock Alley 
and introduced to a Dublin audience John Philij) 
Kemble and his sister the celebrated Sarah Siddons. 
The management of Crow Street was for a short time 
It 257 



carried on l)v Mrs. Barry in the name of her third 
husband Thomas Crawford, but after a short and 
chequered occupancy the theatre was seized by the 
Sheriff's officers for non-payment of rent, and Mrs. 
Barry transferred all her interest to Daly, who thus 
became the proprietor of both houses and of some Irish 
provincial theatres as well. During her tenancy the 
salaries of the actors had been irregularly paid, indeed 
Mrs. Barry herself refused to act until her husband 
produced her fee. On one occasion when ' the gliost 
had refused to walk ""^ the band struck work, and Craw- 
ford, who was acting ' Othello,"' had to appear between 
the acts in his costume and ' make-up,' and play the 
fiddle in the orchestra to keep iiis audience in good 
humour during the interval. 

In 1777 'Dolly' Jordan made her first appearance as 
]\Iiss Bland at Crow Street in the part of 'Phoebe' in 
As You Like It, and afterwards during the management 
of Richard Daly acted ' Priscilla Tomboy' in The Romp. 
Her mother, Grace Philips, known as ' Mrs. Frances,' had 
acted ' Desdemona' with Tate Wilkinson, in Dublin in 
1758. She married a Mr. or Captain Bland, and her 
daughter Dorothy Bland with her mother joined Tate 
Wilkinson at York on the northern tour in 1782, the 
former acting under the name of 'Miss Frances' after- 
wards, for prudential reasons, changed to Mrs. Jordan. ^ 
After 1790 she bore to the Duke of Clarence, after- 
wards WilUam iv., ten children who were known by 
the name of Fitzclarence. Her five daughters married, 
respectively, two earls, a viscount, the younger son of a 
duke, and a general in the British Army; and one 
of her sons, Colonel Fitzclarence, was created Earl of 
Munster, one of the King's own titles. His son married 

1 Stage slang for non-payment of salaries. 

2 It is said that the name was suggested to her by Wilkinson 'as she 
had crossed the water ' to join his company. — Retrospections of the Stage, 
John Barnard. 

258 



his first cousin, likewise a L?raiul child of Mrs. Jordan, Dublin 
and the Countess died in London in October 1906. Theatres 

In 1779 Mr. Jeffries, brother-in-law to Lord Chan- 
cellor Fitz;;ibbon (p. 159), invited Mr. Column to 
l)ui)lin to establish another theatre. The site chosen 
was the ri<;ht-luind side of Colle<(e Green looking to- 
wards Trinity College, opposite the Houses of Parlia- 
ment; but Colnian was too timorous to risk the initial 
expenses, and the project was dropped. 

In 17.S6 an Act of the Irish Parliament had pro- 
hibited dramatic performances in any other than a 
theatre held by patoit from the Crown. Smock Alley 
ceased to be used as a theatre after 1788, and in 1790 
was converted into a corn store, replaced in 181.5 bv the 
Roman Catholic Church of SS. Michael and John. The 
only vestige now remaining is. an arched passage which 
led into the building from Essex Street, In the year of 
its final abandonment, Crow Street Theatre, redecorated 
and reconstructed, was again opened; but in 1792 from 
an unlikely cjuarter appeared a fresh rival. In that year 
the Fishamble Street Music Hall (p. 192) was converted 
into a private theatre under tlie management of Lord 
Westmeath, and Frederick, better known as ' Buck,"* 
Jones. The latter, a member of a County Mcath family, 
was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and is still 
commemorated in Jones's Road, known as ' Buck "■ Jones's 
Road in the sixties, in Drumcondra township; and his 
dwelling-house, for which he revived the ancient name 
of ' Clonliffe,' ^ still stands in the grounds of Holy Cross 
College, and has given its ap))ellation to the district. 
In 1794' .Tones obtained from Government permission to 
open a theatre for seven years, and two years later 
applied for a new patent. He was advised to come to 

' It had previously lieen called Fortick's (Iiove from Tristram Forlick, 
whose name is still to be seen in the inscription on an old almshouse in 
Little Denmark Street. The district is referred to as Clonlic in the 
charier of King John, and as Clonclyffe in that of Richard ii. 

259 



terms with Daly for the acquisition of Crow Street 
Theatre, and in 1797 he purchased Daly's rights therein 
for the large annual payment of £133^ in annuities to 
Daly and his children, above rent and taxes, and further 
expended =£"12,000 on permanent improvements.^ In 
1814 a serious riot occurred owing to the substitution of 
The Milk?' and his Men for The Forest of Bondy^ with- 
drawn owing to the extravagant terms demanded by the 
owner of the dog which appeared in the latter piece as 
' The Dog of Montargis.' Five years later a further riot 
was caused by Jones's refusal to allow a singer named 
Miss Byrne to continue her performance, owing to her 
breach of contract in singing at an opposition concert. 
Jones, like most of his predecessors, had now fallen on 
evil days. The patent of Crow Street Theatre having 
expired, Mr. Henry Harris of Covent Garden purchased 
a renewal from Government, and entered into negotiations 
with Jones for the purchase of the premises, but on his 
refusal to hand them over, he was thrown into gaol for 
debt. Harris abandoned the idea of purchasing Crow 
Street, and pending the acquisition of a new site, fitted 
up a theatre in the Round Room of the Rotunda 
(p. 186), which he opened on 1 9th June 1820. Macready 
appeared there in the months of July and August. The 
box entrance was in Sackville Street, and the pit and 
gallery doors in Cavendish Row. The prices still re- 
mained at the familiar figures — boxes, 5s. 5d., pit, 
3s. 3d., middle gallery, 2s. 2d., upper gallery. Is. Id. 
The following year Harris secured a site in Hawkins 
Street, between Trinity College and the quays, on which 
stands the present Theatre Royal. Here, in an area 
previously occupied by one of the city meat markets, 
the Royal Dublin Society had erected premises, after 
successive removals from Shaw's Court, off' Dame Street, 
and Grafton Street. On purchasing Leinster House in 

^ Daly died in Dublin in September 1813, having been in receipt from 
1798 of a pension from the Crown of ;i^ioo per annum. 
260 



1815, they transferred the Hawkins Street building to Dublin 
the Mendicity Institute for the suppression of street- Theatres 
begging, from whom Harris secured it, the Mendicity 
Institute removing to Copper Alley, and thence in 182fi 
to the residence of the Earl of Moira on Usher's Island 
(p. 313). Tlie first stone of the new theatre was laid 
on 14th October 18^0, the Hawkins Street fnmtage of 
the Iloyal Dublin Society's building being allowed to 
remain inialtered. The theatre was designed by Mr. 
Beazley at an estimated cost of .£^50,000, a sum partly 
raised by the issue of debentures and annuities. The 
stage was 73 feet in breadth and (K) feet in depth, and 
the auditorium measured 52 feet G inches from the 
curtain to the front of the centre box, and 45 feet across 
the pit. The new house was opened on 18tli January 
1821, amongst the company being Paul Bedford, with 
The Comcdij of Errors and The Sleep Walker. Messrs. 
Johnson arid Williams acted the two ' Dromios ' in the 
former. The opening address, by George Colman the 
yoimger, contained the following lines: — 

' Here once a marlvet reared its busy head, 
A\'here slieep, instead of tragic heroes, bled. 

Soon Science came ; his steel the butcher drops, 
And Learning triuniplied over mutton chops ! 
Again the scene was changed by \\'isdom's rule. 
Want's refuge then succeeded Learning's school. 
No more in streets the sliivering beggar stood, 
Vice found correction here and Famine food. 
Morality rejoiced at Sloth's defeat, 
And Pity smiled to see the hungry eat.' 

With the erection of the Theatre Royal, Hawkins 
Street, the history of the modern Dublin stage may be 
said to connnence, but a few words are necessary as to 
the fate of the Crow Street house. This theatre was 
capable of containing 2000 persons, and the acoustic 
properties were said to have been perfect. During Barry's 
production o^ Alexander the Great, on a scale of magnifi- 

261 



Dublin ccnce intended to rival Woodward's pantomimes, the 
resources of the stage were taxed to the uttermost. 
' Alexander's high and beautiful chariot was first seen 
at the farther end of the stage (the theatre stretching 
from Fownes's Street to Temple Lane). He, seated on 
it, was drawn to the front, to triumphant music, by 
the unarmed soldiery. When arrived at its station to 
stop for him to alight . . . the chariot in a twinkling 
disappeared and every soldier was at the instant armed. 
It was thus managed. Each man laid his hand on 
different parts of the chariot ; one took a wheel and held 
it up on high, this was a shield; the others took the 
remaining wheels, the axle-tree was taken by another — 
it was a spear ; the body of the chariot also took to 
pieces, and the whole was converted into swords, javelins, 
lances, standards, etc.' ' I never,' adds O'Keeffe, ' saw 
anything to equal in simplicity and beauty this chariot 
manoeuvre in Ale.vander the Great.'' ^ From this we may 
conclude that what is condemned as the modern craze 
for spectacle and over-staging is of older date than its 
critics seem to imao^ine. In Crow Street the green-room 
was on the side of the Lord-Lieutenanfs box, being 
on the opposite side to that of Smock Alley. The 
former theatre had been most elaborately restored by 
the unfortunate Jones, the best Italian artists having 
been employed on its internal decorations. The last 
performance in Crow Street theatre took place on 13th 
May 1820. The late actor-manager, H. Calcraft, in- 
forms us in Leaves of a Managers Portfolio that in 
1824 the scenery was already gone, and ' there were 
sundry rents and chasms in the roof,' and 'that many 
detachments of unlicensed plunderers were busily em- 
ployed knocking out the panels of the boxes and carrying 
off all bodily.' After lying derelict for some time, part 
of the site was purchased in 1836 by the Apothecaries' 
Hall and was sold by them in 1852 to the Catholic 
^ Recollections. 
262 



University for the u.se of their nicthcal school, known Dublin 
as the Cecilia Street School. The stai^e-tloor in Temple Theatres 
Lane may still be identified, and jiortion of the east 
wall exists in the lower part of Fownes's Street in which 
may be recognised traces of the entrance doors to the 
galleries. A large building in Temple Bar, used by 
Jones as a scene-room, was converted into a hat factory, 
and is now a stable. 

The new theatre in Hawkins Street soon received the 
signal distinction of a visit from King George iv., on 
22nd August 1821, on which occasion the pieces com- 
manded were The Duenna and St. Patnck\<i Day, both 
from the pen of the gifted Kichard Brinsley Sheridan, 
native of Dublin and personal friend of the royal visitor. 
This was the sole visit of an English sovereign to a 
Dublin theatre in the annals of the Dublin stage up 
to the close of the nineteenth century.^ A celebrated 
Irish i)iper named Fit/.jiatrick was engaged to play 'God 
save the King 'and 'St. Patrick's Day,' and the entire 
audience enthusiastically joined in the singing of the 
National Anthem by the company. 'The whole house,' 
we arc told, ' stood up to welcome His Majesty, and 
such a shout — so tremendous, — so jn-olonged — was raised 
on his entre, that surely was never heard in a theatre 
before."- This ovation was soon to be succeeded by a 
very different scene, when the King's representative had 
a reception as unfavourable as that of George iv. had 
been cordial. In 1822 the Marquis of Wellesley, then 
Lord-Lieutenant, had condemned the custom of dressing 
with "arlands and oranjje sashes the statue of \Villiam iii. 

' I lis present Majesty, King Edwaril vii., commanded a performance 
by Mr. Beerbohm Tree in the Theatre Royal for Friday 24ih July 1903, 
but this was countermanded owing to the death of Pope Leo XIU. On 
the second Irish visit of their Majesties the following year, Mr. Tree had 
another command night on 2Sth April at which the king and queen were 
present, and were accorded a reception as enthusiastic as that bestowed 
on George iv. 

- Evening Post. 

26^ 



Dublin in College Green on the anniversary of his landing in 
England ; and John Smyth Fleming, Lord Mayor, had 
on 31st October issued a proclamation forbidding the 
practice, and thus disgusted the Orange factiom On 
14th December the Lord-Lieutenant visited the theatre 
in state, when She Stoops to Conquer and Tom Thumb 
were announced for performance. When ' God save the 
King' was played shouts were raised for 'The Boyne 
Water," and a bottle, hurled from the gallery, struck the 
drop-scene. Six persons were arrested for what was 
known as ' The Bottle Riot," but after a trial lasting 
five days, the jury acquitted one of the prisoners and 
disagreed with respect to the other five, who were subse- 
quently discharged.^ On 15th July 1822 Edmund Kean 
had made his first appearance in the Theatre Royal in 
the character of 'Richard iii.,'^ and in August of the 
following year the great Catalani condescended to sing 
several arias from Mozart\s operas between the per- 
formance of the play and tiie concluding farce. After 
letting tile theatre to Mr, W. Abbott for the two years 
1825-6 at the extravagant rent of ^^4000 per annum, Mr. 
Harris finally retired in 1827, and was succeeded by Mr. 
Alfred Bunn. In 1828, after an engagement of Charles 
Kean, Bunn let the theatre for three months to Ducrow, 
for an equestrian performance entitled The Massacre of 
the Greeks. He again occupied the theatre with his circus 
in February and March 1835. During Bunn's manage- 
ment a stage-struck amateur named Luke Plunkett, 
member of a respectable family resident near Port- 
marnock, appeared as ' Richard iii."' Some of his 
readings of well-known passages were exceedingly erratic, 
and his death scene so amused the audience that they 
insisted on its repetition, with which demand the 

' An inmate of Simpson's Hospital, named Hanbidge, informed 
Reverend T. R. S. Collins (p. i6i n.) that he had thrown the bottle 
from the end of a stick. 

- His last appearance was on Friday 6th January 1S32 as ' Octavian ' 
in The Motintaineers. 
264 



tragedian solemnly complied, lie again appeared as Dublin 
'Coriolanus,' hut broke down and admitted that he Theatres 
could not continue the part, upon which the audience 
demanded a song, and in response he gave tlieni ' Scots 
wha hae"' with great spirit. 

The Theatre lloyal had, on the whole, catered well 
for the ])iil)lic, but was not left free from rivalry. 
Johnstone's Royal Hibernian Theatre was established 
in Peter Street, and there IJelzoni, the Sandow of his 
day, performed his athletic feats. He is now better 
known as the Egyptian explorer of his later years. In 
1827 Norman, the director of pantomime and spectacles, 
joined Bradbury the favourite clown ^ in once more 
"opening the theatre in Fishaniblc Street under the name 
of the 'Sans Tareil.' Yet another theatre was o})ened 
in Lower Abbey Street in October 1833 by the Messrs. 
Calvert under a patent granted four years previously to 
the two sons of Fredei-ick Jones, as a tardy com])ensa- 
tion for their father's dej)rivation of the Crow Street 
])atent. This continued oj)en, under successive exten- 
sions, till 1844, when James Calvert, junior, became 
insolvent, and R. T. Jones sold all his rights in the 
patent and the patent itself to Mr. John Charles Joseph, 
a DubHn hotel proprietor, who transferred it to the 
Adelphi, now the Queen's Royal Theatre, Great Bruns- 
wick Street. 

On the 21st August 1830, J. W. Calcraft became 
lessee of the Theatre Royal, Hawkins Street, at an 
annual rent of X'SOOO, reduced soon after to /T400, and 
also hired the ' Adelphi,' now the Queen's Theatre, in 
Great Brunswick Street, at i'225 a year. The former he 
held, with varying fortunes, for 21 years. His manage- 
ment opened inauspiciously, as during his first winter 
season so severe a snowfall was experienced in February, 
that for four days all traffic absolutely ceased, and 
Dublin resembled a city of the dead. The summer of 

' lie was preferred by Dublin audiences to the celebrated C.iimakli. 

265 



Dublin 1832 witnessed the first visitation of Asiatic cholera 
known in the Irish metropolis, wliich made itself felt on 
tlieatrical receipts. The season of 1839 was notable for 
a performance of Richelieu at which the author, Sir 
Edward Lytton Bulwer, was present. So pleased was he 
with its production, that he ordered presentation copies 
of the play to be sent to each of the actors. Two years 
later was witnessed the last appearance on the Dublin 
boards of Tyrone Power, whose death was estimated by 
Mr. Calcraft as equivalent to a loss to him of cflOOO 
per annum. 

From 1848 the management of the Queen's Theatre 
had been in the hands of Mr. John Harris, who in 1851 
obtained the lesseeship of the Hawkins Street theatre, 
then under ejectment for non-payment of rent amount- 
ing to ^1200. He spent oP3000 in repairs and 
decoration, and the theatre reopened with Boucicault's 
Love in a Maze. From this we may date the palmy days 
of the ' Old ' Royal, as veteran Dublin playgoers still 
affectionately term it. Mr. Harris started a series of 
Shakespearian revivals on a scale of unusual splendour, 
introducing for the first time Mendelssohn's music 
in A Midsummer yig'hfs Dream. These performances 
achieved marked success. The company included Granby, 
J. Webster, F. Robson, T. C. King, Hurlstone, Stenton, 
Barsby, Gladstone, Mulford, Bellair, and Vivash ; with 
Mrs. Parker, Mrs. Hudson Kn'by, Mrs. Bellair, Miss 
Kate Dibdin, jVIIss Parry, Miss Jenny Marston, and Miss 
Braun, who were afterwards joined bv Charlotte Saunders, 
Agnes Markham, and Mr. and Mrs. Huntley, whose son 
is the celebrated burlesque actor of the present day, G. P. 
Huntley. The ' Macbeth ' of T. C. King; was ijenerally 
admitted to have been a fine piece of acting, and Granby 
is believed to have been the best ' Falstaff' that ever 
trod the boards. It is interesting to note that the late 
Sir Henry Irving made his first appearance in Dublin in 
the small part of ' Francesco' in Hamlet on 1st October 
266 



lSf)l. During the continuance of the Duhlin cxliihition Duhlin 
of 1853 the Theatre Royal saw an uninterrupted per- Theatres 
formance ofoKj nights. It must not be supposed that 
Harris limited liiinsclf to Shakespeare or to his excellent 
stock, company. Grisi and Mario sang in Italian Opera in 
1855, giving a foretaste of those annual engagements in 
which Dubliners had the privilege of hearing Tamburini, 
Lahlache, Alboni, Giuglini, Santley, Trebelli, IJossi, 
Titjens, Sinico, and a iiost of others, while the veteran 
conductor Signor Arditi was as well known in Dublin as 
the Nelson Pillar. Indeed, Dublin audiences had ere this 
not been strangers to the highest treats in vocalism. In 
1841 had commenced the first series of Italian operas on 
the grand scale: Sims Reeves had sung in Dublin as 
early as 1845, and Jenny Lind appeared in La Sonnavi- 
bula on 10th October 1848, when prices reached the 
unprecedented figure of dress boxes X'l, 10s., second 
circle X'l, pit 12s. 6d., first gallery 7s., second 5s. In 
April 1855 Helen Faucit visited the Theatre Royal, and 
Catherine Hayes and Madame Ristori both had engage- 
ments in 1857. Sothern, Compton, and J. L. Toole all 
were seen between 18G'3 and 1865, and on the (ith April 
1870, Ireland's greatest modern favourite, Rarry Sullivan, 
made his Dublin debut. Rut to the Theatre Royal a 
formidai)le rival, still flourishing amongst us, was now to 
appear. On the 27th November 1871, the Gaiety Theatre 
was opened in South King Street, close to St. Stephen's 
Green. It was the venture of two young men, John and 
Michael Gunn, whose father had perished in the melan- 
choly omnibus accident whereby six persons were drowned 
in the canal lock at l\)rtobello Rridge. The theatre 
opened with She Stoops to Conquer and the burlescjue of 
L(i Belle Sdiivaji^-e, performed by Mis. John A\'ood's com- 
pany. The evergreen Lionel trough was the ' Tony 
Lumpkin'' of the former, and the ' Captain Smith ' of the 
latter piece, in which Mrs. John Wood was ' Pocahontas.' 
Undeterred by the history of past rivalries, the Messrs. 

267 



Dublin Gunn believed, and as the event proved rightly, that the 
second city of the Empire was equal to the support of 
two first-class theatres. They entrusted its construction 
to Mr. C. J. Phipps, F.S.A., and in the incredibly short 
period of six months and a fortnight from the laying of 
the first stone, the theatre was completed and fit for occu- 
pation. The Gaiety Theatre has been built, decorated, 
and managed in accordance with the most modern ideas. 
The old tradition of the stock company was abandoned 
from the commencement, and the management learned to 
rely entirely on the visits of London companies. Even 
in the time of O'Keeffe (p. 254) 'theatrical summer birds 
of passage from London found very good pickings in 
Dublin,' and this was now to be the invariable rule. In 
December 1873 was produced the inimitable pantomime of 
Turko the Terrible^ by Mr. Edwin Hamilton, most versa- 
tile of Dublin literary men. In the following April the 
brothers Gunn acquired possession of the Theatre Royal, 
Hawkins Street, and from that date for six years the 
theatres were worked in conjunction. That the public 
were not sufferers from the single ownership may be 
gathered from the list of engagements, which include the 
Carl Rosa Opera Companv, with jNIaas, Snazelle, Leslie 
Crotty, Ludwig, Georgina Burns, and Julia Gaylord ; 
Salvini in Othello-^ Isabel Bateman, Piielps, and Gene- 
vieve Ward, at the Theatre Royal ; and Hermann Vezin, 
Charles IMattiiews, Charles Wyndham, Mr. and Mrs. 
Kendal, Miss Neilson, and the D'Oyly Carte Company at 
the Gaiety. 

On the 9th February 1880 a matinee performance of the 
Christmas Y>^x\tom\rae Alt Baha was to have been given in 
the Theatre Royal in aid of the Dublin charities. But on 
that morning a fire unaccountably broke out, fortunately 
some time before the audience would have been seated ; 
and in a few hours the theatre was reduced to a heap of 
smouldering ashes : the manager, Mr. Francis Egerton, 
unhappily losing his life in a noble devotion to dutv. In 
268 



1886 the Li'instcT Hull for concerts aiul theatrical per- Dublin 
tbrmances, for the latter of which however it was ill Theatres 
adapted, was opened by Mr. Gunn on the site of the 
theatre which hail been consumed. After many difficulties 
a patent was acquired by a new syndicate to revive the 
Theatre Royal, and on the same site was erected, from 
the designs of Mr. Frank Matcham, the present theatre, 
formallv opened with a performance, by Mr. George 
Edwardes' company, of T/u'Gm7/f/ on 13th December 1897. 
On 27th December 1904 the Abbey Theatre, erected at 
the angle of Abbey Street and Marlborough Street, at the 
cost of Lady Gregory, was opened for the production of 
plavs by Irish writers, performed by Irish actors. In a 
conversazione held in this theatre at the commencement 
of the season 190()-7 Mr. W. U. Yeates spoke hopefully 
of the prospects of Irish drama. The stock company 
have been favourably received in London, and a school of 
Irish dramatic writers, including Mr. W. B. Yeates, Mr. 
Edward Martyn, Lady Gregory, Mr. J. M. Synge, and Dr. 
Douglas Hyde, has arisen, and shown a capacity for the 
production of original work which, in the present circum- 
stances of English diamatic art, bids fair to attract 
attention. If these authors succeed in widening the 
scope of their dramatic writings without hurting Irish 
susceptibilities the Irish National Theatre may revive 
some of the jiast glories of the Dublin stage, whose tradi- 
tions constitute a heritage not lightly to be cast aside. 

This brings the tale of the Dublin theatres to a close. 
The Queen's Royal Theatre, home of National melodrama, 
is still with us, and can proudly claim to be the oldest, as 
the Abbey Theatre is the youngest, of Dublin theatres. 
The 'new' Royal and the Gaiety still flourish in friendly 
rivalry, and two Music Halls, the Empire and the Tivoli, 
compete with the regular theatres for public patronage 
on lines very different from the music halls of eighteenth- 
century Dublin. 

269 




\ / 



CHAPTER IX 



NIXETEENTH-CENTURV DUBLIN 




O'CONNELI, BRIDGK 



THE nineteenth c-entmv opened 
inauspiciously for Dublin. The 
rebellion had been crushed, but embers 
of disaffection still smouldered, fanned 
to some extent by the general dissatis- 
fjiction with the abolition of the Irish 
Parliament and the consequent loss to 
Dublin of some of its social import- 
ance. The sale in 1802 of the build- 
ings of the late Parliament House to 
the Bank of Ireland emphasised this 
feeling; and in the summer of 1803 the rebellion broke 
out planned bv Robert Ennnett, younger brother of 
Thomas Addis Ennnett (p. 159), the first of those 
abortive attempts at armed insurrection which character- 
ised the Ireland of the nineteenth century. Aid had 
been expected in Dublin from Kildare and W'icklow, but 
the country had been cowed by the events of '98, and the 
meagre county levies seem to have misunderstood the 
time and place of rendezvous, so that at the hour fixed 
for the rising; one hundred men onlv had assend)led at 
the headquarters in iNIarshalsea Lane. With these 
Emmett, having sent up a rocket as a signal to his 
followers in the citv, marched through Thomas Street to 

271 



Dublin the attack of Dublin Castle. Meantime a leaderless and 
undisciplined mob had engaged in aimless rioting, and 
on debouching into High Street chanced to encounter 
the coach in which Lord Kilwarden, the Chief Justice, a 
man of the highest character, was with his nephew and 
daughter proceeding to his residence in Leinster Street, 
having been alarmed at his country-house, Newlands, 
Clondalkin, by rumours of an outbreak. The crowd 
dragged him and his nephew from the carriage ; and the 
Chief Justice, relying on his well-known reputation for 
clemency, exclaimed 'I am Kilwarden,' 'You hung my 
son,' shouted a man named Shannon, and plunged his 
pike into the old man's breast, who fell mortally wounded. 
The military arriving, cleared the street of the rebels, 
and the Chief Justice was found in a dying condition on 
the side-walk. He was removed to the watch-house in 
Vicar Street, where he lingered for about an hour, and 
thence his body was taken to his residence in Leinster 
Street, It is said that his assailant had mistaken the 
Lord Chief Justice for Lord Carleton. the judge who had 
in fact sentenced his son. Lord Kilwarden's nephew 
shared his fate, but his daughter was, according to one 
account, conducted to a place of safety by one of the 
rebels, popularly, but on no sufficient authority, believed 
to have been Robert Emmett himself. Colonel Brown, 
of the 21st Regiment, and a few private soldiers were 
killed, but on the approach of reinforcements from the 
Castle the whole movement collapsed. Quigley and 
others of the leaders turned King's evidence, and many 
of the misguided conspirators paid for their errors with 
their lives. Emmett escaped to County Wicklow, but 
his romantic attachment to Sarah Curran ^ induced him 
to return to Dublin and linger in hiding, in a house still 
pointed out in Harold's Cross, with a view of taking 
leave of her ; and on 25th August he was arrested in his 

^ Dau£;hter of John Philpot Curran, and heroine of Moore's poem, 
' She is far from the land.' 
272 



hiding-place by tlie vigilant Major Sirr,^ tried and con- Nine- 
victed, and, on the ^Otli September, hanged in Thomas teenth- 
Street. His speech from the dock is a fine specimen of Century- 
oratory ; and he still retains in the affections of the Irish Dublin 
people a place above many whose careers afford a better 
title to esteem. 

The general dislike of the Union found a more capable 
and saner exponent in Daniel O'Connell, a junior member 
of the Irish Bar, scion of a ftimily of the minor gentry of 
Kerry, and afterwards to be known as ' the Liberator.' 
A sincere and /ealous Roman Catholic he contended for 
the removal of the disabilities of his creed-fellows with 
ultimate success; and in his favourite phrase, 'Agitate, 
agitate, agitate,' he inaugurated that new policy of 
parliamentary activity which, after making an unwilling 
convert of so great an English statesman as Gladstone, 
still launches its tireless attacks on the Union, and con- 
tinually reiterates its demands for an independent 
Parliament. 

The march of improvement in Dublin meantime con- 
tinued unchecked. What the city had lost in prestige it 
strove to regain in social comfort; the policing of the 
streets was reformed in 1808, the Richmond Basin, 
l\)rtobello, for securing to the growing southern district 
a satisfactory water supply, was opened in 1812, and six 
years later the General Post Office was provided with its 
])resent handsome and commodious ])remises in Sackville 
Street. In 1825 the city was lighted with gas, and the 
following year the VVellesley Mart, Usher's Quay,'-^ for the 
encouragement of native manufacture, was the forerunner 
of many subsequent eflfbrts in the same direction. Nor 
was there any relaxation of philanthropic enterprise. 
The Fever Hospital in Cork Street dates from 1804, and 
the Bedford Asylum for the reception of 1000 poor 

' He Iiad held a conunissiun in tlie 6Sth Regiment, hut his title did not 
inilicate military rank. It had reference merely to his post of Town Major. 
'-' Now occupied by Messrs. Ganly and Son, auctioneers. 

s 273 



Dublin children, commenced in 1806, preceded by 30 years 
the frish Poor Law Act. Sir Patrick Dan's Hospital in 
Denzille Street was founded two years later, and the 
Claremoiit Institute for the Deaf and Dumb, the Rich- 
mond Institution for the Industrious Blind, the Old 
Man's Asylum, the Molyneux Asylum for Blind Females, 
in Peter Street, and the Kildare Place Society for the 
education of the poor, had all been established before 
1816. In that year the first steam packet started from 
Dublin harbour, nine years after the total loss of the 
Prince of Wales Parkgate packet and that of the Rochdale 
transport at Danleary, in which dreadful disaster 300 
passengers were drowned. A flicker of the eighteenth- 
century public social life may be traced in the laying out 
during the following year of the Coburg Gardens, 
comprising 12 acres, formerly the grounds of the town 
house of Lord Clonmell in Harcourt Street, opened to 
the public in 181T ; and which after forming the site of 
the exhibitions of 1855 and 1872 are now absorbed in 
the private grounds of Lord Iveagh's residence in St. 
Stephen's Green South. The facilities for communication 
between the northern and southern portions of Dublin 
continued to increase : ^Vhitworth Bridge in 1816 reoccu- 
pied the site of Ormonde Bridge (1684) between Bridge 
Street and Church Street, and in the same year Richmond 
Bridge afforded another means of approach to the Four 
Courts by connecting Winetavern Street with Chancery 
Place; and Wellington Bridge, familiarly known as 'the 
Metal Bridge,' gave access from Liffey Street to the 
Commercial Buildings. Dublin nevertheless steadily 
declined alike in manufacturing energy and in the 
brilliancy of its social life. The severe winter of 1814, 
during which the streets were for three weeks impassable 
through a heavy snowfall, caused great distress amongst 
the working classes, and weaving, which had been the 
staple industry, was already in sore straits in 1826. In 
that year ^Pl 3,000 was raised for the relief of the suffering 
274 



weavers, and in 1830 many of them were sent to England, Nine- 
Indeed as Ulster gained in manufacturing and trading tccnth- 
importance, so Leinster proportionally declined ; the Century 
linen manufacture of the former prospering after the Dublin 
Union as the woollen and silk industries of the latter 
conunenced to stagnate; and Belfast, from the obscure 
fishing village of William iii."s reign, had become a 
Hourishing seaport and commercial centre, already the 
rival of Dublin, and soon to become her superior in 
business enterprise and mercantile importance. The 
Chief-Secretaryship of Sir Robert IVel, 1812-18, was 
marked bv the formation of a police force for Ireland 
outside Dublin known as the lloyal Irish Constabidary, 
its members more familiarly termed from its originator 
'Bobbies' and ' Peek is/ He also reformed the public 
service, but incidentally ('astle rule became more than 
everind)ued with English prejudice and with the doctrines 
of Protestant ascendency. 

In 18i21 Ireland received the unusual favour of a visit 
from Royalty. Erom the landing of Richard ii. and of 
Henrv v.', at the end of the fourteenth and begiiming of 
the fifteenth centuries, the only monarchs to tread her 
shores had been James ii. and William in., and these 
solely for the purpose of fighting out in Ireland their 
conflicting claims to the crown of England. It might 
have reasonably been supposed from the widespread dis- 
affection which existed, especially amongst the Roman 
Catholic population, that a representative of royalty so 
un})opular as was (ieoige iv. within a week of the death 
of Queen Caroline would have met with but a cold recej)- 
tion. But the Irish have always been royalist in their 
sympathies and loyal to the kingly office, and the welcome 
accorded to the ' Eirst Gentleman in Europe' by the 
Irish capital was wildly enthusiastic. Even OX'onnell 
bestowed on him as cordial a greeting to Dublin as did 
Sir Walter Scott later to Edinburgh, (ieorge iv. landed 
at Howth on 12th August, and made his public entry 

275 



Dublin into Dublin five days later, drivino^bv tbe Nortb Circular 
Road to the Viceregal Lodge in Phcenix Park. For two 
nights the city was illuminated, and when the King left 
Ireland on the 3rd of September, the country was at his 
feet. He sailed from Dunleary, the foundations. of whose 
harbour had been laid four years previously, and which 
was henceforth to be known as Kingstown, a granite 
obelisk on the rocky shore, surmounted by a crown on a 
cushion, the subject of sarcastic comment by Thackerav, 
marking the site of his departure. Six years afterwards 
a more substantial memorial of his visit was commenced 
in the iron structure known as the King's Bridge across 
the Liffey, the most westerly crossing except Island Bridge 
at Kilmainham, which gives its name to the terminus of 
the Great Southern and Western Railway standing at 
its southern end. Since then, English royalty has not 
been entirely a stranger to our shores, though the visits 
have been all too few. Her late Most Gracious Majesty 
Queen Victoria visited Ireland in 1849, in 1853, and 
again in 1861, and was much touched bv the heartv and 
respectful welcome which, after an interval of wellnigh 
forty years, she received in 1900, within a year of her 
death. On that occasion Her Majesty was received by 
the Lord Mayor, Sir Thomas Pile, at the city boundary 
at Leeson Street Bridge, where a temporary reproduction 
of one of the old city gates had been erected, and a loyal 
address of welcome was presented by him. His Majesty 
King Edward vii., as Prince of Wales, paid four visits to 
the country between 1865 and 1885, on two of which 
occasions he was accompanied by Queen Alexandra; and 
signalised his accession by his visit in July 1903, acknow- 
ledging the enthusiastic reception accorded to him by his 
Address to mij Irish People, and by a further less formal 
visit of their Majesties in the following year. 

The visit of George iv. was followed by a bad harvest, 
and famine became acute, a foretaste only of the dreadful 
sufferings which followed the failure of the potato in 
276 



1845. Tlie Irish Poor Law Act passed in 1837 had ohvi- Nine- 
ated tlie necessity of providing for the destitute by indi- teenth- 
vidual charity, but it had to be extended l)y a system of Century 
outdoor relief, to meet the necessities of 1848, and its Dublin 
operation fostered that wholesale emigration which has 
dej)leted Ireland of much of the best elements in her 
peasant po|)ulation. Again did an ill-conceived rebellion 
break out, once more an echo of a revolution in France : 
pikes were manufactured and stored, and the usual attack 
on Dublin Castle was arranged. In July, Dublin was 
proclaimed under the Crime and Outrage Act, and the 
Habeas Corpus Act suspended. But the proposed rising 
never took effect. Its leader, William Smith O'lJrien, 
and his associates, John INIitchell and Thomas Francis 
Meagher, were arrested, tried, and condemned to death ; 
but their sentences were comnuited to transportatit)n. 
Again in 1868 a treasonable conspiracy was formed, on 
this occasion a kind of after-clap of the Civil War in the 
United States, and Dublin was the headquarters of its 
leaders. This plot, known as the Fenian conspiracy, 
culminated in an ill-conceived attack nuule by a handful 
of young men, chiefly assistants in Dublin shops, on a 
police barrack at Tallaght, eight miles south-west of the 
city. The leader of the conspiracy, a returned Irish- 
American named James Stephens, succeeded in effecting 
his escape from INIountjoy Prison ; and Dublin has since 
been free from attempts at armed rebellion. 

The year 1839 was unfortunate in the annals of Dublin. 
A storm on the 6th January inflicted great damage on 
buildings, the Liff'ey overflowed the low-lying portions of 
the city, while two destructive fires, one attended by loss 
of life, consumed property to the value of d£^70,000. In 
1853 was held in Dublin the Hrst great Industrial Exhi- 
bition, generally known as Dargan's Exhibition, from its 
promoter, William Dargan, an eminent railroad con- 
tractor, who munificently placed a sum of i'26,000 at the 
disposal of the Koyal Dublin Society for the purpose. 

277 



Dublin The buildings were erected on Leinster Lawn, where a 
statue of Dargan commemorates his generosity, and the 
exhibition gave occasion to the second visit of Queen 
Victoria, accompanied by the Prince Consort and other 
members of the royal family. A second exhibition, on 
the site now occupied by the Royal University in Earls- 
fort Terrace, was inaugurated l)y the Prince of AVales in 
presence of nearly 10,000 visitors. In 1868 the new 
Vartry water supply was completed, and in 1872 an exhi- 
bition of arts, industries, and manufactures, promoted by 
Sir Arthur and Edward Cecil Guinness, now Lords Ardi- 
laun and Iveagh, was held in the same premises as that of 
18(j5. The same year saw the inception of the system of 
street tramways, which by successive extensions and im- 
provements now renders Dublin in respect to internal 
communication second to no city in Europe, Towards 
the end of 1881 the much-needed South City Markets, at 
the junction of Exchequer Street with South Great 
George's Street, were opened by the Right Honourable 
George Moyers, Lord Mayor. Six months later the 
Phoenix Park murders, as is generally termed the cowardly 
and purposeless assassination of ]\Ir. Thomas H. Burke, 
permanent LTnder Secretary, and Lord Frederick Caven- 
dish, the newly appointed Chief Secretary for Ireland, 
were perpetrated within sight of the windows of the 
Viceregal Lodge. In 1887 Killiney Hill (p. 338), with 
its command of beautiful coast scenery, was acquired as a 
public park and formally opened by Prince Albert V^ictor ; 
and in 1892 the foundation-stone was laid in St. Stephen's 
Green of the monument to Lord Ardilaun, commemorat- 
ing his munificence in laying out and presenting to the 
Dublin public this now delightful resort. Four years 
later the line of electric tramway from the city boundary 
at Haddington Road to Dalkey, a distance of eight miles, 
was formally opened by the Lord jNIayor of Dublin. In 
the February of 1903 one of the most severe gales ever 
experienced on these shores passed over Dublin, causing 
278 



serious damage to property, but liap})ily without occa- Nine- 
sionino- loss of life. The riuenix Park especially Miffered teenth- 
from its effects, ;300() elms and thorns havin<,' been uj)- Century 
rooted. In 1906 arran_ij;enients were completed for hold- Dublin 
ing an International Exliibition on the beautiful site of 
Herbert Park, near Donny brook, a piece of ground pre- 
sented by Lord Pembroke to the township which bears 
his name, as a j)ermanent public park, on the occasion of 
the majority of his heir. 

The nineteenth century has added to Dublin most of 
its parish churches, Protestant and Roman Catholic, has 
seen the foundation of many more public institutions and 
scmie important additions to its public buildings, the 
rebuilding and alteration of four of the six previously 
existing bridges over the Liffey, and the erection of four 
new ones, the completion of a new and magnificent water 
supply, and the creation of a splendid system of internal 
communication. In addition, numerous statues and other 
memorials have been erected in the leading thorough- 
fares, the Phoenix Park has been laid out, and enriched 
with one of the finest zoological gardens in Europe, and 
a very complete system of main drainage and electric 
lighting practically completed. The construction of 
railways has brought Dublin into direct communication 
with everv provincial centre, and the continuous growth 
of the suburbs and the erection of artisans' dwellings has 
raised considerably the standard of comfort of the middle 
and lower classes. 

Of the additions to the city churches, the finest 
example is the handsome Renaissance structure of St. 
George's Church, not in the old parish of that dedica- 
tion still commemorated in the name of South Great 
George's Street, but in that known as Little St. George's, 
formed into a parish by an Act of Parliament of 1193. 
The original parish church stood in Lower Temple Street, 
but the rapid grow th of the neighbourhood as a residen- 
tiary district led to the erection in 1802-13 of the 

279 




present church from the designs of 
Francis Jolinston, at the enormous 
eventual cost of nearly i-^OOjOOO. 
The edifice is completely cased with 
hewn stone, and the front as viewed 
from Hardwicke Street, is both striking 
and handsome. It is ninety-two feet 
wide, and consists of a central portico 
of four fluted Ionic columns approached 
by steps, and surmounted by an en- 
tablature and pediment. On the 
ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH frieze is the inscription in Greek 
capitals, AOHA EN TMXTOIS ©EH, ' Glory to God 
in the Highest.' Above and in the rear of this rises 
the beautifully proportioned steeple, 200 feet in height, 
consisting of five storeys, with a spire terminating in 
a ball and stone cross. A deep cornice runs completely 
round the building. The handsome single-span ceiling 
was saved from destruction in 1836 by the genius of 
a young engineer, a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, 
named Robert Malet, who by means of bow-string girders 
succeeded in raising the roof without injuring the ceiling. 
Projecting galleries run round three sides of the interior, 
the fourth being occupied by the cliancel, erected in 1880, 
which contains an east window of three lights, by Meyer 
of Munich, the centre the gift of the Cosgrave family, 
the south light in memory of Emma P. Dix, and the 
north light in memory of Dr. Neilson Hancock. The 
peal of eight bells, originally erected in a belfry at the 
back of the house occupied by the architect, and which 
cost dClSOO^ was presented by him to the church in 1828. 
Somewhat similar in general effect, though far inferior 
architecturally, is the church of St. Stephen in Upper 
Mount Street, built in 1825 from the plans of T. Bowden, 
designed largely on Athenian models. The portico is 
copied from the Temple of Minerva Polias, and the 
tower and dome rise to a height of 100 feet. 
280 



The beautiful Norman facade of St. Ann's in Dawson Nine- 
Street, facing South Anne Street, was erected in 1868-9, teenth- 
froni the designs of Sir Thomas Deane. The employ- Century 
nient of courses of stone differing in colour, recalls the Dublin 
Duonio of l''U)rence. In the suburbs, the Early English 
Gothic edifice of St. Bartholomew's, Elgin Road, is the 
most ornate of the Dublin churches. The design, by 
Wyatt of London, consists of a nave, transepts, choii', 
and apse. The admirably proportioned clock-tower above 
the choir, with its octagonal belfry, containing a carillon 
and peal of eight bells, was to have been surmounted by 
a lofty spire, since dispensed with as unnecessary. A 
beautiful memorial screen of wrought iron, and some fine 
stained-glass windows, give richness to the interior, which 
is paved in handsome mosaic. Tiie organ, which cost 
^^1000, is oidv surpassed by those of the cathedrals. 

The Albert Chapel, or 'Old Molyneux,' in Peter Street, 
is interesting as having been the site of Astley's Circus, and 
afterwards tlie chapel of the INIolyneux Asylum for female 
blind, which occuj)ied the house of Sir Capel Molyneux. 
This asylum has been transferred to Leeson Park, and 
the original building is now a retreat for aged females. 
St. Mary's Chapel of Ease in Mountjoy Street is com- 
monly known as ' the Black Church,' less from its sombre 
outward aspect than from its gloomy interior. The 
latter is due to the great thickness of the walls and 
narrowness of the window-opes. These features, which it 
shared with the Church of Holy Trinity, Rathmines, before 
the latter was rebuilt, recall the episcopate of Archbishop 
Magee, predecessor of AVhately, and grandfather of the 
late Archbishop of York, who believed in his later years 
that the Protestant population was in danger of massacre 
by the lloman Catholics. In this idea he refused to con- 
secrate any church which could not be utilised as a 
cannon-proof refuge in the event of a rising. 

The existing Roman Catholic churches, with one 
exception, all date from the nineteenth century. The 

281 



Dublin exception is the Church of the Discalced (or Barefooted) 
Carmelites in Clarendon Street, approached by John- 
stone's Court, off Grafton Street. This Order came to 
Ireland in 1626, and probably established themselves 
north of the Liffey. In 1749 they had a chapel in 
Wormwood Gate, and ten years later they removed to 
Dawson's Court, off Lower Stephen's Street. In 1793 
they purchased a plot of ground on the east side of 
Clarendon Street, and erected thereon the existing 
church, dedicated to St. Theresa. In 1877 a new tran- 
sept, in Romanesque style, was added. The front is of 
Dalkey granite in coursed ashlar dressings of granite and 
Portland stone. The arcades and windows are elabor- 
ately moulded, and enriched with columns of polished 
Dalkey granite, the shafts of the pinnacles being of 
polished Newry granite. The ceiling, groined in plaister, 
corresponds with that of the older building. Set in the 
front face of the altar is ' The Dead Christ,' by Hogan,^ 
the celebrated Irish sculptor. 

The other religious communities having churches in 
Dublin are the Jesuits, Vincentians, Franciscans, Domi- 
nicans, Capuchins, Calced Carmelites, Augustinians, and 
Passionists. The first of these Orders came to Ireland in 
1560, and during the reign of Charles i. a handsome 
chapel was erected for them by Lady Kildare in Back 
Lane. After a somewhat migratory existence they took 
over in 1815 the chapel of the 'Poor Clare' nmis in 
Hardwicke Street, and in 1829-32 they erected, from the 
designs of T. B. Keene, their present handsome church 
of St. Francis Xavier in L^pper Gardiner Street. The 
building is cruciform, and a granite portico of four Ionic 
pillars faces the street, surmounted by an entablature and 
pediment with the inscription in gold, ^Deo Uni et Trino^ 

1 Born in iSoo at Tullow, County Watcrford. He was sent to Rome 
as a student in 1824. ' The Dead Christ ' was said by Thorwaldsen to 
be liogan's masterpiece, and ' The Drunken Faun ' was pronounced by 
the same sculptor to be ' worthy of an Athenian studio.' He died in 
1858, and is buried in Glasnevin Ceir.etery in ihe O'Connell ciicle. 
282 



S7cb invoc. S. Frdnci.sri A'^Kzrr'ii.'' The interior is richly Nine- 
decorated, tiie Corinthian altar-screen, with its alto-re- teetith- 
lievo in the tympanum, and the altar-piece, commemorat- Century 
ing the preaching of the great missionary Patron, heing Dublin 
of exceptional artistic merit. The organ, in a gallery 
over the west door, was built for a musical festival in 
Westminster Abbey, and the church music is deservedly 
celebrated. In the transepts are four ))aintings by 
Gagliardi, the elder, the greatest of modern Italian 
painters, illustrating incidents in the life of St. Ignatius 
Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits. The first is 'The 
Vigil of Arms at Monserrat,"' the second, 'The First Vows 
at Moiitniarti-e, Paris,' the third, 'The Putting of the 
Great (Question to Francis Xavier,' and the fourth, a 
particularly fine piece, ' Francis Borgia, Duke of Gandia, 
offers himself to Ignatius."' 

The church of the Vincentians, or Congregation of the 
Mission, is the beautiful ])ile of St. Peter's, Phibsborough, 
originally erected early in the last century on a command- 
ing site on the North Cii'cular lload, close to the present 
cattle-market. It was rebuilt about the middle of the 
century in Early Pointed Gothic. The increase of popu- 
lation in the neighbourhood necessitated a further re- 
building in 1868, interrupted for some time by a law- 
suit concerning the adequacy of the foundations of the 
central tower. It has since been partlv conijileted from 
the designs of Mr. Goldie, and the building now consists 
of a tower and nave belonging to the earlier structure, 
transepts measuring 110 feet across, and a choir consist- 
ing of an apse of seven bays with seven radiating chapels, 
each terminating in a fine rose window. The stained 
glass, by Lobin of Tours, deserves special attention. 

The Franciscan Order had in early times a friary in 
Francis Street, in the Irish suburb outside Newgate, as 
the Franciscan house was outside Newgate, in London, 
and the university estabhshcd by AlexaTider de Bickiior in 
1320 was chiefiy undei' Fl■anci:^can direction. The Ord* r 

283 



Dublin was re-established in Cook Street in 1620. Their chapel 
known, from the sign of a neiohbouring shop, as Adam 
and Eve Chapel, was built in 1715, but fell one Sunday 
and killed many of the congregation, who had assembled 
to hear a sermon from Sylvester Lloyd, Bishop of Water- 
ford. It was rebuilt, mainly by his exertions, contigu- 
ous to the chapel dedicated to St. Michael the Archangel, 
in Rosemary Lane, and a convent established beside it in 
1756. In 1832 the older chapel was demolished, and the 
present church of St. Francis of Assisi was erected on the 
joint sites, together with further ground acquired on 
Merchants' Quay, the new building thus having entrances 
from Merchants' Quay and Cook Street. 

The Dominicans had a priory on the north bank of the 
Lift'ey at the southern end of St. Michan's parish, founded 
for them in 1224 by William Mareschall, Earl of Pem- 
broke, son-in-law of Strongbow. This site, ' with the 
ruinous church thereof,' was granted in 1612 to the Inns 
of Court (p. 173). In 1749 the Order had a chapel in 
Bridge Street, in which Lord Kingsland occupied a pew 
adorned with his coat of arms. Fifteen years later this 
chapel passed to the secular clergy, as the parish church 
of St. Audoen's, and was still in existence in 1846. All 
traces of it have disappeared in recent years, and the 
chapel-house is let in tenements. The Dominicans 
moved to Denmark Street, and in 1866 the present 
church of St. Saviour, in Lower Dominick Street, was 
built for them from the designs of the late J. J. McCarthy. 
The church, a good specimen of Early Decorated Gothic, 
has a finely carved fa^^ade, and consists of a lofty central 
aisle, with large clerestory windows, narrow and low side 
aisles, and an apse in which is the beautiful high altar. 
At the western end is a stone organ-loft surmounted by 
a large and handsome window. The north aisle has side 
chapels, a later addition, and at the east end of the south 
aisle is an altar of coloured marble ornamented with a 
fretwork of white. The beautiful Pieta is a magnificent 
'284 



specimen of the work of Ilonjan : the upper fifrure of Nine- 
Christ is Italian. In this aisle is a stained-glass window, tecnth- 
erected by Earl Spencer in memory of Mr. Thomas Century 
IJurke, the Under Secretary, assassinated in 1H82 (p. 278). Dublin 
The adjoining I'riory, extending towards Dorset Street, 
was built in 1885, from the designs of John L. Roi)inson, 
and is a fair type of Deeoratetl Gothic. The buildings, 
of black County Dublin calp ashlar, with dressings of 
Doulton stone, are grouped round a cloister garth 100 feet 
by 80 feet. Amongst the houses demolished in clearing 
tiie site was that in which Richard Ikinsley Sheridan 
was born (j). 249). 

The Capuchins came to Dublin in 1G25, and estab- 
lished themselves in the neighbourhood of St. Audoen's 
Arch. In 1720 they built a small chaj)el in Church 
Street, replaced in 1796 by a larger building. This 
again was taken down in 1864, and the handsome church 
of St. jNIarv of the Angels erected on the same site. 

The Order of Mount Carmel was one of the earliest of 
the regulars to have a local habitation in Dublin. In 1274 
thev occupied a convent in Whitefriar Street, standing 
probably on almost the identical site of the present 
church between Aungier Street and Whitefriar Street, 
reoccupicd by them in 1825. They had been driven 
from their original convent in 1542, and, after many 
migrations, they occupied successively during the eight- 
eenth century a site in Ash Street, adjoining the Coombe, 
and one in Cuffe Lane, oft' Upper Mercer Street, The 
present church, consecrated in 1827, is somewhat en- 
closed by buildings both in front and rear, those facing 
Aungier Street being the residentiary premises of the 
connnunitv. The southern side, extending along White- 
friar Place, is lit bv circular-headed windows, the 
northern is unlighted. At the epistle side of the high 
altar is the interesting figure of the Virgin carved in 
oak, which formerly stood in St. Mary's Abbey (p. 55), 
rescued from its desecration of serving as a pig trough by 

285 



Dublin 




CARMELITE CHURCH, WHITEFKIAK STREET 

the late Reverend Doctor Spratt, by whose exertions the 
funds were procured for the building of the church. 

Tlie pre-Reformation Monastery of Augustinian her- 
mits was in the neighbourhood of Crow Street, and was 
sequestrated by Henry viii. During the reign of James ii. 
the Order had a chapel on the site of the church on 
286 



Arran Quay, and later was housed in the neighbourhood Nine- 
of St. Audocn's Arch. About the commencement of the teenth- 
eighteenth century their Trior rented for their use as a Century 
chapel a stable on the western side of St. John's Tower, Dublin 
a surviving fragment of the Hospital of St. John of 
Jerusalem, which had been managed by the Crutched 
Vriars or Trinitarians.^ About 1740, on the site of part 
of the Hosj)ital, was erected a small church CO feet by 
524- feet, which was considerably extended forty years 
later. The u])per ])orti{)n of the still existing Tower 
was demolished in 1800, and the lowtr part used as a 
pig-stye. In 186~ the conununity purchased houses on 
the west side of John Street and on the north of Thomas 
Street, and the foundation stone of the present imposing 
structure was laid by Cardinal Cullen, Archbishop of 
Dublin, on Kaster Sunday 186^. The last traces of the 
Tower were removed in clearing the site for the new 
buildings, and above its foundations rises the jirescnt 
loftv spire. It was more than ten years later that the 
church had sufficiently approached completion to admit 
of Divine service being held within its walls, and it was 
not finished till 1895. 

The Passionists are established at the rear of Harold's 
Cross Church, adjoining Mount Jerome Protestant 
cemetery in a handsome Komanestjue church, designed 
by the late J. J. M'Carthy, consisting of a nave and 
sanctuary terminating in an apse, side aisles terminating 
in chapels, two western chapels, and an open })orch, with 
stone groined ceiling and flanking twin campanili 110 
feet in height, crowned by bell stages of open arches, 
with moulded cornices covered by ])yramidal roofs sur- 
mounted by gilt floriated crosses. The gable bears a 
colossal statue of St. Michael the Archangel, clad in 
armour completely gilt. The interior is richly orna- 
mented, the high altar esjjecially, under an elaborate 
baldachino, a beautiful example of modern Italian art, is 

' Crulched or crouched Friars, FratresCruciferi.or FratrcsSanctaiCrucis. 

287 



Dublin composed of various coloured marbles, malachite, verde 
antico and rosso, Mexican onyx, etc. The dedication is 
Deo Optimo Maximo sub invoc. Santi Paidi a Cnice. 
The lofty site renders the church a conspicuous object, 
and a very musical carillon calls attention to its services. 
Processions take place here in May and at other special 
festivals. 

Of the Roman Catholic parish churches, the most 
notable is the Metropolitan Church of St. Mary, gene- 
rally known as the Fro-Cathedral. This building standing 
in Marlborough Street, opposite Tyrone House (p. 311), 
was commenced in 1816, on the site of the town-house 
of Lord Annesley, purchased for the purpose for ,^£^51 00. 
The design was furnished by an amateur artist living in 
Paris. ^ The principal front facing Marlborough Street, 
largely a copy of the Temple of Theseus at Athens, is 
118 feet in width, and is approached by a portico of six 
fluted Doric columns of Portland stone, each 4 feet 9 inches 
in diameter. The portico projects 10 feet by an extended 
flight of steps leading to the three main entrances. Above 
it is an entablature, continued round the sides, supporting 
in front a pediment crowned by figures of the Virgin, 
St. Patrick, and St. Laurence O'Toole. The flanks of 
the building extend 160 feet in depth, and in the centre 
of each is a large recessed portico enclosed by a colonnade, 
on a lesser scale than the main portico, and, like it, sur- 
mounted bv figures. The interior presents some features 
of resemblance to that of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. 
It is divided into a nave and side aisles by rows of 
clumsy pillars, at present coloured chocolate, which form 
a serious impediment to any side view of the apse. The 
latter forms a circular termination to the west end, and 
contains the high altar by Turnerelli of white marble, 
surrounded by a circular railing. Above it the roof is 
enriched with a basso-relievo of the Ascension. Statues 

' It is said closely to correspond with the Church of St. Philippe du 
Roule, by Chalgrin, Rue du Faubourg St. Honore, Paris. 

288 



of Cardinal Cullen and Archbishop Muiniy, both by Sir Nine- 
Thomas Farrell, stand on each side of tlie main entrance, teentli- 
and there are many other monuments. Some of the in- Century 
ternal fittings, consisting of an 'altar-piece carved and Dublin 
embellished with four pillars, cornices, and other decora- 
tions, gilt and painted," were taken from the chapel in 
Lift'ey Street, and are described in a manuscript of 1 749 pre- 
served amongst the Egerton MSS. in the British jVIuseum. 

The church of St. Andrew, Westland Kow, commenced 
in 1832 and completed in 1837, is a cruciform structure 
with a central cupola, and has a heavy Doric portico, 
with an entablature and pediment. On the apex of the 
latter stands a figure of St. Andrew. The high altar of 
four massive j)illars,- and the tabernacle and sarcophagus, 
are of beautiful Italian marble. Over the tabernacle is 
Hogan's ' Transfiguration.' 

Tiie church attached to the Catholic Universitv in 
St. Stephen's Green South owes its erection to the late 
Cardinal Newman. It was built (1854-56) by ^Messrs. 
Beard wood and Son of Westland Row, from the designs 
of J. Hungerford l*ollen, Escp, the friend and co-religionist 
of Newman, on the model of the church of SS. Cosmas 
and Damian in the Via Cavour in Rome, and is a good 
tvjje of the Roman basilica church. It was dedicated on 
Tliursdav, 1st May 1856. It is entered by a Romanes(|ue 
doorway from St. Stephen's Green. The interior is liv- 
zantine in character with an admixture of ornate Itidian 
style, and measures, exclusive of the Lady cha])el — a 
modern addition — 132 feet by 37 feet. The lofty ceiling 
is flat, divided into nuillioned compartments, painted 
with a design of s|)rays of foliage. The pillars sustain- 
ing the end gallery are of Irish marble ; the capitals 
are of alabaster carved in foliage, fruit and flowers. 
From this gallery, reached by a staircase on the right 
of the inner porch, spring six arches on marble pillars 
similar to those beneath. The organ choir, resting on 
six pillars of polished Irish marble, is on the Gospel side 
•r 289 



Dublin of the sanctuary, and is readied by steps from the vestry. 
The high altar stands within a semicircular embrasure, 
beautifully painted in mediaeval style by J. Hungerford 
Pollen, the designer of the church. The entrance to 
the Ladv chapel is by two steps underneath the choir 
gallery. Opposite to it stands the pulpit supported on 
four pillars of polished marble, bearing the names of the 
four evangelists. It is approached by a handsome stone 
staircase, with a beautiful marble balustrade. The high 
altar comprises a series of panels of choice specimens of 
Irish marbles. The lateral walls are encrusted to a height 
of 16 feet with slabs of Irish marble, alternating with 
delicate semicircular mosaics representing patron saints. 
Above these, and separated from them by a rich mould- 
ing, are frescoes executed for Cardinal Newman in Rome, 
, reproducing Raphael's cartoons. In a niche on the right- 
hand side, facing the altar, is a bust of Cardinal Newman 
(1892), by Sir Thomas Farrell, R.H.A. 

In the southern suburbs the fine Renaissance church 
of Our Ladv of Refuge, Rathmines, with the dedication 
on the entablature, D.O.M. sub Invoc. Mar'ice Immaadatae 
Refng'n Peccatunim^ conspicuous by its large copper dome, 
is a cruciform structure built from the designs of Patrick 
Byrne, R.H.A., and finished in 1894 by J. J. Byrne. The 
striking portico, completed at that date, consists of four 
gigantic Corinthian pillars supporting a massive pedi- 
ment, surmounted by a statue of the Virgin and Child 
flanked bv figures of St. Celestine and St. Patrick. The 
increase of tlie Roman Catholic population in the town- 
ship of Ratiigar necessitated the erection in 1858 of the 
Church of the Three Patrons (SS. Patrick, Brigid, and 
Columbkill), with the dedication, Z).0. J/, siih invoc. Trmm 
Hihermoe SS. Protector. It consists of a nave with side- 
aisles and an apse, and was built from the designs of 
Dean Meagher, to whose exertions the erection both of 
this church and that of Our Lady of Refuge are due. 
The somewhat threatening projecting pediment, now 
290 



surmounted hy a wliiti' iuarl)le cross, is not without Nine- 
a certain inipressivcncss. teenth- 

Tlie I'rcsbytcrians have several phices of worship in Century 
the city and suburbs, the most noticeable of which is the Dublin 
church standing on the site of the town-house of the Earl 
of Bective at the upper or northern end of Rutland 
Square at the rear of the Rotunda. It was built in 1862- 
64 at the expense of Alexander Findlater, a Dublin 
merchant, and is sometimes called ' Findlater's Church.'' 
It is a granite structure 90 feet by 50 feet, in late 
Decorated Gothic style, divided on cither side by two 
stone piei's which carry the roof-timbers, and is marred 
both as to its exterior and interior by the proximity of 
the houses on its western side. Looking northward from 
the Nelson Cohunn, the graceful spire, 180 feet in height, 
is a conspicuous feature. The principal entrance is by the 
doorway in the tower. In the octagon turret is a staii-- 
wav leading to the gallery which extends over the south 
end of the church. The east side, in North Frederick 
Street, unencumbered by buildings, is divided into three 
bays, marked externally by high gables and five light 
windows. The interior is effective, but somewhat want- 
ing in acoustic properties. 

The chapel of the l^nitarians is also in Decorated 
Gothic, but is badly situated, being flush with the busy 
thoroughfare of St. Stephen's Green West. Internally 
it consists of a nave witli one side-aisle and one transept, 
and is dwarfed by provision for schoolrooms underneath. 
The Baptists have an unpretentious red-brick chapel 
facing the terminus of the Did)lin, Wicklow,and AVexford, 
now the Dublin and South-Eastern Railway, in Ilarcourt 
Street. The United Presbyterians have a church in 
Abbey Street, and the Wesleyan ]\Iethodists, besides 
many chapels in the suburbs, have the central Centenarv 
Chapel in St. Stephen^ Green South, at the rear of which 
is the handsome brick building of Wesley College, a large 
boarding and day school. 

291 



Dublin 




THE COLLEGE OF 
SURGEONS 



Amongst the public buildings other than ecclesiastical 
which date from the nineteenth century, the most con- 
spicuous are the Colleges of Surgeons 
and Physicians and the General Post 
Office. The Fraternity or Gild of 
Barbers (see Chapter vii) received 
from King Henry vi. a Royal charter 
dated 18th October 1446. That this 
fraternity included surgeons is clear 
from the renewal of this charter by 
Queen Elizabeth, preserved in the MS. room of Trinity 
College, Dublin, in which the following passage occurs : 
' And we having maturely considered liow useful and 
necessary it would be for preserving the Health of the 
Human Body that there were more persons skilled in 
the Art of Chirurgery within the City of Dublin afore- 
said. Sickness and Infirmities committing vast Havoc, for 
the promotion and exercise of which Art the aforesaid 
Fraternity and Guild of Barbers was created and 
established by our aforesaid most beloved progenitor 
Henry.' From these lowly beginnings sprang the Royal 
College of Surgeons in Ireland established by Royal 
charter of 24th George in. ' inrolled in the Office of the 
Rolls of His Majesty ''s High Court of Chancery of Ireland,' 
9th March 1784.^ " In order that the College should be 
lodged in a manner befitting its dignity and importance 
a sum of i!^4550 was, in 1809, voted by Parliament, and 
expended on the purchase of a plot of ground, 60 feet in 
width and 250 feet in depth, at one time a burying-ground 
of the Society of Friends, at the junction of York Street 
with St. Stephen's Green West. Towards the close of 
the same year the new building was completed at a cost, 
including that of the site, of ofc^40,000. This building 
formed the southern wing only of the present edifice, and 
consisted of a basement storey of mountain granite with 
a superstructure of Portland stone, having cut granite 
' Histo7-y of Royal College of Surgeons. Sir Charles A. Cameron. 
292 



frontages towards St. Stephen's Green and York Street. Nine- 
In 1825 an additional site, towards the north, was secured, tcenth- 
and the present handsome structure amis completed in Century 
1872. It consists of a rusticated basement storey sup- Dublin 
portino a facade in the Dcn'ic order. In the centre are 
four Huted columns surmounted by a trian<2,ular pedi- 
ment, above which are statues of /Kscnlapius, Hygeia 
and Minerva, each 7 feet in height. The tympanum is 
charged with the Koyal Arms sculptured in relief. The 
whole is completed by a graceful stone balcony continued 
round the building. The foiu- advanced central columns 
of the upper storey are flanked on each side by three 
three-cpiarter fluted coiunnis, two of them c()U})k'd at 
each end of the facade. The entrance hall is adorned 
with busts of former Fellows of the College, and with a 
seated flgure of ^Villiam Dease, one of its founders, 
executed in 1S8() by Sir Thomas Farrell, K.H.A. To 
the left is the hall of the original building. The 
examination hall, haviug been found deficient in height, 
was enlarged by excavation in 1859, and adorned with a 
bust of the Prince Consort, from which it is known as 
the Albert Hall. There is a good medical library, two 
nuiseums of anatomy and pathology, and an interesting 
collection of wax anatomical models, presented by Hugh 
Percy, third Duke of Northumberland, Viceroy in 1829. 

The College of Physicians was incorporated under 
Charles ii., but had in reality been founded by Dr. John 
Stearne, Fellow of Trinity College, who obtained, about 
1G40, the use of Trinity itall, on the south side of Dame 
Street, as a meeting- j)lace for the city physicians, and 
also for the use of the medical students of the Univtrsity. 
In 1G54 he founded there a body known as the President 
and Fraternity of Physicians, and on them Charles ii. 
bestowed a charter in 1()C7 as ' The Colledge of Physitians 
in Dublin.' The terms of this charter proving insutlicient 
for its objects, a further charter, granting amongst 
other privileges to the College the curious right to receive 

293 



annually six bodies of such malefactors as had suffered 
execution, was obtained in 1692 from William and Mary, 
hence the title King and Queen's College of Physicians 
(p. 93); and finally, in 1889, under charter of Queen 
Victoria, the College became the Koyal College of 
Physicians. The Society continued to occupy Trinity 
Hall until 1692, and its meetings, previously held in the 
houses of its Presidents, were transferred to the Board- 
room of Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital on its erection in 
1808 ; the members of the College of Physicians being 
trustees of the estate bequeathed by Sir Patrick Dun for 
the promotion of medical education. In 1864« the 
College secured the site previously occupied by the 
Kildare Street Club whose premises had been burned in 
1860. On this site, on which had stood the town-house 
of the Earl of Portarlington, on the east side of Kildare 
Street and north of the premises of the National Library, 
the present building with its handsome portico was 
erected from the design of W. C. Murray. The building 
consists of two halls communicating by a corridor, and 
on the upper storey a small medical library. The first 
of these halls, known as the Statue Hall, is of the 
Corinthian order, and measures 60 feet by 30 feet, and 
32 feet in height. The handsome coved ceiling springs 
from an enriched cornice. This hall contains statues of 
the following former Presidents : Sir Henry Marsh (1841), 
William Stokes (1849), and Sir Dominic Corrigan (1859), 
all by Foley ; and of Robert J. Graves (1843), by Bruce 
Joy ;"and several portraits, including one of John Stearne 
and of Sir Patrick Dun (1681-93), by Sir Godfrey 
Kneller. Under the latter hangs the original illuminated 
grant of arms, signed by ' Richard St. George, Ulster 
King of Arms of all Ireland,' the arms being ' Party per 
fes argent and azure in the middle of the chiefe a 
coelestial hand issuing out of a cloud feelinge the pulse 
of a terrestrial hand all proper, in ye nombrill poynt 
ye Royall Harpe of Ireland as a fit distinction from the 
294 



like CoUedge in England.' C)ii the mantelpiece is a 
Wedgwood bust of Hermann Boerhaave. The inner or 
Convocation hall, added in 1874, is loftier than the outer ; 
like it is adorned with pilasters, but has an open timber 
roof, from which hang handsome candelabra. In this 
hall is the President's chair : the table in front of it is 
fitted with iron supports on which is laid the mace at 
meetings of the College. There are some interesting 
portraits, including one of ^Villiam Hunter, physician to 
Queen Charlotte, died 1783. In the corridor are other 
portraits, and opening from it, right and left, are Board- 
rooms also used as libraries. 

The improved means of connnunication led, about the 
beginning of the nineteenth century, to a greatly in- 
creased demaiul for postal facilities. Already in 1780 a 
penny post for Dublin district had been established, and 
in 179() the first mail-coach started from Dublin. The 
Post OHice, which in the time of William iii. stood in 
Fishamble Street, was removed to Sycamore Alley in 
1709, and afterwards successively to Fownes' Court in 
1755, thence to the site of the Commercial Buildings in 
Dame Street, and later to the present site of the National 
Bank, formerly the Royal Arcade, College Green. Larger 
and more commodious premises were required, and advan- 
tage was taken of the growth of Dublin north of the 
Liff'ey to utilise tiie site in Sackville Street, then occu- 
pied by a temporary and ill-constructed barrack, on 
which the General Post 0(fice now stands. Here at the 
junction of Henry Street this handsome edifice was 
erected, from the designs of Francis Johnston, at the 
moderate cost of ot'50,000. The foundation stone was 
laid by the Lord-Lieutenant, Charles, Earl of Whit- 
worth, on 12th August 1814, and the ofllice opened for 
the transaction of business on 6th January 1818. The 
building, of three storeys, the lowest rusticated, is of 
mountain granite. The frontajje is 223 feet. The 
magnificent [)ortico, 80 feet in width, consists of six 

295 



Nine- 
teenth- 
Century 
Dublin 




riutcd Ionic columns, each 4 feet 6 inches in diameter. 
These support an entablature with a richly carved frieze, 
and a pediment, the tympanum of 
which bears the Royal Arms. Sur- 
mounting the pediment are statues 
by John Smyth of Mercury with the 
caduceus and purse ; Fidelity finger 
on lip and bearing a key, and in 
the centre Hibernia with shield and 
spear. The cornice, 50 feet above 
ground - level, supports a handsome 
THE G.p.o. AND balustradc. From the court -yard 

NELSON PILLAR of this building the mail - coaches 

once sped nightly, north and south, east and west; the 
English mail leaving at 7 a.m. bv cart for Howth, whence 
the steam packets or, in stress of weather, wherries, took 
it to Holyhead. 

The year 1816 saw the first outbreak of nineteenth- 
century activity in the matter of the bridging of the 
Liffey. On St. Patrick's Day (17th March) of that year 
Richmond Bridge connectino; Winetavern Street with 
Chancery Place was opened for traffic. The foundation 
of this bridge, designed by James Savage, and built of 
Portland stone at a cost of ^£^25,000, had been laid on 
9th August 1813 by the Duchess of Richmond. It con- 
sists of three arches, the keystones of which are orna- 
mented with colossal heads — those on the east side 
representing Plenty, the Liffey, and Industry, and those 
on the west Commerce, Hibernia, and Peace. In sink- 
ing the foundations coins of Elizabeth, and of Philip and 
Mary were found, and the remains of tA\o boats, one of 
which contained a human skeleton. The foundation 
stone of Whitworth Bridge was laid on 16th October 
in the same year, by Charles, Earl of Whitworth, Lord- 
Lieutenant, somewhat to the west of Ormonde Bridge, 
built upon four arches in 1684-, and swept away by a 
Hood in 1802, which again had replaced the Friars'' 
296 



Hiidgc built by tbc Dominicans, who occupied the Nine- 
adjoining Priory on the north bank of the Liffcy (j). GH'i), tcenth- 
in succession to King John's Bridge built in 1215, which Century 
fell in 1885. King John's Bridge and its successor had Dublin 
formed the oidv means of crossing the Liffey previous to 
the year KiTO. In iJiOT there were shops on the bridge, 
and Edward ii. licensed Geoff'roi de Mortagne, citi/en of 
Dublin, to erect a well-fortified and embattled tower on 
the south end of the bridge, and a second tower at the 
corner of the wall from aforesaid bridge towards the 
west, and to build houses between these erections. The 
citizens complained in 1313 to Edward ii. that dc 
Mortagne had encroached on the city wall. In pre- 
paring the foundations of the new bridge in 181(), those 
of a much older structure, believed to be earlier than 
that attributed to King John, were discovered. They 
were regularly laid and connected by iron clanijis on 
a platform of oaken timber, supported by small jiiles 
shod with iron. These probably marked tlie site of the 
earliest bridge across the I^iff'ey, and may have stood in 
the bed of the river when the Danes marched out to the 
battle of Clontarf. A large pile of buildings styled 
Tudding How overhung the river at the western corner 
of Ormonde Bridge, rendering the passage to "Winetavern 
Street inconveniently narrow. These were removed on 
the rebuilding of the quay walls by the Ballast Office 
soon after the erection of Whitworth Bridge. In the 
same year, 181(), AVellingtou Ihidge, formerly known as 
the Cast Iron Bridge, and now as the Metal liridge, was 
built by Alderman Beresford and ^^'illiam Walsh at 
their own expense at a cost of dt'3000 to replace a ferry, 
the rights of which were purchased by them from the Cor- 
poration. It connects Liffey Street with Dame Street by 
a passage through the Conunercial liuildings, and consists 
of an elliptical arch, the chord of which measures 1 iO 
feet, springing from projecting buttresses of rusticated 
masonry, and a toll of Ad. is still paid at the south 

297 



Dublin end by passengers. King's Bridge, as we have seen 
(p. 276), was built in 1827, and Butt Bridge or the 
Swivel Bridge, which can be opened to allow of the 
passage of vessels — a convenience of little practical use 
owing to the viaduct of the Loop Line — was built in 1878. 

Essex Bridge, connecting Capel Street with Parlia- 
ment Street was rebuilt in 1756, and, in 1874, widened 
by the addition of metal wings supporting the footways, 
and improved by lowering the arches. It was then 
renamed Grattan Bridge. Finally Carlisle Bridge was 
rebuilt in 1880, its width doubled and its arches lowered. 
It now corresponds with the noble thoroughfare of Sack- 
ville Street, and bears on bronze tablets inserted over 
the name, as cut in stone by the Port and Docks Board, 
the title of ' Carlisle Bridge, built 1794, renamed 
O'Connell Bridge by the Municipal Council 1890."' 

Dublin is well supplied with memorials of those Irish- 
men whom their country has delighted to honour, but 
the most noticeable monument here as in London is 
erected in memory of the great English admiral whose 
name is a passport to the enthusiastic admiration of all 
English-speaking peoples. The Nelson Column, erected 
in 1808 at a cost of ij*6586, was designed by W. Wilkins, 
Fellow of Caius College, Cambridge, and occupies an 
imposing central position close to the General Post 
Office in Sackville Street, at the junction of Henry 
Street and Earl Street. It stands on a pedestal, bear- 
ing on its four sides the names and dates of Nelson's 
victories, and supports a capital, the abacus of which 
is Gurrounded by a strong iron railing. On the capital 
stands a fine colossal figure, 13 feet in height, of Nelson 
leaning against the capstan of a ship. The entire 
height is 134 feet. The pillar forms a landmark, and is 
the starting-place of the several lines of trams. It is 
decorated with flags on the anniversaries of Nelson's 
victories, and can be ascended from the inside, at a small 
charge, by a flight of 168 steps, and commands, on a 
298 



c'lcjir (lay, a niagiiiHcciit panorama of Uuhlin and its Nine- 
surroundings. The same tlioroughfare contains the teenth- 
nohle monument to Daniel D'Connell, standing innne- Century 
diately north of O'Connell Bridge. It was commenced Dublin 
bv Foley in 1S()4; completed, after the death of that 
sculptor, by IJrock ; and unveiled on 15th August 1882. 
The life-like figure of the Liberator, 12 feet in height, 
clad ill his characteristic cloak, stands on a granite 
cylinder 28 feet high, surrounded by winged genii re- 
presenting Patriotism, Fidelity, Elo(juence, and Courage; 
and bearing allegorical figures in high relief cndjlematic 
of Erin casting off her fetters, and grasping the Act of 
Emancipation. Sack vi lie Street also contains statues of 
Sir John Gray (p. JJOiJ), by Sir Thomas Farrell, U.H.A., 
and of Father Mathew, the Apostle of Tem})erance, by 
Miss Redmond. At the jvniction of Westmoreland 
Street and ITOlier Street "is William Smith (TRrien 
(p. 277), by Sir Thomas Farrell, K.H.A., and at the 
head of College Street the very inadecpiatc statue of 
Thomas Moore. In the railed space in front of Trinity 
College are Oliver Goldsmith and Edmund Burke; 
in the inner (piadrangle, between the Library and the 
Examination Hall, the seated figure of W. E. Hartpole 
Lecky, and in College Green, facing the front of Trinity 
College, is the fine statue of Grattan. This, as well as 
those of Goldsmith and Burke, is the work of Foley. 
As we have seen, William iii., GQorge i., George ii., 
George in. and George iv. have all been commemorated 
in Dublin, but hitherto no memoi'ial has been erected to 
Vueen Victoria.^ In the centre of the Leinster Lawn, 
facing Merrion Stpiare, is Foley's beautiful Albert 
Memorial, and statues of William Dargan (p. 277), Sir 
Robert Stewart, the eminent musician, and Surgeon 
Parke, who lost his life as a residt of the Stanley 

^ A sum of money was subscriljed for the erection of a statue on 
Leinster L;iwn facing Kildare Street, and the statue is now (1907) in the 
hands of the sculptor. 

299 



Dublin expedition in 1887. In Kildare Place is the statue of 
Lord Plunket, Archbishop of Dublin 1884-97, by Hanio 
Thorncycroft, R.A. In St. Stephen's Green, in addition 
to the equestrian figure of George ii., there are statues 
of Lord Eglinton, Viceroy 1852-53 and 1858-59, and the 
seated figure of Lord Ardihiun previously referred, to 
(p. 278). In the Phoenix Park, overlooking the Kings- 
bridge terminus, is the great granite obelisk, 205 feet 
high, of the Wellington Testimonial, designed by R. 
Smirke, and erected in 1817 at a cost of o£'20,000. It 
is decorated only with the names of his victories, and 
with bronze panels on the four sides of its pedestal 
bearing bas-reliefs illustrative of those battles. In the 
adjacent People's Gardens is a statue of Lord Carlisle, 
Viceroy 1855-58 and 1859-64, and on the main thorough- 
fare a very striking e(juestrian figure of Lord Gough, by 
Foley, cast in 1880 in bronze from cannon taken in his 
Indian campaign. A neat and unpretentious memorial 
of the members of the 74th Dublin Company of the 
Imperial Yeomanry who fell in the South African War, 
was unveiled in the churchyard of St. Andrew's on 5th 
May 1904, by H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Forces in Ireland. From a square 
pedestal of Portland stone rises a column of polished red 
granite surmounted by a crown. In three of the faces of 
the pedestal panels of polished granite are inserted bear- 
ing in gold lettering the names of those in whose memory 
it was erected. At the junction of Hawkins Street and 
Burgh Quay a memorial was unveiled on -'5rd August 
1906 to Patrick Sheahan, of the Dublin Metropolitan 
Police, who lost his life on 6th INIay 1905 in an heroic 
attempt to rescue the foreman and two workmen from 
the main sewer of the new Main Drainage Works in 
which they had been overcome by sewer gas. The 
monument, in Celtic Romanesque, is 20 feet in height, 
of Ballinasloe limestone, relieved by pillars of Galway 
and Donegal granite, and by an ingenious development 
300 



of the Cross ami Crown in its design conveys the idea of 
sacrifice and triumph. It is pro})oscd to erect a hand- 
some entrance to St. Stephen's Green, facing Grafton 
Street, in memory of the officers and soldiers of the 
Royal Dublin Fusiliers who died in South Africa, and 
the sum of ciPSOO is now only necessary to complete the 
cost of the proposed memorial. 

The water-supply of Dublin from an early date 
engaged the attention of the citizens. On the 29th 
April l;^44 (^28th Henry in.), Maurice Fitzgerald, 
Justiciary of Ireland, issued a writ 'commanding the 
Sheriff of Dublin without delay, with the advice of the 
Mayor and citizens, to make inquisition by twelve free 
men, as jurors, as to the place from which water could be 
best and most conveniently taken from its course, and 
conducted to the King's city of Dublin for the benefit of 
the city and at the cost of the citizens."" That this was 
forthwith done is evidenced by a mandate, dated 18th 
November 1^45, enrolled in the Patent Koll of England, 
ordering that water be conveyed to the King's hall 
(l)ul)lin Castle), through a pipe from the Conduit of 
Dublin city. This Conduit stood in the High Street, 
opposite the Tholsel near St. Michael's Church, which 
occupied the site of the present Synod Hall. It is of 
more than passing interest to note that in excavations 
during 1787 in Castle Street, on the direct line from the 
Conduit to the Castle, a leaden water-pipe was exhumed, 
said to have borne a thirteenth-century inscription.^ This 
water-supply was taken from the Dodder above Temple- 
ogue, the same stream from whose head-waters at lioherna- 
l)reena is now drawn the water-supply of the townshi])s of 
llathmines and Itathgar. Previous to the writofl!244 
the Poddle strean), now covered over, seems to have sufliced 
for the modest recpiiremcnts of the citizens of the circum- 
scribed city of the thirteenth century. The 'Head 'of 
water which supplied the Conduit can still be traced 

^ Journal K. S.A.I, for 1S90-91, vol. xx. p. 55S. 

301 



Nine- 
teenth- 
Century 
Dublin 




THE CITY CONDUIT 



Dublin t from the dam at lialrothery, opposite 

Firhouse, on the line of the Blessington 
steam tram, near Tallaght, through the 
grounds of Templeogue House ^ and 
Kimmage House, past Mount Argus and 
Dolphin's Barn,^ along an elevated ram- 
part called ' The Ridges ' in a map in 
the City Hall, and commonly known as 
' The Back of the Pipes,"* constructed to 
carry the water to the present City Basin, 
near James Street, in the immediate 
vicinity of the ancient cistern of the 
thirteenth century.^ This water-course 
also supplied the mills of the Abbey of 
St. Thomas at Thomas Court, and was a 
source of bitter contention between the 
citizens and the Abbot ; the latter 
eventually agreeing to pay ' yerly out of ther myllis with- 
out any contradiction, unto the Keper of the watyr of 
the cittie for the tyme beyng eyght busselis of corn, that 
ys to say four peckes of whet and fourpeckes of malt,' for 
the use of the said water-course. In the eighteenth century 
this water-course was regarded as the joint property of 
the City and the Earls of Meath, successors to the rights 
of the Abbots of St. Thomas; and was divided into two 
streams by a stone pier at a place known as the 
' Tongue,'' one-third of the supply belonging to the 
Corporation, and two-thirds to the Meath tenants of the 
Liberties of Thomas Court and Donore. A sketch in 
Indian ink, from which our illustration is taken, of 'The 
Olde Conduit in the Corne market,*" exists in a volume of 
sketches entitled Eblann Moiunnenta, preserved in the 

^ In the grounds of Bella Vista is an Artesian well, bored by French 
miners in 1S37. 

- From a Danish family named Dolfyn, one of whom is mentioned in 
connection with Kilmainham in a mandate to the Justiciary Close Roll, 
21 Henry III. (1237). 

- Joitmal R. S.A.I. , vol. xx. p. 561. 

302 



office of Ulster King of Arms. This Conduit, or its pre- Xine- 
(lecessor, is referred to in .-i nienioranduni in folio 71) 14 teenth- 
of the ' White Hook ' as ' vas ex opposito theolonis civi- Century 
tatis juxta portam Sancta* Trinitatis' — i.e. 'the reservoir Dublin 
opposite the city Tholsel near the gate of the Holy 
Trinity/ A branch of the supply, known as Colman's 
Brook, flowed on the north side of Cook Street, and 
passing through Dirty Lane supplied the mill of Mul- 
linahack {i.e. Dirty Mill), and, flowing under Bridge 
Street, discharged into the Liffey. The Dodder was the 
only source of the water-supply of Dublin up to the year 
1775, when it became inadecpiate for the steadily increas- 
ing ])()pulation. Application was made by the civic 
authorities to the Grand and lioval Canal Companies, 
and two additional reservoirs were excavated at a cost of 
c£*30,00() — one at the extremity of Blessington Street, 
communicating with the Royal Canal supplied by Lough 
Owel, and the other at Portobello in connection with the 
Grand Canal. The flrst, 6 feet above the level of the City 
Basin, supplied the northern suburbs, and the seconcl, 
on the same level as the Basin, the southern district. 
In 1868 the Vartry water-works, commenced in 1863, 
designed and carried out by Parke Neville, C.E., at a 
total cost of =£^550,000, were completed, and the old 
canal supply discontinued. The storage reservoir near 
Roimdwood, County Wicklow, covers an area of 410 acres, 
and can contain two thousand five hundred million 
gallons, equal to seven months'" supply. After passing 
through filter-beds the water is brought by pipe to the 
Stillorgan reservoir, 250 feet above the level of the city, 
and capable of holding eighty-four million gallons. The 
Chairman of the Waterworks Committee, Doctor John 
Gray, to whose initiative and energy the success of the 
scheme was largely due, received the honour of knight- 
hood from the Earl of Carlisle, Lord-Lieutenant. Once 
only, in the uni)recedented drought of 1893, did the 
great Jioundwood reservoir show signs of exhaustion, 

303 



Dublin and the Grand Canal supply had once more to be 
resorted to on October 16. In consequence of this it 
was proposed, in September 1906, to construct an ad- 
ditional reservoir at an estimated cost of ot'lSOjOOO.^ 

Almost all the Irish railway systems have their termini 
in Dublin. The first railway in Ireland was the Dublin 
and Kingstown, with its terminus in Westland Row, 
commenced in 1833 and opened the following year. Ten 
years later the line was extended to Dalkey by the 
Atmospheric, afterwards converted into a steam railway 
and continued to Bray. In 1844 the Dublin and Drog- 
heda, now the Great Northern Railway, was opened, 
having been six years in building. Two years later the 
' CasheP Railway, now the Great Southern and Western, 
was completed to Carlow ; and the following year the 
Midland Great Western Railway, completed to Galway 
in 1851, was opened for traffic. Tlie Great Northern 
terminus is a handsome stone building with a lofty 
Italian facade towards Amiens Street, and a slanting 
approach from Store Street for vehicles. Tiie Great 
Southern and ^Vestern terminus, Kingsbridge, in a striking 
situation unobscured by surrounding buildings, has a fine 
Corinthian front flanked on each side by wings surmounted 
by clock towers. The Midland or Broadstone terminus 
is a heavy and somewhat gloomy building, combining 
in its architecture a Grecian style with some Egyptian 
features. The terminus of the Dublin, ^Vicklow, and 
Wexford Railway, opened to Bray in 1854, a massive 
Doric building in Ilarcourt Street, with a fine colonnade 
and broad flight of steps, is deficient in interior accom- 
modation. It effects a junction within a few miles of 
Bray with the Dublin and Kingstown line, whose system 
is leased by the Dublin, Wicklow, and Wexford direc- 
torate. The other lines are connected by the Loop Line 

^ On the 6th December 1906 nn inquiry was opened by the Locnl 
Government Board, on the .ipplication of tlie Dublin Corporation to 
• borrow ;f 134,842 for this purpose. 



which, starting from Westland How, passes over the Nine- 
Liff'ey, by the unsightly viaduct close to the Custom teenth- 
House, to Amiens Street. Proceeding thence over the Century 
Great Northern line to Church Road it readies the Dublin 
landing-.sta<ic for the steamers of the London and 
North-Western Railway at North Wall, effects a junction 
with the Midland at Glasnevin, and running through 
a tunnel over a mile in length under the Phcenix Park, 
joins the Great Southern and Western at Island 
Bridge. 

The canals anticipated the railway lines as means of 
internal communication. The Royal Canal, incorporated 
1818, which runs parallel to the "Midland Railway from 
the Broadstone terminus to INIullingar, and communicates 
with the Liftey by its docks at the North Wall, brings 
the metropolis into direct water communication with the 
Shannon. The Grand Canal, commenced in 1765, also 
connects with the Shannon at Shannon Harbour near 
Banagher, and with the Barrow navigation at Monas- 
terevan, thus affording facilities for goods traffic with 
Waterford and other southern towns. It joins the 
Liffey by the embouchure of the Dodder at Ringsend. 
Passenger-boats, known as ' Fly-boats,' formed a common 
mode of travelling at the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, those on the Grand Canal starting from Porto- 
bello Hotel, now a private hospital. These boats are 
referred to in the novels of Lever, and in the Travels 
of Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall. They were long and narrow, 
were covered in, and divided into two classes. Each 
boat was drawn by two or three horses, and travelled 
at the rate of seven Irish miles ^ an hour — no despicable 
rate of progression in those days. 

The electric telegraph, laid down to Holyhead, was 
opened 1st June 1852 ; the street tramways were opened 
in 1872, and electric light inaugurated in 1881. 

1 Nearly nine Linglisli milca ; Ihc Irish mile = 2240 yard;. 
u 305 



Amongst literary and artistic associations the Royal 
Hibernian Academy for the Fine Arts was incorporated 
in 1821, and its premises in Lower Abbey Street, erected 
at the expense of Francis Johnston the architect, its first 
President, in 182-t. The Royal Society of Antiquaries 
of Ireland was founded in 1849 as the Kilkenny Archaeo- 
logical Society ; and the Royal Irish Academy of Music 
was founded in 1856 and incorporated in 1889. The 
first sliow of flowers by the Horticultural Society took 
place at Donnybrook in 1817. 

In educational matters the Society for Promoting the 
Education of the Poor in Ireland, known as the Kildare 
Place Society, the forerunner of the Irish system of 
National Education, was instituted in 1811. Its premises 
have been occupied and rebuilt by the Church of Ireland 
Training College for National School Teachers, and now 
form an imposing pile of brick buildings in Kildare 
Street with an entrance from Kildare Place. The 
abortive Catholic University, founded by Cardinal New- 
man in 1854, survives as a feeder of the Royal University. 
This latter Avas created, in succession to the Queen's 
University, by Letters Patent in 1880, and occupies part 
of the site in Earlsfort Terrace, and some of the per- 
manent buildings, of the exhibitions of 1865 and 1872. 
The Alexandra College, opposite the Royal University 
buildings, may fairly claim to be the pioneer of higher 
education for women, as its foundation (1866) antedates 
that of Newnham or Girton. 

Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital, Grand Canal Street Lower, 
1808, and that known from its dedication as the ]\Iater 
Misericordiae, Eccles Street, 1861, under the care of 
Sisters of Mercy, were added to the long list of Dublin's 
asylums for the sick poor; and the Lying-in Hospital 
in the Coombe shares, since 1829, the charitable work 
of the Rotunda Hospital. The great cemeteries of 
Mount Prospect, Glasnevin (R.C.), on the north side, 
and Mount Jerome, Harold's Cross (Prot.), 1836, on the 
306 



south, roplacod tho crowclf d parish f^ravevarH>, and arc Nine- 
each beautified with monuments : the most noticeable teenth- 
in the former l)eing the OT'onnell Tower, and the statue Century 
of Barry Sullivan in the character of Hamlet; and in the Dublin 
latter the beautiful statue in white marble of Thomas 
Davis, bv Hoo^an. 



307 




THE TEMPLE, MARINO 



CHAPTER X 



HISTORIC HOUSES AXD UISTIN'GUISIIKD DUltl.IN'KRS 



OF the mansions and private residences which once 
adorned the streets and squares of Dublin, some 
have been demolished, others have fallen from their high 
estate as fiishion and even respectability have deserted 




LEAUED I ANI.IGHT, MKKKION SQUARE 

the neighbourhood in which thev stand, and an apjireci- 
able projiortion now aH'ord housing to Government offices 

309 




DOORWAYS, CKAMPTOX 
COURT 



and to places of business. Of the last class, tlie best re- 
maining specimens are Leinster House, Tyrone House, 
Charlemont House, Belvedere House, Aldborough House, 
and Powerscourt House. In the 
second category may be placed houses 
in Digges Street, Aungier Street, 
Cuffe Street, Mercer Street, and York 
Street on the south side, and Great 
Denmark Street, Henrietta Street, 
Dominick Street, Staftbrd Street, 
Buckingham Street, and Gardiner"'s 
Street on the north side, built for 
the occupation of persons of acknow- 
ledged position in the social scale, 
now too often let to weekly tenants ; while the 
once-prosperous Meath Liberties afford too many in- 
stances of houses, formerly the residences of wealthy 
merchants, now fast disappearing piecemeal under the 
disintegrating effects of tenement occupation. 

Leinster House, now in the occupation of the Royal 
Dublin Society, who purchased it from the Duke of 
Leinster in 1815 for =£'10,000 subject to an annual rent 
of i?600, was built about the middle of the eighteenth 
century by the twentieth Earl of Kildare, from the 
designs of Cassels, as the town-house of the Leinster 
Geraldines. The site was at one time comprised in the 
lands of the Nunnery of St. Mary del Hogges, which ran 
side by side with the grounds of All Hallows Priory, now 
the College Park, and were known as the Mynchen's^ 
Fields, or Mynchen's Mantle. They are mentioned under 
the latter title in a deed of 1735, but the name was 
corrupted into Mr. Minchin's, or Menson\s, fields : the 
latter designation occurs in a deed of 1871. The main 
building of Leinster House has undergone little altera- 
tion. Resting on a rusticated basement storey are four 
Corinthian pillars supporting a pediment and plain tym- 
^ Mynchens = elderly nuns. 
310 



paiiuiu, ;iiul li;iviii<;' balustrades between the coluinii.s. Historic 
The windows are ornamented with architraves, those of Houses 
the first storey crowned by pediments alternately circular and 
and angidar. On the right and left of the Kildare Street Distin- 
facade are Doric colonnades starting from either anf<le of "uishcd 
the main 1)uilding. 'IMiat on the left is surmounted by l)ub- 
the new and handsome theatre, in which is one of the liners 
finest modern organs in existence, and behind the riaht- 
side colonnatle appears the semi-circular recess which 
served to enlarge and light the second-storey room at 
its northern end. The handsome hall, with its orna- 
mented ceiling, contains some good paintings and pieces 
of sculpture. Above it the reading-room and library of 
the Society are magnificent rooms, handsomely ceiled and 
having their sides adorned with Hutcd Ionic cohnnns. 

Tyrone House, in IMarlborough Street, opposite the 
Pro-Cathedral, was known in the early nineteenth 
century as AVaterford House, on the creation of the 
Mar(iuisate in the Beresford family. It was the first 
private edifice of stone erected in Dublin, having, by a 
few years, preceded Leinster House. Like the latter, it 
is from the designs of Cassels, and is in three storeys of 
hewn granite. The doorway is ornamented by Doric 
pillars supporting an entablature and pediment, and 
above it is a large Venetian window. The fittings of 
the interior were sumptuous, and the mahogany doors, 
balusters, and handrail, and the beautiful stucco-work of 
Cremillon and Francini still attest its former magnifi- 
cence. The premises are now the headcjuarters of the 
Connnissioners of National Education, who have added 
considerably to the original structure. 

Charlemont House, in Rutland Scpiare North, was 
built in ITTJJ from the designs of James Caullield. Ivirl 
of Charlemont, with the assistance of Sir AVilliam 
Chambers. The Earl, a prominent figure in his day, 
died here in 1799, aged 71, in a room on the north side 
towards Granbv Row. The front, of Arklow granite. 



consists of a rusticated basement and two upper storeys, 
each of five windows. These are adorned with archi- 
traves : those on the first storey have pediments 
alternately angular and circular, similar to those of 
Leinster House. The obelisks which flank the doorway 
once supported lamps, of which Lord Charlemont 
formerly lighted four, at a cost, paid to the Rotunda 
Hospital, of sixteen guineas per annum. ^ Semi- circular 
curtain walls, with circular-headed niches surmounted 
by a balustrade, project from the building on either 
hand. The building is occupied by the offices of the 
Registrar-General, and a search-room was added in 1895, 
The ceiling of the ante-room still retains its stucco-work, 
but the library, connected by a corridor with the main 
building, has been dismantled to serve as a census office. 
Aldborough House, built in 1797 at a" cost of =^40,000, 
was quitted by its owners owing to the dampness of its 
situation, and was purchased in 1813 for the purposes of 
a public school termed the Feinaiglian Institute.^ It be- 
came the Commissariat Depot for Ireland in 1843. Like 
the other eighteenth-century houses already mentioned, 
it contains some of the beautiful stucco-work distinctive 
of the period. Mornington House, now No. 24 Upper 
Merrion Street, the birthplace of the Duke of Wellington, 
and afterwards the dwelling-place of the fortunate Dublin 
woollen-draper born in Merrion Square, who rose through 
a baronetcv to a peerage as first Baron Cloncurry, is now 
the office of the Irish Land Commission, and has lost all 
distinctive features. Powerscourt House, in William 
Street, built in 1771 at a cost of ii^lO,000, became, after 
a short term of occupation, the Government Stamp Office 
in 1811, and has been for many years the wholesale 
drapery establishment of Messrs. Ferrier and Pollock. 

^ Around and Abo2tt the RoUaida. Sarah Atkinson. 

2 From Dr. Feinagle, its German principal. At this school many 
distinguished alumni of T. CD. of the past generation received their 
preparatory instruction. 
312 



The })est preserved of tlie Dublin eighteenth-century Historic 
mansions is undoubtedly liclvedere House, Great Den- Houses 
mark Street. It was the first house in the new street and 
between the Jlotunchi Gardens and what is now Mountjoy Distin- 
Sciuare, and was built in 1775 for Geor<;e Rochfort, second guished 
Earl of Belvedere, at a cost of i.'24,000 ; and was pur- Dub- 
chased for a college by the Jesuits in 1841 for the small liners 
sum of 1^1800 — .sic transit gioria mundi. In 1884 Kil- 
leen House, the adjoining town-i-esidence of Lord Fingall, 
was purchased for the college by its president, the \'ery 
Reverend Thomas Finlay, 8.J., who in the same year 
added the gynmasium and the north side of the quad- 
rangle, containing the boys' chapel, class-rooms, and 
laboratories, thus enabling the community to preserve 
the principal rooms in their original state; and the 
ex(juisite stucco-work of Venetian artists, and the mantel- 
pieces of genuine Bossi-work have lost little of their 
beauty. The handsome organ is adorned with paintings 
by Angelica Kauffmann. The Venus drawing-room and 
the Diana and Apollo rooms, now affording acconnnoda- 
tion to the College libraries, are maintained as such 
interesting mementoes ought to be ; and the courtesy of 
the Very Reverend President affords a guarantee that 
these relics of eighteenth-century Dublin will not be 
altogetiier inaccessible to the ciuioiis. 

Of those houses which have 'come down in the world,' 
probably the most striking instance is that of INIoira House, 
the once palatial residence of Lord Moira, afterwards 
Marquess of Hastings, a determined upholder of Irish 
rights. This house is mentioned by John Wesley in his 
journal as one of the most magnificent palaces in Europe. 
It had then three storeys, the uppciniost of which has 
been removed, and the drawing-rooms on the second 
rioor extended the full length of the house. The 
'octagon' room, with a window the sides of which 
were inlaid with mothei-of-])earl, John Wesley in 177o 
' was surprised to observe, though not a more grand, yet 



Dublin a far more elegant room than any he had seen in England,'' 
Here Pamela, wife of Lord Edward Fitzgerald, was the 
guest of the Dowager- Countess when her husband was 
arrested at No. 151 Thomas Street. A row of large 
trees, then extending from Arran Bridge to within 200 
feet of Bloody Bridge, along the south shore of Usher's 
Island, then gave dignity to the site of Moira House. It 
is now a ]\Iendicitv Institution and public wash-house, 
having passed into the hands of the governors of the 
• Institute for the Suppression of Mendicity in 1826. 

The list of notabilities to whom Dublin has given 
birth is a long one. From Swift to Burke, from Michael 
AVilliam Balfe to Charles Villiers Stanford, from Richard 
Brinsley Sheridan to James Sheridan Le Fanu, from Sir 
John Denham to James Clarence ]Mangan, from Patrick 
Sarsfield, Earl of Lucan, to Arthur Wellesley, Duke of 
Wellington ; what a procession of figures, great in every 
walk of life, has the Irish metropolis given to the English- 
speaking world ! In such a work as the present it would 
be idle to attempt to do more than touch on the more 
noteworthy of Dublin's distinguished citizens. First 
amongst these in his intimate connection with the 
history of his native city is the great Dean of St. Pat- 
rick's. Jonathan Swift, the posthumous child of another 
Jonathan, steward of the King's Inns, Dublin, was born 
in 1667 in the house of his uncle, Godwin Swift, at 
7 Hoey's Court, between Werburgh Street and Little 
Ship Street, a locality deriving its name from Sir John 
Hoey of Dunganstown, County Wicklow. In the words 
of Lecky's essay, ' Of the intellectual grandeur of his 
career it is needless to speak. The chief sustainer of an 
English ministrv, the most powerful advocate of the 
Peace of Utrecht, the creator of public opinion in Ire- 
land, he has graven his name indelibly in English history, 
and his writings of their own kind are unique in English 
literature.' Great as a satirist, great as a statesman, he 
was at least equalled in the latter capacity by Edmund 
3H 



IJiirke, horn at 1;^ Arran Quay in 1729, and a student of 
the University out.side which his statue now stands. To 
quote John Morley : ' Of Burke's w ritin<^s ... it may 
be truly said that the further we get awav from the 
inunediate passions of that time, the more surprising! v 
do we iuid liow acute, and at the same time how broad 
and rational his insight was," As an English satirist 
Swift is'probably unequalled, but if Sir Philij) Franci-^ 
be indeed the anonymous ' Junius,"' Dublin can claim to 
have produced SwitVs most formidable rival in political 
satire. Sir Philip and his father, Philip Francis, D.D., 
were both occupants of the house in which the former 
was born in 1740. Poetry is lepresented by the names 
of many Dubliners. Sir John Denham, son of the Chief 
Baron of the Exchetjuer in Ireland, was born in the Irish 
metropolis in 1615. His poem of Cooper'' 6- Hill holds a 
high rank in topographical description, and contains one 
of the best-known cou})lets in Englisii verse : — 

' Though deep, yet olear ; though gentle, yet not dull ; 
Strong without rage ; without o'erflowing full.' 

Thomas Parnell (1679), the friend of Pope and Swift, 
became Archdeacon of Clogher, and obtained a sneers 
d\'stime for his poem of The Hermit, versified from 
the Gcsta Romanorum. The birthplace of Thomas 
Moore (1779), best known of Irish poets, No. 12 
Aungier Street, still as then occupied bv a grocer and 
spirit-dealer, is marked by a paltry bust. The friend 
and biographer of Byron w ill always coiitinue to hold a 
j)1hcc in the Irish national memory, for the beautiful 
versification of the Iri.s/i Melodies has done much to j)re- 
serve the folk-song of her people, and to foster their 
patriotic aspirations. The ill-fated James Clarence 
Mangan was born in 1S0;5 at 3 I^ord Edward Street, 
formei'ly part of Fishamble Street, in a house w hich bears 
over a window of the first storev a shield with the arms 
of the Usher familv, in whose possession the house con- 
tinued until the beoinniuii' of the eighteenth centurv. 

315 



Historic 
Houses 
and 
Distin- 
guished 
Dub- 
liners 



Dublin He afterwards lived at 6 York Street, and died in 1849 
from cholera contracted in a wretched lodging in Bride 
Street. His writings are marked by true poetic feeling, 
and The Dark Rosaleen is one of the most touching 
naticmal ballad-poems in any language. Nor should 
the Rev. Charles Wolfe be forgotten, though his modesty 
left to accident his identification as the author of The 
Burial of Sir John Moore. Last of the Dublin-born 
poets may be placed him whom the sister isle once most 
delighted to honour. Nahum Tate (1652), poet-laureate 
to William iii., succeeded, in the words of one critic, in 
performing two wellnigh impossible tasks, degrading the 
Psalms of David and vulgarising Shakespeare's King Lear. 
The English drama owes to Dublin some of its most 
prominent authors and actors. First amongst the former 
stands Richard Brinsley Sheridan, born in 1751 at No. 12 
Dorset Street. Most typical of Irish erratic geniuses, the 
friend of George iv. when Prince Regent, his versatility 
may be gauged by Byron's statement that he had made 
the best speech, tliat on the Begums of Oude, and written 
the best comedy {School for Scandal), the best opera 
(The Duenna), and the best farce {The Critic). In addi- 
tion to these achievements he attained some fame as a 
writer of tragedy by his Pizarro. John O'KeefFe, both 
actor and dramatist, whose Recollections vividly portray 
eighteenth-century life on both sides of the Channel, was 
a prolific writer of farces and operettas, and some of his 
songs still hold their place in popular collections. That 
strange genius, Charles Robert Maturin (1782), the Irish 
'Monk' Lewis, was author of the drama oi Bertram, 
extravagantly eulogised by Byron and Scott, but now 
forgotten. His novel, however, of Mebiiotli the Wan- 
derer is known to most students of literature. Thomas 
Southerne (16G0) was also a native of Dublin, but 
entered the Middle Temple in London, and soon aban- 
doned law for the army. He served as a captain in 
suppressing Monmouth's rebellion, and finally settled 
316 



down as a dramatic author. His plays of The Futal Historic 
Marriage and Oronnokn were favourites with eighteenth- Houses 
century audiences, and earned a competence for their and 
author. William I'rcston (1753), who assisted in found- Distin- 
ing the Royal Irish Academy, wrote poems, ])lays, and guished 
essays. One of his tragedies, with the unpromising title Dub- 
of Democratic Jiaffc, had some success on the English liners 
boards. Amongst Dublin-born actors, besides John 
O'Keefte, are Spranger Barry, born in Skinner's Row in 
1719, son of a Dublin silversmith, and himself a member 
of the Goldsmiths' Com])any ; and perhaps best known to 
Englishmen of Dublin's wearers of the buskin, Thomas 
Doggett, born in Castle Street about the middle of the 
seventeenth century, founder of the coat and silver badge 
to be rowed for annually by six young Thames watermen. 
The family of Dogoit or Dogot is mentioned in the 
Anglo-Irish annals of the thirteenth century. The elder 
Macready was the son of a Dublin upholsterer, though 
his more celebrated son was born in Mary Street, Euston 
Road, London. Of Dublin actresses we have the beauti- 
ful George Anne Bellamy (1731), illegitimate daughter 
of an Irish nobleman, and iNIargaret, better known as 
' Peg,' Wotfington (17^0), the daugliter of a Dublin 
bricklayer and a Dublin laundress, who at eighteen years 
of age took Dublin by storm in The Beggars'' Opera, and 
charmed all eyes and hearts with her beauty, grace, and 
ability in a range of characters from ' Ophelia"' to ' Sir 
Harry Wildair.' 

Ainong musicians Dubhn's greatest name is that of 
Michael "William IJalfe (1808), composer of that ever- 
green opera, 77/c Jioheuiian Girl, born in the obscure by- 
way of Pitt Street, reached from Grafton Street via 
Harry Street, where the house, No. 10, still bears a small 
memorial tablet. In music Dublin can also count Sir 
John Armstrong Stevenson, born in Crane Lane, 17G$^, 
who was long and intimately connected with both the 
Dublin Cathedrals, but is best known by his setting of 

317 



Dublin ^Ioore''s Iri-fh Melodies ; John Field (1782), the pianist, 
originator of the Nocturne, father of the celebrated 
Russian tenor, Leonoff ; Michael Kelly (1764), musician 
and vocalist, for whom Mo/art wrote the part of 'Basilio' 
in the Norjr:e di Figaro; and Thomas Carter (1768), 
composer of the well-known song, ' Oh Nanny, wilt thou 
gang with me/ The last named was brought up in the 
choir of Christchurch, and was afterwards organist of 
St. Werburgh's. 

It has lately been conclusively proved, from a pre- 
scription preserved by a Dublin apothecary, that the 
greatest of English generals, Arthur Wellesley, Duke 
of Wellington, was born in 1769 in Mornington 
House, now No. 24 Upper Merrion Street (p. '312). 
Patrick Sarsfield, Earl of Lucan (1650), is believed 
to have been also a Dubliner, and was a direct de- 
scendant of William Sarsfield (p. 71), the warlike Mayor of 
Dublin, knighted by Sir Henry Sidney, On the rout of 
the adherents of James ii. in Ireland, Sarsfield entered 
the service of France, and in April 1693 received his 
Marshal's baton, but three months later fell mortally 
wounded in the last charge at the battle of Neer- Winden. 
Sir John Doyle (1756), who took part in Abercromby\s 
Egyptian expedition in 1801, was also a Dubliner; and, 
within twelve miles of the city, Celbridge House was the 
home of the notable military and literary brotherhood 
of the Napiers, the third of whom, General William 
Francis Patrick Napier, the brilliant historian of the war 
in the Peninsula, was born there. 

Amongst novelists, in addition to Maturin already 
referred to, Charles James Lever was born in 1806 at 
Amiens Street, and educated at Trinity College. He is 
himself the 'Frank Webber' of Charles (TMalky, and 
many of the incidents in his novels are taken from his 
experiences as a Dublin medical student, and as a doctor 
in the west of Ireland. The boarding-house of ' Mrs. 
Clanfrizzle ' in chapter xiii. of Harry Lorrequ^r is Lisle 
318 



House, Iniill. 1)V Lord Lisle about the middle of the 
eighteenth ecntiirv, and now No. 3-'5 Molesworth Street. 
Samuel Lover (171)7), author of Ilnndjj And/j, lived at 9 
D'Olier Street, and Jost'[)h Sheridan Le Fanu, author of 
Uncle Silas, etc., and editor of the Dublin [Jniirr.sif// 
MagaT:ine, was born in 1814 at 45 Lower Doniinick 
Street, and afterwards resided at 70 INIerrion Square South. 
The Reverend George C'roly (1780-1860), author of 
S'alafhicl, etc., a writer possessed of a vivid imagination 
and somewhat exuberant style, was also a Dubliner. 

In painting, George liarrctt (il. 1781) and Nathaniel 
Hone (d. 1784), landscape, and Charles J. Ingham (1797), 
])ortrait-painter, uphold the artistic taste of Dublin. To 
another Dubliner, John Jarvis(1749), is due the execution 
of Sir Joshua Ucvnolds' great west window in New College 
Chapel, Oxford, and the only less celebrated ' Kcsurrec- 
tion ' window in St. George's Chapel, ^Vindsor. In 
addition to these, Dublin may claim two of the artists 
enjrajjed on the desijjns for Alderman Bovdell's celebrated 
edition of Shakespeare's works, in the lleverend AVilliam 
Peters, H.A. (d. 1800), and Henry Tresham, K.A., born in 
Hio-h Street about the middle of the eighteenth centurv. 
In sculpture the great genius of John Henry Foley (1818) 
is attested by the works from his chisel which adorn the 
city of his birth; and John Hogan (1800), though born 
in Tallow, County Waterford, and eckicated in Itome, 
regarded Dublin, in which his greatest works are domi- 
ciled, as at least the home of his adoption. 

Of England's great modern pro-consuls Dublin has 
given birth to at least two. Richard Colley Wellesle}-, 
Karl of ^Nlornington and Marquess of AVellesley, elder 
brother of the Iron Duke, thrice I^ord Lieutenant of 
Irelaiui, and N'iccroy of India 1797-1805, was born in 
Grafton Street in 17G0 ; and Richard Southwell Rourke, 
sixth Earl of INIayo, born in Dublin in 1822, thrice 
filled the office of Chief Secretary for Ireland, and was 
ruler of India from 1869 to 1872, in which latter year, 

319 



Historic 

Houses 

and 

Distin- 
guished 
Dub- 
liners 



Dublin on the evening of the 8th February, he fell beneath 
the knife of a convict fanatic at Hopetown in the 
Andamans. "With them may perhaps be included Robert 
Molesworth, Ambassador to Denmark, temp. William in., 
and afterwards Viscount Molesworth. 

Of those patriots who have striven to advance the 
best interests of their native land the most illustrious of 
Dublin's sons is undoubtedly Henry Grattan, born in the 
parish of St. John in 1746, son of the Recorder of 
Dublin. The house on Rathmines Road near La Touche 
(or Portobello) Bridge, the gift of the citizens to one 
who refused a money tribute for his services, still stands 
back from the road, an unpretentious structure of red 
brick. But his name is not alone on the patriotic 
register. William Molyneux (1656), the metaphysician, 
born in New Row, representative in Parliament of Dublin 
University, and author of Tlie Case of Ireland^ represents 
the seventeenth century along with Dr. Samuel Mad- 
den (1686), one of the founders of the Dublin Society 
(p. 207), to whose funds he contributed from 1739 ,£'130 
annually in premiums for the encouragement of manufac- 
tures and arts, a sum increased to i?300 per annum a few 
years later. Through his influence mainly was obtained 
the charter of incorporation of 1750. Trinity College 
also benefited by his lil)erality in the quarterly premiums 
known as 'Premium Madden'; and his son founded the 
' Madden Prize." ^ The misguided though pure-minded 
Robert Emmett was born in ^Molesworth Street. Theo- 
bald Wolfe Tone was born probably at 44 Stafford 
Street in 1763, and James Napper Tandy (1740), accord- 
ing to Sir Jonah Barrington, ' acquired celebrity without 
being able to account for it, and possessed influence 
without rank or capacity.' These share with Emmett 
the affections of latter-day nationalists : a yearly pilgrim- 
age is made to the grave of the former in Bodenstown, 
County Kildare, and a site at the junction of Grafton 
^ See Chapter iv. 



street with St. Stephen's Green was allotted in 1898 Historic 
for the erection of a statue which is not yet in existence. Houses 

Of scholars and men of science the list is a long one. and 
Reverend Richard Stanistreet (1545) is author of the Distin- 
treatise Dc Hvhii.s in H'lhcrnia Gesti.s; — one of the store- truished 
houses of early chronicle. A worthy successor may he Duh- 
fonnd in Sir James Ware, born in Castle Street in 1594, liners 
and buried in the vaults of St. Werburoh's Church, 
' without either stone or monumental inscription.' Rev- 
erend Mervyn Archdall (1723) was author of the 
Monasticon Hibernhum, etc. Rev. Kdward l.edwich 
(1738), was another well-known anti(]uary. Charles 
Halidav, author of The Scandhmv'taii Khigdom of Diddiit, 
was born on Arran Quay in 1789. The same year saw 
the birth in Dublin of George \j. Petrie, ' painter, poet, 
musician, and archaeologist, a contributor in each, and a 
master in ull."'^ Reverend Charles P. Meehan, a charit- 
able and self-denving parish priest, author of TItc Fate 
and Fortunes of Tyrone and TijreonnelU "'•'i^ born in 1812 
at 141 Great Rritain Street. Omitting living successors 
the list of antiquaries may fitly close with the name of 
James Henthorn Todd (1805), described as 'the nine 
quo non of every literary enterprise in Dublin.' In 
departments of learning, other than archicology, Dublin 
has produced such men as James ITssher (1580), author 
of Anncdes Veteris et Novl Te.sfanumtl, containing an 
ingenious scheme of Biblical chronology which was gener- 
ally acce})ted for over two centuries, and still obtains 
acceptance with many of the devout. With him may be 
classed Thomas Romney Robinson, born in the parish of 
St. Ann in 179-3. As a lad he attracted the attention of 
some men of inHuence who assisted in his education, and 
published by subscription a volume of juvenile poems. 
He became Astronomer-Royal, and acquired a European 
reputation for varied scholarship. The name of Sir 
William Rowan Hamilton, born in Dublin in 1805, is 
' Dr. Graves, Bishop of Limerick, Li/i of Petri c. 
X 321 



Dublin closely connected with the Observatory at Dunsink 
(p. 134). He is said to have known thirteen languages 
at twelve years of age, and his treatises on ' Quaternions ' 
are still standard works. William Henry Fitton (1780), 
the Geologist, Dionysius Lardner (1793), author of the 
once famous Cyclopaedia and a subject for the satirical 
comments of Thackeray, and Edmund Malone (1741), 
the painstaking editor of Shakespeare, are deserving of 
mention in the list of Dublin Worthies, nor should a 
place be denied to Anna Jameson, authoress of Beauties 
of the Court of Charles II., Memoirs of Early Italian 
Painters, etc., who was the daughter of Brownell Murphy, 
the miniature-painter, and was born in 1794 at No. 36 
Golden Lane. 

Of physicians of Dublin birth, the most eminent are 
Sir Thomas Molyneux, born in Cook Street in 1661, 
founder of the Molyneux Blind Asylum in Peter Street, 
Sir Philip Crampton, who resided at 14 Merrion Square, 
and whose somewhat unsightly monument decorates the 
junction of College Street, ITOlier Street, Townsend 
Street and Great Brunswick Street, and William Stokes 
(1804), son of Doctor Whitley Stokes. Of him the late 
Doctor Haughton, Senior Fellow T.C.D., has said : ' His 
medical treatises on the stethoscope, the chest, and the 
heart would be his monument for ever, a monument more 
lasting than brass.' To these may be added the name of 
Sir Dominic Corrigan. 

Of the great English Essayists not the least charming, 
Sir Richard Steele, the ' Dick ' Steele of his many friends, 
was born in Dublin in 1671, and was in many ways the 
prototype of that amiable, versatile, improvident genius, 
Oliver Goldsmith. Finally of benefactors of their native 
city, to those already mentioned may be added the name 
of John Stearne, Bishop of Clogher (1660), who built 
the Printing Office of Trinity College, and bequeathed 
his whole estate, now estimated at =£'2000 per annum, to 
trustees for charitable purposes. 
322 



Of notable persons associated with Dublin the list Historic 
would be endless. The residence in that city of Steele's Houses 
friend, Addison, us Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant and 
and Keeper of the Records, is erroneously commemorated Histin- 
in the title of ' Addison's Walk,' given to the beautiful o;uished 
path between yew-trees in the IJotanic (iurdens at Glas- • Dub- 
nevin, as the (grounds did not pass into the occupation of liners 
his friend Tickell, the poet, until after the death of 
Addison.^ Patrick Delany, afterwards Dean of Down, 
and husband en .secoiidcn notes of the celebrated authoress 
of the Memoirs^ formerly Mrs. Pendarves, lived at Del- 
ville, Glasnevin, with Dr. Helsham. The original name 
proposed for the house was, from the first syllables of 
those of its builders, Hel-Del-ville. It is still much as it 
was when Swift was a constant visitor. The hidin<>-})lace 
of Robert Emmett, in Mount Drummond Avenue, near 
the bridge over the canal at Harold's Cross, may still be 
inspected by the curious. No. 6 Ely Place, the residence 
of John Fitz-Gibbon, Earl of Clare, has the iron gates 
put up by the great Chancellor as a protection against 
the violence of the mob (p. 159). 'Buck' Whaley, 
whose celebrated wager as to the time within which he 
would visit and return from Jerusalem earned for him 
the sobriquet of 'Jerusalem' Whaley, lived at 86 St. 
Stej)hen's Green, now the Catholic University. Lady 
Morgan resided at 39 Kildare Street, and Mrs. Hemans 
successively at 36 St. Stej)hen's Green and 21 Dawson 
Street, in the latter of which she died. She is buried in 
the vaults of St. Ann's Church, in which a memorial 
window, erected in 1860, marks her resting-place. Nos. 
16 and 17 Harcourt Street, formerly one house, were the 
mansion of John Scott, Earl of Clonmell, and No. 14 
(No. 15 not being then built) was that of Sir Jonah 

' Addison resided, when in Dublin, in the official house of the Secre- 
tary in Dublin Castle. The Secretary's Lodgings stood on the same 
side of the Upper Castle Yard as the present Chief Secretary's Office. — 
Journal R. S.A.I, for 1904, vol. xxxiv. p. 156. 



Dublin Barrington. The large bow-window in the side of the 
latter then overlooking the premises of Lord Clonmell, 
and built up in deference to the remonstrances of Lady 
Clonmell, still remains a passive witness to a long- 
forgotten feminine feud. Between Foster Place and 
• Anglesea Street once extended the palatial buildings of 
Daly's Club, the internal decorations of which were said 
to be superior to anything of the kind in Europe. The 
door, which led by a footpath to the western portico of 
the Houses of Parliament, is now a window in the offices 
of the National Assurance Company. In the lower 
storeys of Nos. 6 and 7 Christchurch Place may still be 
seen ' some of the old oaken beams of the Carbrie House,^ 
which have by age acquired an almost incredible degree 
of hardness." - At 67 Rathmines Road, now the Rath- 
mines Public Library, resided George Petrie in the last 
years of his life. In the inner room he saf crooning over 
the Irish airs which he had rescued from oblivion. On 
the road to Blackrock stands 'Maretimo,'' still a residence 
of the Cloncurry family, and ' Frescati,' once the dwelling 
of Lord Edward Fitz-Gerald and Pamela. Of this the 
following description is given by their daughter. Lady 
Campbell. ' Frescati was just bought as a bathing lodge 
for delicate children. The Duchess (of Leinster, mother 
of Lord Edward) liked it so much, it was enlarged so as 
to have rooms for her when she came to see the children ; 
the Bray road ran between the house and the sea, a 
rocky pretty coast with little bays. Blackrock was quite 
a small fishing village. They made a sort of tunnel or 
underground passage to the sea through which the sea 
water was brought up under the high road, of which I 
saw the remains, though it has since been blocked up ; a 
little stream ran from the mountains through the place 
into the sea.'' . . . ' The stables were afterwards sold and 

' The residence of the Earls of Kildare, erected in the sixteenth 
century. 

^ Histoty of Dublin. Sir James T. Gilbert, 



turned into villas; the house was let for a boarding- Historic 
school for years, and then diviiled by partition walls, and Houses 
let into tliree villas. . . . There are still the fine ceilings and 
and pillar-room: it must have been a very beautiful Distin- 
house. . . . Most of the handsome chimney-pieces had guished 
been taken down and sold when it was turned into a Dub- 
school. I have traced one or two in houses in Merrion liners 
Square.'^ 'Marino,' Clontarf, once the residence of 
James Caulfield, Earl of Charlemont, with its handsome 
entrance by Cipriani, is now the headquarters of the , 

Christian Brothers in Ireland. The famous art collection 
once contained within its walls has long since been dis- 
persed. In the grounds stands, supported by long sub- 
terranean galleries of groined brickwork, the beautiful 
Doric building of the Temple, or 'Casino,'- whose 
flooring was of costlv inlaid woods. 

1 Edward and Patnela Fitz- Gerald. Gerald Campbell. 
- Frontispiece to Chapter X. 



3-^5 







CHRISTCHURCH 



CHAPTER XI 

MODERN DUBLIN 



THE Dublin of to-day differs essentially not only 
from the city of the palmy days of the eighteenth 
century, but even from that of the first half of the nine- 




JOHN's LANIC DISTILLERY 

teenth. She has cast off the idiosyncrasies of a pro- 
vincial metropolis, and has put on the cosmopolitan 
sameness characteristic of modern European capitals. 

327 



Dublin To find in her that historic interest which attaches not 
only to cities like Venice, Florence, or Rouen, but even 
to such English towns as Canterbury, Chester, or York, 
we must (live beneath the surface, and search amongst 
her early records. But the Irish capital in losing much 
by the march of progress, has gained many compensating 
advantages. The 'dear, dirty Dublin' of Lady Morgan 
is now a thing of the past. Her streets are wide, well 
kept, and well lighted, and she possesses in her electric 
trams a system of internal communication unsurpassed 
in any European city. Her population which in the 
census for 1805 was 170,094, had risen in that of 1901 
to 289,108, with 32,004 houses within the municipal 
area. Her Viceregal Court, though shorn of some of its 
eighteenth-century magnificence, is wanting neither in 
dignity nor in social attractiveness. She has still her 
unrivalled public buildings, and has added to them 
many modern structures of beauty and interest. Her 
outskirts, in charm and variety of scenery, are un- 
equalled by those of any city in the British dominions. 
She possesses in Kingstown, I3alkey, and Bray, watering- 
places accessible within an hour from the centre of the 
city ; and the bold cliffs of Howth, the pastoral loveli- 
ness of Lucan, the beautiful coast scenery of Killiney, 
and the wild defiles of the Dublin mountains are all 
within easy reach of the resident or visitor. Her 
citizens have in the Phoenix Park a playground in 
extent and variety, rarely if ever equalled in the im- 
mediate vicinity of a city of ecjual population. No fitter 
conclusion can be found for this necessarily brief and 
imperfect sketch of her history than a short description 
of the park and outlets, and of those modern buildings 
to which I have referred. 

On the north-west boundary of Dublin lies a portion 

of the confiscated lands of the Knights of St. John of 

Jerusalem, whose castle at Kilmainham is now the Royal 

Hospital (p. 104). These lands consist of a plateau 

328 



risinL>; from the northern bank of the Liffey, comprising Modern 
within its ench)sure no less than ITGO acres' of wood- Dublin 
land and pasture. On the suppression of the monas- 
teries by Henry viii., these were surrendered to the 
Crown by Sir Jolni Rawson, knight, Prior of Kilmain- 
hani, and in the reign of Charles ii. were enclosed as 
a deer-|)ark by the Viceroy, James, Duke of Ormonde, 
who purchased in addition, by desire of the King, the 
lands of Phccnix and Newtown and part of the lands 
of Chapelizod. The park at this time extended on both 
sides of the Liffey, and was in consequence much exj)osed 
to trespassers, and it was therefore determined to enclose 
the part on the north side of the river. This Sir John 
Temple, afterwards Lord Pahnerston,- undertook to 
perform, on condition of being paid i.'2()0 out of the 
Treasury and of receiving a grant of all the land ex- 
cluded by the park wall from the Dublin gate to 
Chapelizod ; which conditions received His ]\Iajesty''s 
assent.'^ The first ranger of the park was a|)p()inted 
by Charles ii., and about 1751 the Right Honourable 
Nathaniel Clements, father of Lord Leitrim, built a 
handsome lodge, which was purchased from him by 
Government in 1784 as a residence for the Lord- 
Lieutenant, and is now the Viceregal Lodge. About 
the middle of the eighteenth century the park was laid 
out and thrown open to the pubhc by the Karl of 
Chesterfield, Lord-Lieutenant from 1745 to 1747. The 
name of the lands y^^'i'^'i'iTS^' pronounced Fin-isk, i.e. 
'clear water' from a s))ring in or near the present Zoo- 
logical Gardens, had been coriupted into I'luenix. This 
erroneous appellation was perpetuated by the erection 
by the Viceroy on i29th March 1747 ' in the centre of 

' The united areas of Hyde Park and Regent's Park in London 
amount to 860 acres, or something less than one-half the extent of ' The 
I'hdMiix.' 

- The district beyond Chapelizod is called Palmerston or Palnierstown. 

•' .-In Historical Guide to Ancient and Modern Dublin^ by Rev. G. N. 
Wright, Dublin, 1821. 



Dublin the ring of the Deer-park near Dublin ' ^ of a marble 
Corinthian column 30 feet in height, crowned by a 
phoenix rising from gilded flames, in allusion to the 
classical myth. In 1790 we learn from the diary of 
Lieutenant David Thomas Powell, of the 14th Light 
Dragoons, that that regiment was stationed in the 
Phoenix Park.^ Li 1812 the Duke of Richmond stocked 
the park with fallow-deer, of which there are now about 
600, and thirty years later the present keeper's lodge, 
close to the Hibernian Military School, was built over- 
looking the Liffey. In Wrighfs Historical Guide we 
read that ' near the Dublin entrance to the Viceregal 
Lodge, in the bottom of a wooded glen, is a Chalybeate 
Spa, with pleasing ground, and seats for invalids laid out 
at the expense of the Dowager-Duchess of Richmond for 
the public benefit.' Like the Portobello and other Spas 
this has now completely disappeared. 

From the principal or eastern entrance a broad, 
straight, and level road of two miles runs directly 
through the park to the Castleknock gate at its western 
boundary. On the right of the main entrance lie the 
People's Gardens, beautifully laid out and planted, and 
to the credit of the Dublin people be it said, enjoyed to 
the full without injury to the plants or shrubs. Near 
them is the Royal Military Infirmary, north of which is 
the depot of the Royal Irish Constabulary. On the left is 
the massive granite obelisk of the Wellington Memorial, 
sarcastically termed ' The Big Milestone,' having on the 
four sides of its pedestal bronze panels, commemorating 
his victories. Beyond it is the Magazine Fort, the 
subject of Swift's epigram : — 

' Behold a proof of Irish sense ; 
Here Irish wit is seen ! 
When nothing 's left that 's worth defence, 
We build a Magazine.' 

1 Tablet of Memory , Dublin, 1782. 

^ Journal R.S.A.I. for 1901, vol. xxxi. 



Beyond the People's Gardens a turning to the riglit Modern 
leads' to the Zoological Gardens, beautifully situated Dublin 
on the banks of a small artificial lake. The Zoo- 
logical Society of Ireland was instituted in 1831, and 
the gardens laid out and enclosed in 1833 on ground 
granted bv the Duke of Northumberland when Lord- 
Lieutenant. Robert Ball, a clerk in the office of the 
Under-Secretary, was apj)ointed one of the secretaries of 
the Zoological Society in 1837, and was the originator in 
1840 of the penny Sunday admission to the gardens, 
now raised to twopence. He founded the Royal Dublin 
Zoological Society in 1853, and obtained from the 
British Government an annual grant of <i^500, paid 
through the Royal Dublin Society, a sum, however, sadly 
insufficient to maintain the gardens in a state of efficiency. 
The successful rearing of lions adds something to the 
resources of the Society, and private benefactions have 
greatly improved the housing of the birds and larger 
carnivora. The condition of the animals leaves little to 
be desired, the climate of Dublin seeming peculiarly 
suitable for many species, and in fur and feathers the 
inmates contrast favourably with those of most European 
collections. 

Proceeding westward, we pass on the right, before 
reaching the Phoenix cohunn, the Viceregal Lodge on 
the roadway, in view of which occurred the tragic 
assassination of Lord Frederick Cavendish and Mr. 
Thomas Burke (p. 278). Near it are also the resi- 
dences of the Chief and Under Secretaries. In the 
south-west angle is the Hibernian Military School, and 
in the western portion of the park are the Mountjoy 
Barracks, the headciuarters of the Ordnance Survey of 
Ireland. There are many picturesque nooks within the 
park precincts, of which" the prettiest is probably the 
gorse-clad hollow with its quiet pool, near the Knock- 
maroon gate, known as the 'Furry' Glen.^ On the left 
^ i.e. covered with furze or gorse. 

331 



Dublin of the main road is the fine review ground, curiously 
designated the ' Fifteen ' acres, its area being some 200, 
where formerly many notable duels were fought. Within 
the area of the park there are polo, cricket, and football 
grounds. 

In addition to the libraries of Trinity College, the 
College of Physicians, and others already mentioned, 
Dublin possesses a well-arranged and admirably managed 
National Library housed in a handsome modern building 
on the north side of the space in front of Leinster 
House, facing Kildare Street. These premises and the 
similar fine edifice opposite, occupied by the National 
Museum, were erected in 1883 at a cost of .£150,000 
from the designs of Sir Thomas N. Deane, and were 
opened in 1890 by the Earl of Zetland, Lord- Lieutenant. 
The library is entered by a spacious vestibule in the 
form of a horse-shoe, from which a handsome double 
staircase leads to the lofty reading-room, also horse-shoe- 
shaped, measuring 72 feet by 63 feet, finely lit from 
the high domed roof. The books of reference in 
common use are arranged in cases round the walls, the 
remainder are housed on shelves in the wing next Kildare 
Street. This wing is divided into three storeys, and 
again subdivided by perforated iron floors. An intro- 
duction from any respectable resident is generally 
sufficient to secure for tlie applicant all the privileges 
of a reader, and the tireless courtesy of the librarian, 
Mr. T. W. Lyster, is reflected in the intelligent assist- 
ance rendered by all his staff to the numerous visitors to 
the library. 

The National Museum building opposite, with a facade 
200 feet in length, is similar in style. The main struc- 
ture, extending along Kildare Street to Kildare Place, 
consists of a central court and two wings, the former 
surmounted by a dome. The staircases and internal 
decorations are extremely rich in design and execution, 
and the finely carved doors are the workmanship of Carlo 
332 



Gambi of Siena. Entering the huikling, the visitor finds Modern 
himself in a circular vestihide, (50 feet in diainctcr, having Dublin 
a domed roof and a surrounding gallery sup{)orted on 
twenty columns of Irish marble. Beyond tiiis is the 
great central court, 125 feet long and 75 feet wide, 
lighted from above. The central ])orti()n is sunken, and 
the whole of the ground Hooi- paved in mosaic of beautiful 
design. ()pj)osite the entrance is the handsome stair- 
case of Portland stone, with broad marble hanch'ail and 
marble panels, leading to the upper gallery, which is sup- 
ported on iron columns continued to the roof. The most 
interesting ])ortion of the varied contents of the museum 
is the magnificent collection of Irish anti(|uities trans- 
ferred to it by the Royal Irish Academy in 1890, and since 
considerably augmented. These are to be found in part 
of the upper gallery and three adjoining rooms, and com- 
prise early Irish canoes, preserved in the peat bogs, a fine 
series of stones bearing Ogham inscri])tions, neolithic and 
bronze implements antl weapons, a splendid collection of 
early gold ornaments, cinerary urns and a cist from 
Tallaght, with its matrix of earth and gravel. There are 
also models of Irish forts and the remarkable Dum'aven 
series of ])h()togra})hs, illustrative of Irish architecture, 
arranged on folding screens. Of Irish Early Christian art 
the most notable examples are the Cross of Cong, the Ar- 
dagh chalice, St. Patrick's i)ell, and the Tara, Ardagh, and 
Roscrea brooches. The first of these, a processional cross 
made at Roscommon for the diocese of Tuam by order of 
Turlogh O'Connor in 1123, was found by Reverend P. 
Prendergast early in the last century in a village chest, 
purchased by Professor MacCullagh for one hundred 
guineas, and presented by him to the Royal Irish 
Academy. It is made of oak plated with copper, which 
aoain is covered with beautiful cj-old tracery of Celtic 
pattern, measures 2i feet in height, 1 foot 64 inches across 
the arms, and is 1;,' inch thick. In the centre is a large 
quartz crystal, which probably covered the portion of 

333 



Dublin the true cross once enshrined in this cross, as we learn 
from the inscriptions in Irish and in Latin on two of its 
sides. Alon<^ the edges of the shafts and arms were set 
eighteen beads of red and green enamel, of which thirteen 
remain, but of thirteen similar beads, set down the centre 
of the shaft and arms and round the crystal, ten have dis- 
appeared. Of the four surrounding the crystal, the two 
which remain are of blue and white enamel. The Ardagh 
chalice is of silver, ornamented in Celtic designs of gold 
filagree and repousse work and curious enamelled beads, 
St. Patrick's bell, dating from the eleventh century, is 
the oldest relic of Christian metal-work in Ireland. It 
was preserved for centuries in Armagh, and was not im- 
probably used by St. Patrick himself. The Tara brooch 
is familiar to many through the numerous reproductions 
in gold and silver which had some years ago a considerable 
vogue, and are still worn by ladies as shawl fasteners. 
The upper floors of the museum are occupied by an 
herbarium and botanical collection. 

Connected with the Science and Art Museum is the 
building occupied by the Natural History Museum, the 
main entrance to which is on the south side of Leinster 
Lawn facing Merrion Square. This building, designed by 
Captain Foke, R.E., under the superintendence of Dr. R. 
Grifiith, was erected in 1855. The collection of Irish 
fauna is a very complete one, and includes three perfect 
skeletons of the Irish elk {Cervus Giganteus), another of 
which was discovered in Howth in November 1906. On 
the northern side of Leinster Lawn is the National 
Gallery of Ireland, including the National Portrait Gal- 
lery. This gallery had its origin in the Dublin Exhibition 
of 1853, a portion of the site of which it occupies. At 
the close of the exhibition a fund was subscribed to pro- 
vide a memorial to William Dargan, who had contributed 
,£80,000 towards its expenses, and a sum of i?5000 was 
allocated for the purpose of establishing a National 
Gallery for Ireland. By the aid of private donations and 
334 



parliamentary grants the gallery, commenced in 1859, was Modern 
finished at a cost of l''5(),0()0, and opened in 18()4- by the Dublin 
Earl of Carlisle, Lord-Lieutenant. The Portrait Gallery 
also owed its inception to an exhibition, that of 1H72. 
At its elose a number of portraits were purchased, and 
Mr. Henry Doyle, C.B., R.ILA., then Director of the 
National Gallery, set apart a portion of the existing 
gallery for their reception. In 1887 Lord Ivtagh be- 
stowed 1^1000 for the purchase of part of the Challoner 
Smith collection of mezzotints, and the number of por- 
traits increased so rapidly that, in 1903, it was found 
necessary to erect a new wing at a cost of i:'20,000. The 
collection of jiain tings in the National Gallery has grown 
under the fostering care of its three successive directors, 
G. F. Mulvany, R.H.A., Henry Doyle, C.B., R.H.A., 
and Sir Walter Armstrong, and now ranks as one of the 
best of the smaller galleries of Europe, containing a 
fairly representative selection of the Old Masters. Its 
contents have lately received a notable addition in the 
paintings presented by the Countess of Milltown ; and 
possibly a gallery of Modern Art, of which the nucleus 
already exists, may prove an outcome of the Exhibition 
of 1907. 

Dublin possesses, as we have said, great natural ad- 
vantages in the variety and accessibility of its outlets. 
North-east of the city, at a distance of nine miles, lies 
the picturesque promontory of Howth, familiar as a land- 
mark to all visitors who arrive by daylight from Holy- 
head. It was successively a Danish and an Anglo-Norman 
stronghold. Remains of the church of St. Fintan, sup- 
posed to date from the ninth century, still exist, and in 
the Deer-park are the ruins of Corr Castle, a tall sipiare 
building, probably of the sixteenth century. Nor are 
prehistoric remains wanting to add to its interest. In 
the demesne of Lord Howth, premier baron of Ireland by 
tenure, and successor in the title to Sir Almericus Tristram, 
one of the first Anglo-Norman invaders, is a crondech, 

335 



Dublin the upper stone of which weighs about 70 tons. This is 
said to mark the burying-place of Aideen, daughter of 
Angus of Ben Edar (Howth) and wife of Oscar, son of 
Ossian, slain at Gowra, near Tara, a.d. 284. One mile 
north of Howth is the curious wedge-shaped island of 
Ireland's Eye (Danish oe, an island), containing the ruins 
of an ancient chapel founded on the site of a seventh- 
century structure. Howth can be easily reached by rail 
or electric tram, and an electric tram now runs from 
Sutton station to the summit of the hill, returning to the 
Howth terminus of the railway. 

South-east of Dublin and almost due south of Howth 
is Kingstown, the usual place of landing for English 
tourists, and a pleasant seaside resort. This port, known 
as Dunleary prior to the visit of George iv., was long an 
insignificant and dirty village. The only shelter for 
vessels in the eighteenth century was the south-west 
corner of the present harbour, enclosed by the small pier, 
and now used by colliers. The construction of the fine 
harbour, with its massive granite piers, begun in 1817 
and finished in 1859 at a cost of o£'825,000, gave Kings- 
town rank as a first-rate port ; and its subsequent use by 
the mail steamers between England and Ireland as their 
port of arrival and departure conferred much additional 
importance. It is the headquarters of Irish yachting, 
having three clubs located there, the Royal Yacht Club, 
the Royal St. George, and the Royal Irish ; and the 
club-houses of the two latter on the harbour edge are 
picturesque accessories to the fine coup d'ceil from the sea. 
A pavilion lately erected close to the railway terminus 
and Town Hall affords means of amusement to summer 
visitors. Kingstown may be reached by rail from West- 
land Row or by electric tram from the Nelson Pillar. 
Further along the coast is Dalkey, 'occupying the site 
of a fortified town which began to decay some 400 years 
ago. Its port was in mediaeval times not only the Kings- 
town of that age for travellers, but also the place of 
336 



disenibarkatioii for mercliandisc coming to Diihlin, and Modern 
the ancient town, which contained seven stronj^- ensiles, Dublin 
was used as a safe place of stora<^e for the goods until 
the merchants found it convenient to renu)ve them to 
l)id)lin. Only two of the seven castles now remain. One 
formerly known as " the Goafs Castle" now forms portion 
of Dalkey Town Hall ; the other is a fairly complete 
ruin.*' ^ The Castle of Bullock, Danish IJlowick, to which 
a modern house has been attached, overhangs a creek now 
converted into a harbour, and was erected by the Cistercian 
monks of the Abbey of the Blessed Virgin Mary near 
Dublin. It was doubtless intended to protect the coast 
from pirates, as we read in 1633 of the ca))ture of a Dutch 
ship, lying under the very walls of the castle, by a 
privateer claiming to have letters of marque from the 
King of Spain.'- When fears of a French invasion ran 
high the little island which lies opposite Sorrento Point 
was fortified by the erection of one of the Martello towers 
which girdle the coast of the County Dublin. Dalkey 
is now a pleasant summer resort, and is interesting from 
having given name and location to a singular society of 
a century back termed the Kingdom of Dalkey. This 
club, as we would now term it, was originally established 
for the suppression of duelling, and its members were 
known successively as Knights of Tara, Knights of St. 
Patrick, and Officers of the Kingdom of Dalkev. The 
Dublin Morning Post of 22nd September 1792 devoted 
part of its columns to a reproduction of the JJdIknj 
Gazette of 10th September, in which are duly chronicled 
the doings of this club, including the election of a king 
and his proclamations to his subjects. His fjxcetious 
Majesty, Stephen the First, bore the high-sounding titles 
of King of Dalkey, Km|)eror of Muglins, Prince of the 
Holy Island of Magee, Elector of Lambay and Ireland's 
Eye, Defender of his own Faith, and Respecter of all 
others, Sovereign of the Illustrious Order of the Lobster 
^ History of the CouiUy of Dublin, T. EIrington Ball. - Ibid. 

Y 117 



Dublin and Periwinkle. At his coronation he received tribute 
from his faithful subjects of Lambay, north of Howth, 
and the holy knights of Magee, consisting of rabbits, 
cockles, and mushrooms, and after hearing articles of 
impeachment against the Lord Chancellor presented by 
the Order of the Periwinkle, retired to a sumptuous 
banquet, in the course of which a plenipotentiary arrived 
from Bullock with an offering of potatoes, which his 
majesty graciously accepted, conferring the order of 
knighthood on their bearer. The blessing pronounced 
ran as follows : — ' The blessing of the beggar and the 
Clerk of the Crown attend you in all your adventures in 
this life, and the last prayer of the Recorder and of all 
the judges of the Crown circuit attend you in the next.' 
The annual ode at the last meeting of the Society, on 
20th August 1797, is believed to have been contributed 
by Thomas Moore. The Club incurred the suspicion of 
the authorities in those troubled times, and one of its 
members, Mr. T. O'Meara, was privately questioned by 
Lord Clare as to the Kingdom of Dalkey. He informed 
the Lord Chancellor that he held the title of Duke of 
Muglins (small rocks off Dalkey Island), and the 
post of Chief Commissioner of Revenue. On being asked 
what were his emoluments he replied that he was allowed 

to import, duty free, ten thousand hogsheads of 

salt water ! This ended the examination. The last king 
was a bookseller named Armitage, at whose coronation 
20,000 persons are said to have been present. 

South of Dalkey is the craggy hill of Killiney, with a 
beautiful pebbly cove at its foot, cut off from it however 
by the Dublin, Wicklow, and Wexford railway. The 
hill, 480 feet in height, was the property of a family 
named Warren, who had long allowed the public free 
access to the grounds. It was purchased from them for 
,£5000, raised by subscription, and formally opened on 
30th June 1887 by Prince Albert Victor as a public park, 
under the name of Victoria Park, in commemoration of 



the Jubilee of the accession of her late Majesty. The Modern 
siiniinit is crowned by an ()i)elisk erected in 1741 to <fivc' Dublin 
employment, to the poor. South of it is a smaller obelisk 
in memory of the youn^ Duke of Dorset, killed here in 
1815 by a fall from his horse while huntin<^. The ruins 
of Killiney church are of considerable antiquarian interest, 
dating possibly from the seventh century. Of the original 
building the west gable, with its square-headed doorway, 
the circular choir arch, only Ci feet in height, and the 
east window with inwardly inclined splays still remain. 
Further south is the bold headland at whose foot nestles 
Bray, a fashionable watering-place with good hotels, golf 
links, and a fine esplanade. 

The visitor to Dublin who takes either the Harold's 
Cross or Kathmines tram to Terenure can proceed thence 
by steam tram to IJlessington. Passing Tem})leogue — 
where once resided Charles Lever — Tallaght, of consider- 
able interest in the civil and ecclesiastical history of 
Dublin, and leaving to the left the reservoir of llath- 
mines township water supply, the little town of lilessington 
is reached. It returned two members to the Ii'ish Parlia- 
ment, but is now a place of no imj)ortance. Close to it 
is the pictures(jue waterfall of Pollaphuca, where the 
LitFey descends by a series of falls 150 feet in height, the 
gorge being spanned by a high bi-idge of a single arch. 
From Blessington the defiles of the Dublin and Wicklow 
mountains may be explored by the pedestrian. 

Vet another steam tram runs from the main gate of 
the Pluenix Park, close to King's Bridge, along the course 
of the Liffey by Chapeli/od and Palmerstown to Lucaii, 
the site of a fashionable eighteenth-century 8pa, which 
had fallen into complete neglect. Of late years a new 
Hydropathic and S})a Hotel has been established, com- 
municating by a subway under the road with the Pump- 
room in the demesne of Lucan House. In the grounds 
of the latter are the remains of the castle of the Sarsfields, 
created by James ii. Earls of Lucan. 

339 



Dublin To travel further afield would transgress the limits of 

the present vohime, but its author felt that it would be 
impossible to convey any adequate idea of the Dublin of 
to-day without some brief allusion to its charming out- 
skirts. In the trading competition of the times we live 
in Dublin has, as a manufacturing or even as a distribut- 
ing centre, fallen into the background ; but she still 
possesses her social traditions, her literary and artistic 
culture, and her unique advantages of natural situation. 
What the future has in store for her who can say ? She 
will share the fortunes of the island whose metropolis, 
now more than ever in the past, she can claim to be ; 
and will be fitted now as before to lead the intellectual 
progress of the country, and to take her place in the 
forefront of every movement for the regeneration of a 
united Ireland. 




ON THE QUAYS 



340 



APPENDIX I 



ITINERARY 



For the visitor to Dublin the centre of tlie city may be 
taken as College Green, which has the advantage of being 
accessible by tram from all the southern suburbs, as well as 
from Inchicore, Drumcondra, Glasnevin, and the Phaniix 
Park. The Clontarf and Howth line alone approaches it 
no more nearly than the Nelson Column, which is the starting 
point for several lines of tramways. The whole system of 
electric tramways, being in the hands of one Company, 
affords a convenient and speedy mode of access to ahnost 
any locality of the city or suburbs. A list of the various 
lines will be found at the end of this itinerary. 

Starting from the western extremity of College Green, 
Trinili/ College will first be visited (pp. ll.'MoG). Leaving 
the College by the main entrance the old Houses of Parlia- 
ment, now the premises of The Bank of Ireland, may be 
inspected (p. i()l), and proceeding east by College Green and 
Dame Sti-eet Dublin Castle (pp. [)i)-\0'i) is reached on the left, 
on the high ground at the toj) of the street. The lower 
Castle-yard is entered from Palace Street, the corner of 
which is occui)ied by the Munster and Leinster Hank. From 
the lower Castle-yard the visitor passes east through an 
archway into the upper Castle-yard, which may be left by 
the main gateway opening on Cork-hill, on which stands the 
Citij Hall formerly the Royal l-'.xchange (p. iitO). Proceeding 
north from the front of this building by Parliament Street 
the Lirtey is crossed by Grattan, formerly Essex Bridge; 



Dublin and continuing north ])y Capel Street the remains of St. 
Mari/'s Abbey may be visited. Returning to the Hne of the 
northern quays a walk of five minutes along the river brings 
us to the Four Courts (pp. 1 70-1 72). Continuing to follow the 
north quays the Royal Barracks is passed on the right and 
King's Bridge with the terminus of the Great Southern and 
Western Railway aci-oss the river, on the left. Bending 
slightly to the right by Park Gate Street the main gate of 
the Phoenix Parle (pp. .S28-3o2) is reached ; entering which 
the People's Gardens lie to the right, and the Wellington 
Memorial Obelisk to the left. Further on a turning to the 
right leads to the Zoological Gardens, and still further the 
Viceregal Lodge is seen, also to the right, beyond which 
stands the Phoenix Column. 

Returning to the main entrance, crossing King's Bridge 
and turning to the right by the railway terminus we reach 
south-west of it Kilmainham Hospital (pp. 103-108), leaving 
which by the south entrance, and returning east by Kil- 
mainham Lane and Bow Lane the South Dublin Union 
Workhouse is passed right, and Swift's Hospital left (p. 183), 
north of which, in Steevens' Lane, is Steevens Hospital 
(p. 183). Continuing west along James' Street the James' 
Gate Breivery of A. Guinness, Son and Company is reached 
right. Proceeding by Thomas Street, and passing right, 
St. Catherine's Church (p. 208), and left the Roman Catholic 
Church of SS. Augustine and John (p. 286), we meet in Corn 
Market St. Audoens Church (p. .52), north of which is St. 
Audoen's Arch. Bending right we enter Back Lane, left of 
which is Taylors' Hall (p. 238). Returning to Corn Market 
and bending left, by High Street, Christ Church is reached 
with the Synod Hall connected with it by the archway 
across tlie upper end of Winetavern Street (pp. l.Q-30). 
Turning right, at the east extremity of Christ Church Place, 
we enter St. Werburgh Street with St. Werburgh's Church 
left (p. 209) ; and continuing along Bride Street we turn 
right by Bull Alley into Patrick Street, right of which is 
St. Patrick's Cathedral (pp. 56-66). Leaving the Cathedral 
by Guinness Street Marsh's Library is passed left ; and pro- 
ceeding by Kevin Street Upper and Cross Kevin Street into 
Peter Street left, we reach Whitefriar Street Church of the 
342 



Canneliles (p. 28 ')). Leaving tlie church, crossing Aiingier Itinerary 
Street into York Street, and following that street we reach 
St. Stephen's Green west with the College of Surirrovs on the 
left-hand corner leaving "\'ork Street. P'rom this we can 
return by Grafton Street, the most fashionable business 
street in Dublin, to our starting-])oint at Trinity College,, 
passing left in (irafton Street the Church oj' Ihe Discalced 
CarincUles in Clarendon Street (p. 282). 

It will be easily understood that the above would form a 
two days' excursion for all whose stay in the Irish metropolis 
is not a very limited one. Other visitors are recommended 
on returning to the main entrance to Pha*ni.\ Park (p. 342) 
to proceed by tram to O'Connell Bridge, whence trams may 
easily be taken to almost any place in the city or suburbs. 
The second part of the excursion may then be recommenced 
on a future occasion at King's Bridge, or taken in reverse 
order from College Green. 

Starting again from that point of departure and proceed- 
ing north by Westmoreland Street across O'Connell Bridge, 
we may turn right along Eden Quay to the Custovi House 
(j). 167). Returning to the O'Connell Monument we once 
more proceed north to the Nelson Column, passing left the 
General Post Office. Still continuing north of the Colunni 
the first turning right, Tyrone Place, leads to Marlborough 
Street, following which north we pass between left the 
Roman Catholic Pro-Colhedral (^p. 288) and right, Ti/ronc House 
(p. 311), now the Central Model Schools. Beyond the 
former right is St. Thomas' Church (p. 2()<)). Turning by the 
latter down Findlater Place left, we return to Sackville Street, 
at the head of which, at the intersection of (ireat Britain 
Street, is The Rotunda (p. 186). Leaving this left and pro- 
ceeding north along Rutland Square east we reach b'indlatcr's 
Church (Presbyterian) (p. 2yi), and turning left by Rutland 
Square north a few yards' walking brings us to Charlemonl 
House, now the office of the Registrar-Cieneral. Returning 
to Findlater's Church, and crossing into Ciardiner's Row and 
its continuation Great Denmai'k Street we pass left. Belvedere 
College (p. 31.']), and turning left into Temple Street Upper, 
we reach .S7. Ceorge's Church (p. 27})), beyond which turning 
right into Dorset Street, the second turning right, (iardiner 

343 



Dublin Street Upper brings us to left, the Jesuit Church of St. 
Francis Xavier. Returning to Dorset Street, and following 
that street right to the North Circular Road, a few hundred 
yards left along the latter brings us to the Roman Catholic 
Church of St. Peter's, Phibshorough (p. 283). Retracing our 
steps by the North Circular Road, the first tram line right, 
leads by the Mater Misericordi* Hospital along Berkeley 
Street and Blessington Street left back to Dorset Street, 
following which right to the intersection of Dominick Street 
Upper and Lower we meet on the corner of the latter left 
the Dominican Church of St. Saviour (p. 284). Following 
Bolton Street, the continuation of Dorset Street to Henrietta 
Street left, we see, facing the head of the latter street. The 
King's Inns and Law Library (p. 172), south of which are the 
Linenhall Barracks. Returning by Henrietta Street, and 
proceeding along the latter to right North King Street, that 
thoroughfare will lead us to left Blackball Place, centre of 
the old Danish district of Ostmanstown or Oxmantown, in 
which is situated the Blue Coat or King's Hospital (p. 109). 
Following Blackball Place south we again reach the northern 
quays ; and returning by Ellis' and Arran Quays, past the 
Roman Catholic Church of St. Paul, we reach, opposite 
Whitworth Bridge, Church Street, on the left of which are 
situated the Capuchin Church of St. Mary of the Angels and 
the Protestant Church of St. Michan (p. 18). Retracing our 
steps to the Quays we again return to O'Connell Bridge. 

Once more starting from College Green, proceeding south 
past the Provost's House in Grafton Street, and following 
the College wall into Nassau Street, formerly St. Patrick's 
Well Lane, the first turning right is Dawson Street, on 
the left of which are St. Anns Church (p. 281), the Royal 
Irish Academy (p. l62), and the Mansion House (p. 243). 
Proceeding into St. Stephen's Green north and turning left 
the first sti-eet left is Kildare Street. Passing right the 
buildings of the Church of Ireland Training College and the 
statue of Lord Plunkett in Kildare Place, we reach the 
premises of the Royal Dublin Society with the National 
Library (p. 332) left, and the Mu.seum (p. 332) right, 
Leinster House (p. 310) forming the central background. 
From the south-east exit of the Natural History Museum in 

344 



Leinster Lawn The National Gallery (p. 334) may be visited. Itinerary 
and the visitor can return by the north-east corner of Leinster 
House to Kildare Street. Opposite in Molesworth Street 
is the Masonic Hall. Beyond the National Library on the 
right of Kildare Street is the College of P/n/.siciafis (p. 293). 
Again returning to St. Stephen's Green and turning left by 
its north and east sides, in the latter of which is the College 
of Science, into Karlsfort Terrace we pass right the Royal 
University, on the site of the Exhibition of 1865 (p. 278), 
opposite to which are the Alexandra College and School. 
At the back of the University buildings are the gardens of 
Lord Iveagh's residence. Returning to St. Stephen's Green 
South we pass the Catholic University with its C/iapel (p. 28f)), 
and turn left into Harcourt Street at the head of which is 
the terminus of the Dublin and South Eastern, formerly 
the Dublin VVicklow and Wexford Railway. From this point 
the Ratlnnines tram may be taken to Terenure, wlience 
Rathfarnham may be visited by electric tram, or the steam 
tram taken to lilcxxinglon and Pollap/iiira (j). 339). Lman 
(p. 33<)) can be reached by electric tram from Park Gate Street 
(Route 1); and Kingstown and Dalkey either by electric 
tram from the Nelson Column or by rail from VVestland Row- 
terminus. Kil/iney and Brai/ (p. 338) are accessible by rail, 
either from the latter or from the Harcoin-t Street terminus 
of the Dublin and South-Eastern Railway. The grounds 
of the 1907 Kxliilnliou can be reached by Donnybrook, 
Rlackrock, or Dalkey trams from the Nelson Column or from 
College (ireen, and ])robably arrangements will be made by 
the l)ublin United Tramways Company for through cars from 
all the ]irincipal suburbs. 



345 



APPENDIX II 

DUBLIN TRAMWAYS 

Ballybough and Park Gate Street Line 

From Park Gate (north side of Kincr's Bridge) by northern 
quays to Grattan Bridge, thence by Capel Street, Great 
Britain Street, Summer Hill, and Ballybough Road to the 
Tolka at Ballybough Bridge. 

Clonskea Line 

From the Nelson Column (south side) by Sackville Street, 
Westmoreland Street, Nassau Street, Dawson Street, St. 
Stephen's Green North and East, Leeson Street Lower and 
Upper, The Appian Way, Chelmsford Road, Cullenswood 
Road, and Sandford Road to Clonskea. 

Clontarf, Dollymount, and Howth Line 

From the Nelson Column (north side) by North Earl 
Street, Talbot Street, Amiens Street, North Strand, Clontarf, 
and Dollymount (for North Bull Golf Links), and thence by 
Sutton to Howth. 

Tram from Sutton to Howth Summit, and thence to 
Howth railway terminus. 

Dalkey, Kingstown, and Blackrock Line 

From the Nelson Column (south side) by Sackville Street, 
Westmoreland Street, Grafton Street, Nassau Street, Merrion 



Square North, Mount Street Lower, Northumberland Mom], Dublin 
Pembroke Road, Ball's Bridge, Merrion Road, Booterstown, Trani- 
BlacUrock, Monkstown, and Kingstown to Dalkey. ways 

Dommun's Bahn and Glasnevin Line 

From Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, by Glasnevin Road, 
Phibsboroiigh Road, North Circular Road, Berkeley Road, 
Blessington Street, North Frederick Street, Rutland Square 
East, and Sackville Street; thence by the Harold's Cross 
line (f/.r.) to Clanbrassil Street, where it diverges by South 
Circular Road to the Grand Canal at Rialto Bridge. 

DoNNYBROOK AND PhCENIX PaRK LiNE 

From Phoenix Park (North Circular Road Gate) by North 
Circular Road, Berkeley Road, Blessington Street, North 
Frederick Street, Rutland Square East, Sackville Street, 
Westmoreland Street, Grafton Street, Nassau Street, Merrion 
Square North and East, Baggot Street, Waterloo Road, and 
Morehampton Road to the Dodder at Donnybrook Bridge. 

Harold's Cross and Rathkarnham to Drumcondra 

From Drumcondra Bridge (over the Tolka) by Drumcondra 
Road, Dorset Street Lower, Blessington Street, North 
Frederick Street, Rutland S(|uare East, Sackville Street, 
Westmoreland Street, College Green, South Great George's 
Street, Aungier Street, Camden Street, Harrington Street, 
Clanbrassil Street, and Harold's Cross Road to Terenure, and 
thence to Rathftirnhani. 

Another line runs from Whitehall (Drumcondra Road) 
by Dorset Street Lower and -Upper, Bolton Street, Capel 
Street, Grattan Bridge, Parliament Street, and Dame Street 
to College (ireen. 

Inchicore Line 

From Westland Row by Merrion Street Upper, Lincoln 
Place, Nassau Street, College Green, Dame Street, Lord 

347 



Dublin Edward Street, Christchurch Place, High Street, Thomas 
Street, James' Street, Mount Brown, and Old Kilmainham 
to Richmond Military Barracks and Inchicore. 

Kenilworth Road and Lansdowne Road 

From Kenilworth Road (corner of Harold's Cross Road) 
by Kenilworth Square, Grosvenor Road, Castlewood Avenue 
(Rathmines), Belgrave Square North, Charleston Iload, 
Chelmsford Road, The Appian Way, Waterloo Road, and 
Pembroke Road to corner of Lansdowne Road, where it 
connects with the Dalkey line. 

King's Bridge Line 

From King's Bridge (south side) by the southern quays 
to O'Connell Bridge, thence by D'Olier Street, Great 
Brunswick Street, Westland Row (terminus of Dublin and 
Kingstown Railway), Merrion Square West, Merrion Row, 
St. Stephen's Green East, Earlsfort Terrace, Hatch Street 
to Harcourt Street (terminus of Dublin and South-Eastern 
Railway). 

Another line runs from Park Gate (north side of King's 
Bridge) by the northern quays to O'Connell Bridge. 

Rathmines and Terenure Line 

From the Nelson Column (south side) by Sackville Street, 
Westmoreland Street, Grafton Street, Nassau Street, Dawson 
Street, St. Stephen's Green West, Harcourt Street, Rich- 
mond Street, Rathmines and Rathgar Roads to Terenure, 
close to the terminus of the Dublin and Blessington steam 
tram. 

Another line branches from the former at the foot of 
Rathgar Road (Rathmines) and proceeds by Rathmines 
Upper and Dartry Road to the Dodder near Milltown. 

Palmerston Park Line 

From the Nelson Column (south side) by Sackville Street, 
Westmoreland Street, College Green, South Great George's 
348 



Street, Aim<;icr Street, (lamden Street, Charlcmont Street, Dublin 
Kanel.i^Ii Road, Charleston Road, Rel^rave S(|uare, and Trani- 
Palmerston Road to I'ahnerston Park (Ratlnnines Upper). ways 

Sandvmount Line 

From the Nelson Column (south side) by Sackville Street, 
O'Connell IJridge, D'Olier Street, South (Ireat Brunswick 
Street, Rinijfseiul Road, Irishtown Road, Tritonville Road, 
and Sandymount Road to the Martello Tower overlooking 
Sandymount Strand. 

Another line runs via Sackville Street, O'Connell Bridge, 
Westmoreland Street, Nassau Street, Merrion Square North, 
Mount Street Lower, Northumberland Road, Haddington 
Road, Bath Avenue, London Bridge Road, Tritonville Road, 
and Sandymount Road to Sandymount (ireen. 



349 



INDEX 



Abbey Street, 17. 

- — - Theatre, 269. 

Abington, Mrs. Frances, 251. 

Acis and Galatea, 194. 

Act of Union, 164. 

' Addison's Walk,' 207, 323. 

yEthelfiaed, Queen, 5. 

^thelstaii. King, 6. 

Albert Memorial, 299. 

Aldborough House, 312. 

Alexandra, Queen, 276. 

Allen, Archbishop John, 46. 

All Hallows, Priory of, 114, 122, 133, 

212, 224. 
Andrew, Provost Francis, 119, 134. 
.inglo-Saxon Chronicle, 7. 
Anna Liffey, derivation of name, 

169. 
Anne, Queen, 122. 
' Antient Britons,' 161. 
Apprentices, regulations with regard 

to, 232. 
Archbold, Danish sept of, 49. 
Ardee, 7. 

Arklow, 15, 16, 225. 
Armagh, Book of, 128. 
Arran Bridge, 95. 
Artane, murder of Archbishop Allen 

at, 47, 94. 
Ath-buidhe-Tlachtghe (Athboy), 14. 
Ath Cliath, Irish name of Dublin, 

3- 
Aulaf, or Olav, the White, 5. 

son of Godfrey, 6, 9. 

Aulaf Cuaran, 8, 9. 
Aungier Street Theatre, 247. 

Back Lane, 52, 116. 
Badge, King John's, 38, 66. 



Baggotrath, manor-house, castle, 
and lands of, 50, 87, 94, 116, 
146. 

Balbriggan hosiery, 182. 

Baldwin, Provost Richard, 119, 125, 
130, 187. 

Balfe, Michael William, 317. 

Ballast Board, Dublin, 141, 146. 

Ball, Sir Robert, 135. 

Ball's Bridge, 134, 150. 

Balloon ascents from Dublin, 189. 

Ballybough Bridge, stake weir at, 

17- 

Bank of Ireland, 154, 164. 

Banks, Joseph, R.A., statues by, 
169, 

Banquets, City, 229. 

Barber-Surgeons, Gild of, 225. 

Barlow, Jane, D. Litt., 120. 

Barrack Bridge, 107. 

Barrett, Provost 'Jacky,' 121. 

Barry, Mrs. Ann, 252. 

Spranger, 251, 317. 

Basilea, sister of Strongbow, 24. 

Bedford Asylum, 163. 

Tower, 101. 

Beggars Opera, performed by chil- 
dren in Dublin, 192. 

Bellabroa, or Bellahoe, battle of, 
70. 

Bellamy, Mrs. George Ann, 247, 

317- 

Belvedere House, 180, 313. 

Ben Edair (Howth), 3. 

Beresford, Lord John George, Arch- 
bishop of Armagh, 125, 130. 

Right Honourable John, 159, 

167. 

Bermingham Tower, 97, 100. 



Blacriire, son of Godfrey, 6. 

' Black Dog' prison, 205. 

lilessinglon, tram to, 339. 

Blood, Colonel, his attempt on the 

life of the Uuke of Ormonde, 89, 

90. 
'Bloody Bridge,' 90, 95, 107. 
' Bloody Fields,' 37, 86. 
Blowick (Hullock), 16, 44. 
Blue Coat School, founded, 89, 96, 

no, 151. 
Boher-na-gloch, meaning of, 4. 
Borlace, Sir John, Lord Justice, 

8t. 
' Bossi work,' 181. 
Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, 207. 
Trinity College, Dublin, 

134- 
' Botany Bay,' 127. 
' Bottle Riot," the, 264. 
Bowling-greens, 183. 
Boyd, Captain John M'Neill, R.N., 

65- 
Boyle, Richard, Karl of Cork, 61, 64, 

79, 2IO. 

Boyne, battle of, 93. 

Bradogue stream, 145. 

Brand(jn, Countess of, 180. 

Breagha, kinj^dom of, 6. 

Breifne (Brefifni), principality of, 14. 

Brian Born, King of Ireland, 9, 10, 

129. 
Bridge Street, 95. 
Brinkley, Reverend John, 134. 
Brodar, son of Thorkill, Danish 

chieftain, 14. 
Browne, Colonel, and the police 

charge at Trinity College, 122. 

Peter, Latin panegyric by, 118. 

Bruce, Kdward, invasion of Ireland 

by, 40, 56. 
Brunanburh (Brumby), battle of, 6. 
Bryant, Sophie, D. Lilt., 120. 
' Bucks' and ' Bloods,' 204. 
Bulkeley, Archbishop Launcelot, 79. 
' Bully's Acre,' 109. 
Burke, Kdmund, 125, 299, 315. 

Thomas H., murder of, 278. 

Butcher, Samuel, D. D. , Bishop of 

Meath, 124. 
Buu Bridge, 298. 
Buttevant 'Tower, 145. 

Caik .'Xbroc (York), 6. 



Cairns, Hugh M'Calmont, Chancellor, Index 

Uubhn University, 130. 
Calcraft, J. W., lessee. Theatre 

Royal, Dublin, 265. 
Capel Street, 40. 
Carew, Sir George, 77. 
Carlisle Bridge, 161, 162, 167, 298. 
Carmelites, Discalced, n6, 154, 282. 
Carolan, 'Turlough, 64. 
Carroll, King of Leinster, 5. 
Gary's Hospital, 164. 
Cassels, Richard, 125, 129, 131, 164, 

185. 
Castleknock, 40, 85. 
Castle market, opened, 141. 
Castle steps, the, 52. 
Castle Street ( Vicus Castri), 98, 100, 

179. 
Castiercagh, VLscount, 160. 
Cathedrals : — 

Christchurch, 12, 19, etc. 
St. Patrick's, 56, etc. 
Catley, Anne, 188. 
Cemeteries, Dublin, 306. 
' Chain Book,' the, 232, 242. 
Challoner, Lucas, 115. 
Chambers, Sir William, 124, 125. 
(Channel Row Nunnery, 96, 194. 
( 'hapelizod, 146 n. 
Cha[5pel, William, 116. 
Charitable Infirmary, the, 183. 

Musical Society, the, 184. 

Charlemont, James Caulfield, Earl 
of, ig6. 

House, 178, 180, 196, 311. 

Chequer Lane, 172, 178. 

Chester, 5. 

Chichester, Sir Arthur, 78, 99. 

House, 164. 

Churches : — 

Chiircli of Ireland — 

Albert Chapel, 281. 

St. Andrew's, 17, 97, 163. 

St. Ann's, 141, 208, 281. 

St. Audoen's, 37, 52, elc. , 85. 

St. Bartholomew's, 28 r. 

St. Bride's, 96, 208. 

St. Catherine's, 208. 

St. George's (Hardwicke Street), 
280. 

St. Luke's, 141. 

St. Mark's, 209. 

St. Mary's (Mountjoy Street), 



281. 



351 



Dublin Churches — continued. 

Church of Ireland — 
St. Matthew's, Irishtown, 208. 
St. Michan's, 17, 18, 96, 194. 
St. Stephen's (Upper Mount 

Street), 280. 
St. Thomas's, 208, 209. 
St. Werburgh's, 14, 95, 209. 
Romayt Catholic — 
Pro-Cathedral, 288. 
St. Andrew's (Westland Row), 

289. 
SS. Augustine and John, 287. 
St. Francis of Assisi, 284. 
St. Francis Xavier, 282. 
St. Mary of the Angels, 285. 
St. Paul of the Cross (Mount 

Argus), 287. 
St. Peter's (PhibsVjorough), 283. 
St. Saviour's, 284. 
St. Theresa's, 282. 
Catholic University Chapel, 289. 
Our Lady of Mount Carmel, 

285. 
Our Lady of Refuge (Rath- 

mines), 290. 
Three Patrons (Rathgar), 290. 
Baptist— 

Harcourt Street, 291. 
Presbyterian — 

Findlater's Church, 291. 
Unitarian — 

St. Stephen's Green, West, 291. 
Wesley an Methodist — 
Centenary Chapel, 291. 
Church Lane, 17. 
Gibber, Mrs., 193. 
City Hall, 153, 240. 

Theatre, the, Capel Street, 253. 

Clane, Militia regiment at, 161. 
Clarence, George, Duke of, 44. 

Lionel, Duke of, 42, 98. 

Thomas, Duke of, 43. 

Clarendon, Earl of, 91. 
Cloncurry, Lord, 191. 
Clonliffe, 259. 
Clontarf, battle of, 10, 17. 
Coburg Gardens, the, 274. 
Codex Usserianus, 129. 

'/,, 129. 

Collar of SS, presented to Lord 

Mayor of Dublin, 89, 218. 
College Green, 14, 17. 
Park, the, 131. 



Collet's Inn, 172. 

Commercial Buildings, the, 163. 

Comyn, Archbishop, 36, 37, 38, 56. 

Coote, Sir Charles, 83. 

Conchobar (Connor), son of Flann, 

5- 

O'Melaghlin, 13. 

Conduit, the City, 301. 
Confey, near Lei.xlip, 5. 
Conghalach defeats and slays Bla- 

caire, 7, 8. 
slain by Aulaf, son of Godfrey, 

9- 
Constantine, King of Scots, at Brun- 

anburh, 6. 
Constitution Hill, 172, 173. 
Conyngham, Right Hon. William, 

129, 171. 
Coombe, the, 156, 224. 
Cork Hill, 14, loi. 

House, 82, 240. 

Tower, 100. 

Cornewalshe, James, 50. 
Cornmarket, 52. 
Corporation, Dublin, 218, etc. 
Crampton Memorial, 146. 
Crane, the, 77. 
Cromwell, Henry, 89. 

Oliver, 88. 

Cristin the Ostman, 35. 

Cross of Cong, the, 26, 333. 

Crow Street Theatre, 195, 250, 256, 

257, 260, 262. 
Crumlin, plundered and burnt by the 

O'Byrnes, 77. 
Cullen's Wood, slaughter of the 

citizens in, 37. 
Curragh of Kildare, 9. 
Curran, John Philpot, 64. 

Sarah, 272. 

Cusack, Thomas, 217. 

Custom House, the, TJ, 141, 145, 

150, 160, 162, 164, 167, etc., 200. 

Dalcassians, the, household troops 

of Brian Boru, 8, 11. 
Dalkey, 16, 336. 
Daly, Richard, 257. 
Dame's Gate, 14, 94, 141. 
Dame Street, 14, 97, 141, 163, 197. 
D'Amici family, the, 192. 
Dangers of the streets, 197. 
Danish relics, 11. 
Dargan, William, 277, 299. 



Davis, Sir William, 17. 

de Bicknor, Archbishop Alexander, 

41. 
de Burgh, Richard, 40. 

William, 42. 

de Cogan, Miles, 14. 

de Glanville, Ranulf, 36. 

de la Boullaye le Gouz, Monsieur, 

95- 
de Lacy, Hugh, Bailli of Dublin, 34, 
de Loundres, Archbishop Henry, 38, 

56. 97- 
de Lucy, Sir Antoine, 41. 
de Rokeby, Sir Thomas, 49. 
de Saundeford, Archbishop Fulk, 62. 
de St. Paul, Jolin, 24. 
de Vere, Robert, Earl of Oxford, 42. 
de Wikeford, Archbishop, 56. 
Delany, Dr. Patrick, Dean of Down, 

128, 323. 
Delgany, battle of, 12. 
Derrick's views, 100. 
Dethyke, Mr. , letter of, 50. 
Devlin stream, the, 15. 
Diarmaid mac Murchadh (Dermot 

MacMurrough), 13. 
Diarmaid, son of Donnchadh, Mael- 

na-mbo, 13. 
Dimma, The Book of, 128. 
Dirty Lane, 163. 

Dixon, Professor W. MacNeile, 120. 
Dodder Stream, the, 150, 303. 
Doggett, Thomas, 212, 317. 
Domhnall mac Murchadh, the Fat, 

13- 
Doncha M'Donnell, King of Lein- 

ster, 9. 
Donnybrook, 150. 
Dopping, Anthony, 119. 
Down Survey, the, 146. 
Drake, John, 44, 217, 221. 
Drapier s Letters, the, 144. 
Drew, Sir Thomas, R.H.A., 27, 53, 

59, 61, 63, 64, 126. 
Drogheda Street, 179, 185. 
Drunimond, Thomas, 242. 
Drunkenness, eighteenth century, 

206. 
Dubhgall, son of Aulaf, 11. 
Dubhgall's Bridge, 11. 
Dublina, Princess, 3. 
Dublin Castle, 38, 73, 96, etc. 
Dubourg, Matthesv, 193. 
Ducrow's Circus, 264. 



Duelling, eighteenth century, 206. 

Duke's Lawn, the, 183. 

Dun, Sir Patrick, 274, 294, 306. 

Dungan's Hill, 85. 

Dunleary, now Kingstown, 276. 

Dunsink Observaiory, the, 131, 134. 

Diirtow, The Book of, 128. 

Duv Gall, the (Black Strangers), 4. 

Linn, or DiHyn, 4. 

Eachmakcach, goes ' beyond seas,' 

13- 
Eadred, King of Northumbria, 8. 
Edmund, King, baptizes Godfrey, 

son of Sitric, 8. 
Edward 11., King, 40. 

VII., King, 276. 

Egils, Scandinavian mercenary, 6. 
Elizabeth, Queen, 72, 77, 115, 125, 

133- 
Elwood, Dr., Vice- Provost, Trinity 

College, Dublin, 129. 
Enimett, Robert, 151, 271, 323. 
Thomas, member of Executive 

Directory, United Irishmen, 159. 
English opera, vogue of, 253. 
Essex Bridge, 17, 55, 95, 141, 144, 

156, 243, 298. 
Esmonde, Doctor, officer in Militia 

regiment, 161. 
Exchequer Street, formerly .St. 

George's Lane, 172. 
Exhibitions, Dublin, 277, 278, 345. 

Fagel Library, the, 127. 

Farquhar, George, 246, 247. 

Faughart, battle of, 41. 

Faulkner, George, 187. 

Faulkner's Journal, 193. 

Fenian Conspiracy, the, 277. 

Fin Gall (White Strangers), the, 4, 16. 

Fingall, Earl of, 4, 83. 

Finglas, near Dublin, 85, 93. 

Fishamble Street Music Hall, 192, 

259- 
I'^itz-Gerald, Lord Edward, 159, 160, 

211, 324. 
Fitzgibbon, lohn. Earl of Clare, 12=;, 

158. 323- 
Htz-Henry, Meiler, 97. 
Fitzsimons, Alderman John, 98. 
Fitzstephen, Robert, 19. 
FitzSymonds, James, 70. 
FitzWilliam, Lord, 138, 167. 

353 



Index 



Dublin Fleet Street, 165. 

Fleetwood, General, 88. 
Flood, Henry, 130. 
Fly-boats, on the canals, 305. 
Footpads and highwaymen, 202. 
Fort Carew, threatened by insurgents, 

82. 
Four Courts, the, 162, 164, 170, etc. 
Four Courts Marshalsea, the, 212. 
Franchis^s of Dublin, riding the, 

223. 
Frederick, Prince of Wales, 130. 
Freedom of the City, 236. 
Fullerton, James, Master of Dublin 

Grammar School, 115. 

Gaiety Theatre, the, 267. 

Gallows Green, 89. 

Gandon, James, 165, 168, 169, 170, 

173- 
Garret Oge, son of 'the Great Earl,' 

Lord Deputy, 46 ; dies in the 

Tower, 48. 
Garrick, David, 248. 
Gaveston, Piers, Lord-Lieutenant, 

40. 
Geminiani, Italian musician, 187, 

192. 
General Post Office, 142, 273, 295. 
George i. , 144, 243. 

II., 153- 

in., 134, 242. 

IV., 121, 263, 275. 

of Denmark, Prince, 147. 

George's Lane, 185, 247. 

Quay, 200. 

Geraldines, the, feuds with the 

Butlers, 46. 
Gilbert, Sir John T., 243. 
Gilds, Dublin, 216, 219. 
Gild of St. George, 221. 
Gild Halls, 230, 238. 
Glenmalure, Pass of, 74, 76. 
Glennmama, battle of, 10. 
Glen Southwell, cromlech at, 6. 
Godfrey, or Guthfrith, King of Dub- 
lin, 6. 
Godfrey, son of Sitric, first Christian 

Danish king, 8. 
'Godless Florin,' the, 171 n. 
Goldsmith, Oliver, 299. 
Gormflaith, daughter of Murchadh, 

marries Brian Boru, 9. 
Grafton Street, 94, 133, 162. 

354 



Grand Canal, the, 162, 303, 305. 
Grattan, Henry, 130, 157, 158, 242, 
299, 320. 

Bridge, 145, 146, 151, 156, 298. 

Grattan's Parliament, 158. 

Gray, Sir John, 299, 303. 
Great George's Street, South, 197. 
Great Southern and Western Rail- 
way, 107. 
Grey, Arthur, Lord Grey de Wilton, 

74- 
Guinness, Sir Benjamin Lee, restores 

St. Patrick's Cathedral, 58. 
Gunn, Michael, builds Gaiety 

Theatre, 267. 
Gyda, marries Olaf Trygvasson, 8. 

Hadrian iv., Pope, Bull of, 34. 

Haliday, Charles, author of Scandi- 
navian Kingdom of Dublin, 321. 

Hamilton, Edwin, author of Tnrko 
the Terrible, 268. 

James, Master of Dublin 

Grammar School, 115. 

Sir William Rowan, 121, 135, 

321. 

Hugh Douglas, miniature- 
painter, 185. 

Handel, George Frederick, visits 

Dublin, 192. 
Harold, Danish sept of, 49. 
Harold's Cross, 199, 272. 
Hasculf, son of Raghnall, last Danish 

King of Dublin, 14, 17. 
Hawkins' Street, iS, 146, 180. 
Head-dresses, eighteenth century, 

187. 
Hell Fire Club, the, 204. 
Henrietta Street, 162, 172, 173. 
Henry 11., 13, 33, 97. 
IV., 43- 



V. , 105. 
VII., 49. 
VIII., 69, 



105. 



High School, the, 109. 
Hingamund, flees to Mercia, 5. 
Hoggen Green, 17, 115, 163, 164, 

244. 
Holyhead, 199. 
Hooker, John, 73, 74. 
Hospital for Incurables, the, 184. 
Hospitallers, Priory of the, 98, 104. 
Howth, Hill of, 3, 16, 44, 202, 335. 
Howth, Lord, 191. 



Huguenot weavers in Dublin, 155. 
Humber Stane, Aulaf lands at, 6. 

Inchiquin, Lord, joins Marquess of 
Ormonde, 86, 87. 

Inns of Court, 172. 

Ireland's Eye, 5, i6. 

Ireton, Major-General, left in com- 
mand by Cromwell, 88. 

Irish Poor Law Act, 277. 

Island Bridge, 136, 156, 162. 

Isolde's Tower, 146. 

Ivar, Danish conqueror of Dublin, 5. 

Iveagh, Lord, 63, 130. 

Ivory, Thomas, no. 

James ii., enters Dublin, 92, 117. 
James' Gate Brewery, 155. 
Jaunting-cars, Dublin, 201. 
Jervis, Sir Humphrey, Sheriff of 

Dublin, 95. 
Jesuits, house and chapel of, in Back 

Lane, 116. 
Jocelin, Life of St. Patrick, 3. 
Johan le Devc(John the Mad), 14, 17. 
John, King, Lord of Ireland, 35. 
John's Lane, 163. 
Johnston, Francis, 103, 107, 166, 

194, 211. 
Jones, ' Buck,' 259. 
Colonel Michael, lands in 

Ireland, 17, 85. 
Jordan, ' Dolly,' 258. 
Joy, Henry, Chief Baron, 171. 
Judicial combat, 75. 

Kean, Charles, 264. 

Edmund, 264. 

Keating, James, Prior of Kilmain- 

ham, 105. 
Kelts, Book of 128. 
Kenible, John Philip, 257. 
Kendal, Duchess of, obtains patent 

for issue of copper coin, 143. 
Kenmare House, 181. 
Kerry House, 179. 
Kildare Place Society, the, 274, 

306. 
Killiney Hill, 278, 338. 
Kilmainham, 47, 98, 103, 162. 
Kilmashogue, battle of, 5. 
Kilwarden, Arthur, Viscount, 130. 

Lord Chief-Justice, 272. 

Kincora, palace of Brian Boru, 10. 



King, Archbishop, 55, 125. 
King's Bridge, 276, 298. 

Hospital, the, 10, 96, 109, 147. 

Inns, the, 145, 162, 172, etc. 

Kingstown, renamed, 276, 336. 
Kirwan, Reverend Doctor, 195. 
Knights of St. Patrick, 103, 155, 
190. 

Lamb Alley, remains of New Gate 
in, 52. 

Lambay, island of, 16. 

La Touchc, David Digges, 154. 

Lazar's Hill, 17, 87, 180. 

Le Botiller (Butler), Thomas, 105. 

Lecky, Richard, history of t/ie 
Eighteenth Century, 161. 

W. E. Hartpole, 299. 

Le Gros, Raymond, 19. 

Leinster, Book of, 129. 

House, 178, 180, 310. 

Leixlip, boundary of Danish King- 
dom, 16. 

linens, 182. 

Lever, Charles, 318. 

Liber Alius, 220, 224, 242. 

Liberties of St. Patrick's, 66, 155. 

Library Square, 127. 

Liffey, the, 15, 146. 

Lighting of Dublin, 197. 

Lisburn, Lord, 62. 

Lloyd, Eugene, Proctor of Dublin 
University, 119. 

Doctor Humphrey, 132. 

Lochlann (Scandinavia), 5. 

Loftus, Adam, Archbishop- of Ar- 
magh, 114, 130, 134. 

Viscount Ely, 79. 

Lord Edward Street, 19. 

Lorrimers in Castle Street, 98. 

Loop Line, the, 168. 

Lover, Samuel, 64, 319. 

Lucan House, 339. 

Lucas, Doctor Charles, 152, 242, 
250. 

M.\cMoRRouGH, King Donall, 
49. 

King Dermot, 13. 

Macarthy, Reverend Teigue, Chap- 
lain to King James 11. , 1 18. 

Maelmithigh, King of Ireland, 7. 

Maguftical Observatory, the, 132. 

Malachy n.. King, 9. 

355 



Index 



Dublin Mangan, James Clarence, 315. 

Mansion House, the, 144, 243. 
Marino, Clontarf, 325. 
Marlborough Green, 189, 
Marsh, Archbishop Narcissus, 60, 

66, 117, 134. 
Marsh's Library, 66. 
Massingberde, Sir Oswald, Prior of 

Kilmainhafn, 105. 
Mathew, Father Theobald, 169, 299. 
Maturin, Charles Robert, 316. 
Maupas, Sir John, defeats Edward 

Bruce at Faughart, 41. 
Mayo, Richard Southwell Bourke, 

sixth Earl of, assassinated in the 

Andamans, 65, 319. 
Mayor of the Bull Ring, office of, 

226. 
Mayor, Lord, title bestowed by 

Charles 11., 89. j 

Meath Hospital, the, 195. | 

Liberties, the, 208. 

Mendicity Institute, the, 261, 314. 
Mercer's Hospital, 184, 195. 
Mercia, the Danes flee to, 5. 
Merrion Square, 179, 181. 
Messiah, The, first performed in 

Dublin, 192. 
Metropolitan Police, Dublin, organ- 
ised, 155. 
Midland Great Western Railway, 

the, 172. 
Minot, Archbishop, 56, 62. j 

Mint, Master of, resident in Dublin i 

Castle, 99. 
Moira, Earl of, his residence on 

Usher's Island, 261. : 

Moira House, 178, 313. I 

Molesworth Street, 179. I 

Molyneux, Sir Thomas, 322. 

Asylum, 274, 281. j 

William, 125, 320. 

Moore, Doctor Michael, Provost of 

Trinity College, Dubhn, 118. 

Thomas, 195, 299, 315. 

Mornington, Earl of, 163, 184, 194, 

252. 319- I 

Mortimer, Edmund de, 44. I 

Sir George, 41. 

Edmund, Earl of March, 42. 

Roger, Earl of March, 43. 

Mosse, Doctor Bartholomew, 185. 

' Mosse's Gardens,' 189. 

Mossop, Henry, 249, 251, 252, 257. 



MuUinahac, i.e. Dirty Mill, 163, 303. 
Mulling, Book of, 128. 
Mulvany, Isabella, LL.D., 120. 
Municipal Reform Bill, the, 216, 

219. 
Murchadh, son of Brian, slain at 

battle of Clontarf, 11. 
son of Finn, King of Leinster, 

9- 
Muircheartach of the Leather Cloaks, 

7- 
Music Halls, Dublin, 269. 

Nanny Water, the, 15. 
Nassau Street, 17, 127, 132, 134. 
National Gallery of Ireland, the, 

334- 

National Library, the, 332. 

Museum, the, 332, etc. 

Navigation Act, the, 142. 

Nelson Column, the, 298. 

Newcomen, Beverley, 106. 

Newcomen's Bank, 154, 241. 

New Gate, 52, 91, 163. 

Newman, Cardinal, 289. 

New Square, Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, 127. 

Niall Glun Duv (Black-knee), 5. 

North Bull, the, 144. 

North Circular Road, 191. 

Northumbria, conquered by the 
Danes, 5. 

Gates, Titus, the ' Popish Plot' of, 

91. 
O'Brien, Turlougli, King of Munster, 

13- 

William Smith, 277, 299. 

O' Byrnes, sept of the, 49, 70, 74, 77, 

221. 
O'Connell, Daniel, 216, 219, 242, 

273, 299. 
O'Connell Bridge, formerly Carlisle 

Bridge, 298. 
O'Connolly, Owen, divulges plot to 

seize Dublin Castle, 81. 
Odhba (Ova), battle of, 13. 
O'Dogherty, Sir Cahir, seizes Cul- 

more Fort, and takes Derry, 78. 
O'Donnell, Hugh Roe, escapes from 

Dublin Castle, 76, loi. 
O'Hagan, Turlough, Bard of TuUa- 

hogue, 76. 
Lord, 171. 



O'Keeffe, John, 184, 195, 254, 262, 

268, 316. 
Olaf Trygvasson, King of Norway, 8. 
Olaus Magnus, his mention of Dub- 

hn, 4. 
O'l^oghlen, Sir Michael, 171. 
O'Neill, Art, escapes from Dublin 

Castle, 76, loi. 
Henry, escapes from Dublin 

Castle, 76, 101. 
Owen Roe, marches on Dublin, 

84, 85. 
Shane, submits to Queen Eliza- 
beth, 77. 
Ormonde, Pierse Butler, Earl of, 46, 

49. 

Marquess of, 84. 

Duke of, 90, 95, loi, 108, 125. 

Bridge, 95, 274, 297. 

Market, 156. 

O'Ruadan, Kelix, Archbishop of 

Tuam, buried in St. Mary's Abbey, 

55- 
Ostmanstown, or Oxmantown, 8, 15, 

16, 40, 95, log. 
O'Tooles, sept of the, 70, 172, 221. 
O'Toole, St. Laurence, Archbishop 

of Dublin, 19, 24. 
Ousel Galley, Society of the, 141. 
O.xmantown Green, 183. 

P.\GEANTS, City, 227, etc. 

Pakenham, Dean, 58, 65. 

Palmerston Park, 38, 86. 

Park Gate, port of embarkation for 
Dublin, 200, 201. 

Parliament House, the, 151, 164, etc. 

Square, Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, 123. 

Parris, Christopher, 48. 

Parsons, Sir William, Lord lustice, 
81. 

Patrick's Well Lane, 132, 133. 

Paving of the city, 197. 

Pearce, Sir Edward I.ovet, 164, 247. 

Perrott, Sir John, 76, 78, 145. 

Pershore Abbey, Worcestershire, 28. 

Petre, Father, proposes to hand over 
Trinitv College to the Jesuits, 
118. 

Petrie, Doctor George, 129, 32 r, 

324- 
Phoenix Park, 85, 106, 162, 279, 328, 
etc. 



Phoenix Park murders, 278. 
Physicians, King and Queen's College 

of, 93, 293. 
Pigeon House, the, 148, 200. 
Pill Lane, meaning of name, 145, 

189. 
Pillory, the, 232. 
Plague in Dublin, 73, 89. 
Plantagenet, Richard, Duke of York, 

Lieutenant by letters patent, 44. 
Plunkett, Doctor Oliver, executed at 

Tyburn, 91. 
Poddle Stream, the, 4, 37, 151, 301. 
Pollaphuca, waterfall of, 339. 
Pollen, J. Hungerford, 289. 
Poolbeg Lighthouse, the, 148. 
Poplin weaving in Dublin, 182. 
Port and Docks Board, Dublin, 147. 
Portlester Chapel, the, 53. 
Preston, General, 84, 85. 

Sir Robert, 172. 

Preston's Inns, 173. 
Price of provisions in eighteenth- 
century Dublin, 198. 
Prior, Thomas, one of the founders 

of the Royal Dublin Society, 22. 
Proposal for the Universal Use oj 

Irish Manufactures, 143. 
Prosperous, attack on, 161. 
Ptolemy of Alexandria, supposed 

mention of Dublin, 3. 
Powerscourt House, 312. 
Pue's Occurrences, 142, 193. 

Queen Street, iio. 
Queen's Theatre, 265. 

Radcliffe, Thomas, Earl ok 

Sussex, Viceroy, 71, 78, 105. 
Raghnall, son of Thorkill, 13. 
Ragnal, or Reginald, heir to the King 

of Dublin, 9. 
Ragnar Lodbrok, Norse hero, 5. 
Raheny, 12, 198. 
Railways : — 

Dublin and Kingstown, 304. 

Dublin, Wicklow, and Wexford, 

304- 

Great Northern, 304. 

Great Southern and Western, 304. 

Midland Great Western, 304. 
Ranelagh, 38. 

Gardens, 189. 

Rathfarnham, 5, 86, 161. 

357 



Index 



Dublin Rathmines, 37. 

battle of, 86. 

Record Tower, the, Dublin Castle, 

lOI. 

Regent House, the. Trinity College, 

Dublin, 124. 
Reynolds, Thomas, betrays the Irish 

Revolutionary party, 160. 
Richard 11. in Dublin, 42. 
Richmond Bridge, 170, 296. 

Tower, the, 107. 

Ringsend, 14, 16, 86, 146, 147, 149, 

198, 200, 224. 
Rinuccini, Papal Nuncio, 84. 
Riots, theatrical, 249, 260, 264. 
Robinson, Thomas Romney, Astrono- 
mer-Royal, 321. 
Roe, Henry, restores Christchurch, 

19. 
Rogerson, Sir John, constructs quay, 

149. 
Rosse, William, Earl of, 130. 
Rotunda, the, 186, 260. 

chapel, the, 180. 

Roubiliac, Louis Fran9ois, 128. 
' Round Church,' the, 163. 
Rowing Club, Dublin University, 135. 
^ Royal Barracks, the, 141. 

Canal, the, 162, 303, 305. 

Dublin Society, the, 150, 178, 

207. 

Exchange, the, 153, 164, 240. 

Hibernian Academy, the, 306, 

Hospital, the, 96, 180. 

Irish Academy, the, 162. 

of Music, the, 306. 

Military Hospital, the, 162. 

Schools, founded, 109. 

Society of Antiquaries, 306. 

Journal of, iBr. 

Rutland, Charles, Duke of. Viceroy, 

170, 190. 

Square, 179, 196. 

Ryder, Thomas, succeeds Mossop in 

Crow Street Theatre, 257. 

Sackville Street, 179, 185. 

St. Audoen's Arch, 40, 52. 

St. George, Church of. South Great 

George's Street, 19, 96. 
St. Martin's Church, 19, 97. 
St. Mary del Dam, Church of, 209. 
St. Mary del Ostmanby, 8, lo, 17, 

39> 47. 55. 98. 220. 



St. Mary, Howth, Church of, 18. 

St. Michael le Pole, Church of, 54. 

St. Michael's Hill, 14. 

St. Nicholas Within, Church of, 141. 

St. Patrick's Well, 64, 133. 

St. Paul, Church of, 19, 97. 

St. Sepulchre, Palace of, 57, 224. 

St. Stephen, Church of, Stephen's 

Street, 19. 
St. Stephen's Green, 94, 179, 197. 

203 n. 
St. Thomas, Priory of, 36, 50. 
Salmon Leap, the, 16. 
Salmon, Provost George, 130. 
Sam's Coffee House, 255. 
Sandymount, 198. 
Santry, village of, 161. 
Sarah Bridge, 156, 162. 
Sarsfield, Patrick, Earl of Lucan, 318. 
William, Mayor of Dublin, 71, 

222. 
Scavenger, city, oath of, 235. 
Schomberg, Duke of, epitaph of, 62. 
Sedan chairs, 201. 
Sentleger, Dame Mary, 63. 

Sir Anthony, 69, 78. 

Shell, Richard Lalor, 171. 
Sheridan, Richard Brinsley, 195, 249, 

316. 

Thomas, 248. 

Shirley, James, 245. 
Siddons, Sarah, 257. 
Sidney, Sir Henry, 25, 72, 78, 98, 106, 

145- 

Robert, Earl of Leicester, 80. 

' Silken Thomas,' 46, 49, 98, 173. 
Simnel, Lambert, crowned in Christ- 
church, 45, 50, 105. 
Simpson's Hospital, 181. 
Sirr, Major, 160, 212, 273. 
Sitric, or Sygtrygg, King of Dublin, 

5, 6, 8. 

son of Aulaf, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18. 

Skeffington, Sir William, ' the 

Gunner,' 46, 48. 
Skerries, near Dublin, 15, 16. 
Sloane, Sir Hans, 134. 
Smith, Erasmus, endows schools, 

109. 
Smock Alley Theatre, 245, 246, 256, 

2:;9. 
Smyth, Edward, 153, 165, 169, 171, 

173, 180. 
South Bull, the, 144. 



South, Sir James, 135. 

Southerne, Thomas, 316, 

Sparkes, Isaac, 247. 

Spc' d, John, his map of Dublin, 51, 

lis- 

Staiiihurst, Richard, 22, 172. 

State of Dublin streets in the eigh- 
teenth century, 196. 

Stcarne, John, Bishop of Clogher, 
131, 322. 

Doctor John, 93, 115. 

Steele, Sir Richard, 322. 

Stoevens' Hospital, 183. 

'Siella,' epitaph to, 59. 

Stephens, James, leader of the Fenian 
Conspiracy, 277. 

Stevenson, Sir John A., 27, 317. 

Steyn, the, Danish landing-place, 17, 
146, 224. 

Stonybatter, 4. 

Street, George, R.A., 19. 

Street signs, 198. 

Strongbow, Richard, Earl of Strigul, 
19, 22. 

Suffolk Street, 17. 

Summer Hill, 17. 

Surgeons, Royal College of, 162. 

Swift, Dean, 59, 125, 128, 143, 314. 

'Swift's' Hospital, 182, 183. 

Taaffe, Nicholas, Lord, his letter 

to George 11., 153. 
Talbot, Sir John, Viceroy, 145. 
Richard, Earl of Tyrconnell, 91, 

no, T17. 
Tallaght, scene of Fenian rising, 277. 
Tandy, James Napper, 159. 
Tara, palace of the Irish Ard Righ, 

4- 

Tate, Nahum, poet laureate, 119, 
316. 

Taylors' Hall, 238. 

Temple, Sir William, Provost, 
Trinity College, Dublin, 116. 

Templeogue, near Dublin, 86, 199. 

Tercentenary, Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, celebration of, 122. 

Terenure, 199 (.fiv Appendix 11.). 

Theatre Royal, Hawkins' Street, 146, 
251, 260, 266. 

Thinsmote of the Danes, 17, 132. 

Tholsel, the, 28, 239. 

Thomas Covirt, 98, 155, 208. 

Thorolf, Scandinavian mercenary, 6. 



Thurot, General, lands at Carrick- 

fergus, 156. 
Tichborne, Sir Henry, besieged in 

Drogheda, 83. 
Tolka Stream, the, 10, 225. 
Tone, Theobald Wolfe, 159, 320. 
'Tories,' Irish origm of the term, 

91. 
Townsend Street, 17, 18, 87, 146, 

180, 184. 
Tramways, Dublin electric, 278. 
Tregury, Archbishop, monument of, 

61. 
Trinity College, Dublin, 76, 94, 109, 

113, etc. 
Hall, residence for students, 

Turgesius, identified with Ragnar 

Lodbrok, 5. 
' Turlyhydes' in the Dodder, 41. 
Tyrone House, 178, 180, 311. 

Ulidia, Irish King of, 6. 

United Irish Society, 159. 

Usher, Archbishop Henry, 80, 114. 

Ussher, Archbishop James, 124, 125, 

134. 321. 
Dr. Henry, 134. 

Van Homkigh, Bartholomew, 94, 

2l8. 

Van Nost, embellishes the Rotunda, 

185, 242. 
Victoria, Queen, 276. 
Victoria Park, Killiney, 152, 278. 
VJcus Suiorum, Le Sutter Lane, 

212. 
Viking brooches, in National 

Museum, 16. 
Violante, Madame, 246. 
Volunteers, the Irish, 159. 

Wages, rate of, in Dublin, 236. 
Walpole, Sir Edward, 128. 
Warbeck, Perkin, 45. 
Wardrobe Tower, the, loi, 103. 
Ware, Sir James, 212, 321. 
Water supply of Dublin, 301. 
Wedgewood frieze, Rotunda, 186. 
Wellinf^ton, Arthur, Duke of, 318. 

Bridge, 297. 

Memorial, 300, 330. 

Wentworth, Thomas, Earl of Straf- 
ford, Viceroy, 65, 79, 99, 116. 

359 



Index 



Dublin Werburgh Street, lyq. 

Westmorland Lock Hospital, 184. 
Whaley, ' Buck,' 323. 
Whiteside, Sir James, 64, 171. 
Whitworth Bridge, 4, 170, 274, 296. 
Whyte, Samuel, 195. 
Wicklovv, Danish beacon station, 16. 
Wide Street Commissioners, 141. 
Wilkinson, Tate, 252, 255, 256, 258. 
William in., 92, 140. 
Willoughby, Sir Frances, 82. 
Winetavern Street, 27, 77, 81. 



Wofifington, ' Peg,' 246, 248, 255, 317. 
' Wood's Halfpence,' 143. 
Worsaae's Account of the Danes and 

Norwegians in England, 16. 
Wren, Sir Christopher, 107, 180. 
Wrought-iron, 108, 181. 



Yellow 
129. 



Book of Lecan, the. 



Zoological Gardens, 
331- 



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Minister for Commerce and Industry, Mr. Mc*^.- ^ 
did not escape so easily. In this capacity he was' 
required to find answers to over 100 queries, which is 
twice the number deahng with educational issues that 
were put to Professor 'Sullivan. This may show 
that the Education Department manages things so 
admirably as to present few openings for criticism, 
but unfortunately, it must also be added, our party 
politicians do not appear to be strongly attracted by 
educational problems. As usual, the hardest worked 
Minister at question time was Mr. Fionan Lynch. He 
was called upon to reply to over 400 questions, the 
great majority of which were concerned with the 
acquisition of land. Deputies are more interested in 
the distribution of land than in the use that is made 
of it, to judge from the fact that Mr. Lynch had to 
answer ten times as many questions as Mr. Hogan. 

A Promising Movement. 

The Northern Dramatic Feis was a decidedly happy 
inspiration, and we are glad to think that the sup^^ort ! 
received ensures that what began as a rather risky ' 
experiment bids fair to become an established institii- I 
tion. If the number of new plays presented was not 
as large as some would have liked the move- 
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GREATER DUBLIN. 



WE CANNOT imagine any Bill likely to be 
introduced into the Ddil for years to come 
which will more naturally and inevitably 
lead to prolonged discussions than the Local Govern- 
ment (Dublin) Bill, so named by its parents, but 
I which the public insist on calling the Greater Dublin 
' Bill. Let us recognise that the Executive Council 
has had in mind the sins of the old Dublin Corpora- 
! tion. U it had forgotten, there was Belfast for some 
I years past subject to an X-ray examination, so that 
the diseases engendered by its constitution were 
visible to all, as the writhing bacteria are visible 
under a microscope. Greater Dublin, as well as the 
' new coastal boroughs to be created, are to have city 
j managers, who will be recommended by the Local 
Appointments Commission and appointed by the 
1 Minister. It is clear that the Government had two 
1 ideas in mind, first, to secure efficiency in manage- 
I ment, which is almost impossible to secure if there 
1 is not a unified control — if there are too many cooks 
I laaaking the broth, too many committees of persons^ 
1 elected to supervise this or that business, but who 
have their own business to attend to, and cannot give 
that full devotion to the business of the city which 
so vast a concern requires. Secondly, we surmise 
that the city manager was created with such powers 
iu relation to management and the appointment and 
removal of officers and servants of the city, and with 
reasonable security of tenure, so that he could face 
with a stiff upper lip the jobbers and corrupters of 
city life who are sometimes elected by a guileless 
democracy, and of whom we had painful experience 
in the past. He is not an unrestrained autocrat, 
for the City Council shall decide upon the making 
of rates, the borrowing of money, by-laws, etc. 
With the functions of Council and manager clearly 
fixed, we are rather dubious about the necessity for 
the addition of four commercial representatives to the 
twenty-one members who are to be elected demo- 
cratically. These four are to represent such big 
business as exists in Dublin. There is to be a sepa- 
rate register of commercial electors. The business 
in which the valuation of premises is under fifty 
pounds shall be entitled to one vote. Where the 
valuation is between fifty and one hundred, two votes 
are awarded in recognition of the business ability the 
^holding of such premises symbolises, and this process 
goes on until the business magnate whose premises 
have a valuation not less than two hundred and fifty 
;pounds is entitled to six votes. The Scriptural in- 
! junction, unto them that have shall be given, is 
icarried out by the pious devisers of the Bill. If this 
|principle was applied to the whole Council we would 
j'help to start a revolution, but as there are only four 
(representatives of the higher bank balances they can- 
Inot dominate a Council of twenty-five, and, of courae, 
proper that the commercial interests should be 



represented on the Council. Possibly the Govern- 1| 
ment had a fear that the elections might be run 
altogether on Cumann na nGaedbeal or Fianna Fdil 
lines and the electors might forget in their political 
enthusiasm that the management of a great city was 
the business intended, not the creation of an assembly 
which would echo the political discussions in the D^il. 

The great defect of the Bill, in our opinion, is that 
there is nothing in it dealing with town planning. | 
We think that the Government should incorporate in ' 
the Greater Dublin Bill such provisions about town 
planning in Senator Johnson's Bill as they approve of, 
or if that is not approved of, the Minister should 
devise something himself. It is most important that 
this should not be delayed, because the changes 
brought about by raotor and 'bus transport are 
likely to alter the whole character of the environs of 
the city. We do not wish to see ribbon building 
destroying altogether the pleasant country roads 
leading out of the city. A town-planning authority 
would insist on quadrants. The amenities of a city 
are very important. Without a town-planning autho- 
rity we may have the builders devouring the coast 
roads, the county roads, without concern for parks, 
playgrounds, the preservation of natural beauty. 
The tendency of a Council where there is no town- 
planning authority is to think only of rates. It is 
their natural desire to see as many bouses built 
as possible, no matter where they are built, so long 
as they yield rates. We would like, because wo are 
certain the whole character of the environs of Dublin 
is going to be altered in a very few years, to havo 
seen the full i 



Dublin Commission ii 
duled. We cannot 
which it was a happin 
to visit on Saturdays < 
by villa builders nov 



«,. 



xjntemplated by the Greater 
icluded in the districts eche- 
be sure that certain districts 
ess for the Dubliner to be able 
)r Sundays will not be invaded 
7 that motor or 'bus makes 
it easy to get into the city. Surely the Minister 
for Local Government caunot be inaccessible to 
purely human feelings such as these. Does he think 
there would be a conflict between a town-planning 
committee and the Council? But a town-planning 
eommittee would be appointed by the Council and 
would necessarily be subordinate. It would, how- 
ever, be the focus for opinion on such matter. What 
it advised woirid at least be considered. If town- 
planning is not provided for, then we shall have only 
the weak, wailing voices of the writers to the news- 
papers which, so far as the Council are concerned, 
would be like the snowflakes on a river, a moment seen 
and forgotten. For the discontented, for the reformer 
to be heard, for aesthetic considerations to have any 
effect, there must be created some body which c^^^ 
emit the moral equivalent of a steady, long-continu V, 



A 000 028 295 4 
February 22, 1930. THE IRISH 

yell which will not allow any pcaco until the grievance 
is attended to. 

Look at the controversy over Butt Bridge. There 
is no city authority over the Port and Docks Board, 
which thinks of nothing except a couple of berths to 
be saved. A town-planning authority would consider 
the needs of the city. It would ease the congestion 
of tratlic over O'Conncll Bridge by making another 
parallel channel for tralTic leading by a bridge beyond 
the Custom House through an avenue into Westland 
Row. Can nothing be done to stay the hand of the 
Port and Docks Board until Greater Dublin has been 
constituted, and its Council and its manager can con- 
sider the problem? It is not a Port and Docks Board 
problem primarily, but a city problem, and the 
Greater Dublin Bill makes no provision for dealing 
with this and similar problems which may arise in 
the future. There are many points arising out of this 
Bill which we would like to question. We are not 
convinced that it is right that the Coastal Borough 
should be altogether independent of the City of 
Dublin, that it should not bear to the City Council 
some relation like that of a provincial to a central 
Parliament. We do not at the moment feel very 
strongly about this separation into independent 
entities of communities which some hoped would be 
forged into one. But we would like to hear the argu- 
ments for and against the independence of the 
coastal borough. We would like to know more about 
the Ivord ^fayor, whose office, so many years in 
abeyance, is to be revived. Is he to be the demo- 
cratic rival of the City Manager, making himself 
popular as the spokesman of democracy against the 
bureaucrat? A clever and ambitious Lord Mayor 
might create all kinds of trouble, unless it is made 
clear what are the questions on which he is to con- 
centrate. Is he to be the dispenser of the city's 
hospitality? Since the City Manager has no such' 
responsibility, was it felt that, if he had to exer- 
cise hospitality in addition to transacting business, 
the business might suffer? There are limits, of 
course, to the labours whicli can be flung upon one 
man, however energetic and competent. We sec 
reasons for a Lord Mayor, but hope he will not make 
himself the centre of an agitation against his hated 
rival, the City Manager. Is there not some dramatic 
sundering of interests, a conflict of contrasted oppo- 
sites, democracy and bureaucracy, already apparent in 
Cork? We could fill a whole issue of this journal 
with queries. But it is not necessary; they will all 
be asked in the Ddil, where they will have 
to be answered. We throw these preliminary doubl- 
ings and questionings into the common stock as the 
bacteriologist puts his yeast into a vat to start 
fermentation .